High Renaissance - Italy, 1500 - 1600


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High Renaissance - Italy, 1500 - 1600

  1. 1. The High Renaissance Italy, 1500 to 1600Gardner’s Art Through the Ages 1
  2. 2. Rome with Renaissance and Baroque Monuments 2
  3. 3. Goals• Understand the transition from the early Renaissance to the High Renaissance.• Understand that the major center for artistic development in the High Renaissance was Florence.• Realize that Rome replaces Florence as the new epicenter of the Renaissance and be able to explain why. Give examples of major artistic/architectural projects undertaken in Rome.• Recognize the technical and aesthetic achievements of the High Renaissance and the Mannerist era.• Examine the lives and works of the great individual artists of the High Renaissance.• Understand the distinctions between the High Renaissance and Mannerist works of art. 3
  4. 4. 22.1 The High Renaissance• Recognize the achievements of individual artists of the High Renaissance.• Explore the development of sculpture and architecture.• Examine the classical and expressive developments in architecture during the High Renaissance. 4
  5. 5. The Achievements of the Masters• Leonardo da Vinci: superb master of line, pioneer of sfumato, inventor, naturalist, and painter of the soul’s intent.• Raffaelo Sanzio (a.k.a Raphael): younger master painter who incorporated elements of Leonardo and Michelangelo into his own unique style.• Michelangelo Buonarroti: master of sculpture, also excellent painter and architect, the man in demand.• Bramante: major architect who favored classical buildings; rejuvenated the central-plan design.• Venetian masters – Bellini, Giorgione, Titian (painters) – Palladio (architecture) 5
  6. 6. LEONARDO• Examine the “unified representation of objects in an atmospheric setting” – a groundbreaking achievement of Leonardo.• Examine the Mona Lisa as a convincing representation of a real person. 6
  7. 7. Leonardo painted the Virgin of the Rocks, and it is said this work is a masterpiece in expressing emotional states. He modeled the figures with light and shadow - a technique he learned from earlier works by, the 15th century Italian artist, Masaccio. The pyramid, as formed by the figures, was one of the favorite compositional devices of painters of the High Renaissance.LEONARDO DA VINCI, Madonna of the Rocks,from San Francesco Grande, Milan, Italy, begun 1483.Oil on wood (transferred to canvas), 6’ 6 1/2” x 4’.Louvre, Paris. 7
  8. 8. Leonardos style fully emerges in the cartoon, Virgin and Child with Saint Anne and the Infant Saint John. The cartoon is ordered with pictorial logic and visual unity.LEONARDO DA VINCI, cartoon forMadonna and Child with Saint Anne and theInfant Saint John, ca. 1505–1507. Charcoalheightened with white on brown paper,4’ 6” x 3’ 3”. National Gallery, London. 8
  9. 9. LEONARDO DA VINCI, Last Supper, ca. 1495–1498. Oil and tempera on plaster, 13’ 9” x 29’ 10”.Refectory, Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan. 9
  10. 10. • In Leonardos Last Supper, each figure was individualized. The numerous preparatory sketches and studies he made for the work indicate how carefully he thought about this work as a complete entity representing the entire story and its theme.• Leonardo broke with traditional iconography by the placing Judas, whose face is in shadow, on the same side of the table as Christ and the other Disciples.• The curved pediment above the head of Christ represents a halo.• The converging lines of the one-point radiate from the head of Christ.
  11. 11. LEONARDO DA VINCI, Mona Lisa, ca. 1503–1505.Oil on wood, 2’ 6 1/4” x 1’ 9”. Louvre, Paris. 11
  12. 12. LEONARDO DA VINCI, The Fetus and Liningof the Uterus, ca. 1511–1513. wash, over red chalkand traces of black chalk on paper, 1’ 8 5/8”.Royal Library, Windsor Castle. 12
  13. 13. RAPHAEL• Trained in Umbria by Perugino (Christ Delivering the Keys the Kingdom to Saint Peter)• Famous for paintings of the Madonna and Child• Young master moved to Rome; influenced by Bramante• Absorbed elements of the work of Leonardo and Michelangelo to create his own unique style• Talented, popular, and beloved artist who died young (entombed in the Pantheon) 13
  14. 14. Perugino was Raphaels teacher. Observe similarities between this work and the work of Perugino.RAPHAEL, Marriage of the Virgin, from the Chapelof Saint Joseph in San Francesco, Città di Castello,Italy, 1504. Oil on wood, 5’ 7” x 3’ 10 1/2”.Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan. 14
  15. 15. RAPHAEL, Madonna in the Meadow, 1505.1505–1506. Oil on wood, 3’ 8 1/2” x 2’ 101/4”. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. 15
  16. 16. RAPHAEL, Philosophy (School of Athens), Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome, Italy, 1509–1511. Fresco, 19’ x 27’. 16
  17. 17. RAPHAEL, Galatea, Sala di Galatea,Villa Farnesina, Rome, Italy, 1513.Fresco, 9’ 8” x 7’ 5”. 17
  18. 18. Increasingly artists of the High Renaissance paid particular attention to the subjects personality and psychic state. This could be said to describe the portraiture of Raphael.RAPHAEL, Baldassare Castiglione,ca. 1514. Oil on canvas, 2’ 6” x 2’ 2”.Louvre, Paris. 18
  19. 19. MICHELANGELO• Study Michelangelo’s Pieta and its significant features• Examine the formal references to classical antiquity in Michelangelo’s David.• Examine Michelangelo’s humanistic interpretation of the Sistine Chapel ceiling paintings, especially in the Creation of Adam.• Realize the popularity and longevity of Michelangelo resulted in his involvement in many other projects often simultaneously.• Notice differences in the mature work of Michelangelo. 19
  20. 20. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI,Pieta, ca. 1498-1500. Marble, 5’ 8 ½”high. Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome. 20
  21. 21. Michelangelos fascination with the human body was a lifelong pursuit. In his David, he presented a perfect body with an attuned mind, prepared and ready for action. It is a combination of athletic tension and psychological insight. Michelangelo portrayed David with stern watchfulness before the battle. It become a political statement, when it was placed near the west door of the Palazzo della Signoria, representing how a smaller force fighting for what is right could defeat a giant.MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, David, from Piazza dellaSignoria, Florence, Italy, 1501–1504. Marble, 17’ high. Galleriadell’Accademia, Florence. 21
  22. 22. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI,Moses, from the tomb of Pope Julius II,Rome, Italy, ca. 1513–1515 Marble, 7’ 81/2” high. San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome. 22
  23. 23. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Bound Slave (Rebellious Captive),from the tomb of Pope Julius II, Rome, Italy, ca. 1513–1516. Marble,7’ 5/8” high. Louvre, Paris. 23
  24. 24. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI,tomb of Giuliano de’ Medici, NewSacristy (Medici Chapel), San Lorenzo,Florence, Italy, 1519–1534. Marble,central figure 5’ 11” high. 24
  25. 25. The central theme of Michelangelo’s Sistine ceiling is organized to represent the chronology of Christianity. Pope Julius II, who commissioned the ceiling, was one of the most important Roman patrons of Michelangelo.MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI,ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, Vatican City,Rome, Italy, 1508-1512. Fresco, 128’ x45’.
  26. 26. Interior of the Sistine Chapel (looking east),Vatican City, Rome, Italy, built 1473. 26
  27. 27. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Creation of Adam, detail of the ceiling (FIG. 22-1) of the Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1511–1512. Fresco, 9’ 2” x 18’ 8”.In the scene, Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel ceiling, God and Adam confront eachother in the primordial void. Adam is part of the earth while the Lord transcends the earth inthis humanist interpretation of the event. 27
  28. 28. MICHELANGELO, Last Judgment,altar wall of the Sistine Chapel,Vatican City, Rome, Italy,1536–1541. Fresco, 48’ x 44’. 28
  29. 29. BRAMANTE• Examine the achievements of Donato Bramante: innovative central-plan designs based on classical sources (influence of Roman circular temples), and the beginning of new St. Peter’s in Rome. 29
  30. 30. DONATO D’ANGELO BRAMANTE,Tempietto, San Pietro in Montorio, Rome,Italy, 1502(?). 30
  31. 31. DONATO D’ANGELO BRAMANTE, plan for the new Saint Peter’s, the Vatican, Rome, Italy, 1505. (1) dome, (2) apse. 31
  32. 32. CHRISTOFORO FOPPA CARADOSSO, medal showing Bramante’s design for the new Saint Peter’s, 1506.Bronze, 2 1/4” diameter. British Museum, London. 32
  33. 33. Michelangelo, the Architect• Examine how Michelangelo updated and preserved Bramante’s plans for the new St. Peters, but added “the sculptor’s touch.” 33
  34. 34. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI,plan for Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome,Italy, 1546. (1) dome, (2) apse, (3) portico. 34
  35. 35. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Saint Peter’s (looking northeast), Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1546–1564.Dome completed by GIACOMO DELLA PORTA, 1590. 35
  36. 36. ANTONIO DA SANGALLO THE YOUNGER, courtyard of the Palazzo Farnese, Rome, Italy, ca. 1517–1546.Third story and attic by MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, 1546-1550. 36
  37. 37. 22.2 16th Century Venetian Art and Architecture• Analyze the designs of Palladio; remember his importance to future architects such as Thomas Jefferson• Describe the Mannerist pictorial devices displayed in Venetian art.• Examine the issues of drama, dynamism, and color in Venetian art and the contributions of individual artists.• Explore the art of patronage portraits and the role of women. 37
  38. 38. PALLADIO• Examine the architecture and theories of Palladio.• Realize that his work was inspired by the writings of the ancient Roman architect VITRUVIUS. 38
  39. 39. ANDREA PALLADIO, Villa Rotonda (formerly Villa Capra), near Vicenza, Italy, ca. 1566–1570. 39
  40. 40. ANDREA PALLADIO,plan of the Villa Rotonda(formerly Villa Capra),near Vicenza, Italy, ca.1550–1570. (1) dome, (2)porch. 40
  41. 41. ANDREA PALLADIO, aerial view of San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice, Italy, begun 1566. 41
  42. 42. ANDREA PALLADIO, interior of San Giorgio Maggiore ,Venice, Italy, begun 1566. 42
  43. 43. 16th Century Venetian Painting• Realize that Venetian painters were among the earliest to use oil painting in Italy• Result of oil painting --- Venetian paintings are known for their rich colors• Notice that Venetian paintings are often sensuous• Recall the work of Venetian masters 43
  44. 44. GIOVANNI BELLINI, San Zaccaria Altarpiece,1505. Oil on wood transferred to canvas,16’ 5” x 7’ 9”. San Zaccaria, Venice. 44
  45. 45. GIOVANNI BELLINI and TITIAN, Feast of the Gods, from the Camerino d’Alabastro, Palazzo Ducale, Ferrara, Italy,1529. Oil on canvas, 5’ 7” x 6’ 2”. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. (Widener Collection). 45
  46. 46. GIORGIONE DA CASTELFRANCO (and/or TITIAN?), Pastoral Symphony, ca. 1508–1510. Oil on canvas,3’ 7 1/4” x 4’ 6 1/4”. Louvre, Paris. 46
  47. 47. GIORGIONE DACASTELFRANCO,The Tempest, ca. 1510.Oil on canvas,2’ 8 1/4” x 2’ 4 3/4”.Galleriadell’Accademia, Venice. 47
  48. 48. Titians remarkable sense of color and his ability to convey light through color emerge in the altarpiece, Assumption of the Virgin.TITIAN, Assumption of the Virgin, 1516–1518. Oil on wood,22’ 7 1/2” x 11’ 10”. Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice. 48
  49. 49. TITIAN, Madonna of the Pesaro Family,1519–1526. Oil on canvas, 15’ 11” x 8’10”. Pesaro Chapel, Santa Maria deiFrari,Venice. 49
  50. 50. TITIAN, Meeting of Bacchus and Ariadne, from the Camerino d’Alabastro, Palazzo Ducale, Ferrara, Italy, 1522–1523.Oil on canvas, 5’ 9” x 6’ 3”. National Gallery, London. 50
  51. 51. TITIAN, Venus of Urbino, 1538. Oil on canvas, 3’ 11” x 5’ 5”. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. 51
  52. 52. Portraits and Patronage in Venice• Explore the art of portraits and the role of powerful female patrons. 52
  53. 53. TITIAN, Isabella d’Este, 1534–1536. Oil on canvas,3’ 4 1/8” x 2’ 1 3/16”. Kunsthistorisches Museum,Vienna. 53
  54. 54. Discussion Questions Why do works of art from the High Renaissance continue to be understood as the most famous art in the western world? 54