Romanesque Art


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    In the church of Fraga (Aragon-Spain) were tested vaulted new techniques to suggest the Jesus face.



    En la iglesia de Fraga (ARAGON-España) se ensayaron nuevas técnicas de abovedado para sugerir un rostro de Jesús.

    ROSTRO SUBLIMINAL: En la iglesia de Fraga (ARAGON-España) ensayaron sugerir un rostro de Jesús.
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Romanesque Art

  1. 1. Romanesque Art 1
  2. 2. Europe About 1100 2
  3. 3. Romanesque Europe• Understand the term “Romanesque” as a style in art and architecture.• Examine the result of pilgrimages and the crusades in terms of architecture in Europe.• Understand the ‘millennial’ and apocalyptic mood of the Romanesque era and their impact on artistic themes. 3
  4. 4. Romanesque Architecture• Examine the result of pilgrimages and the crusades in terms of architecture in Europe.• Identify architectural elements particularly those associated with the large pilgrimage and monastery churches.• Explain the function of specific architectural elements such as the ambulatory, radiating chapels, and crossing square• Recognize differences and similarities in regional Romanesque architectural styles. 4
  5. 5. Important Elements of Romanesque ArchitectureRecognize the following architectural features:• Ambulatory – major innovation• Radiating chapels• Portal and its parts• Nave, transept, and side aisles• Cruciform (overall shape of building)• Crossing square• Bays (3-D modules of nave and side aisles)• Gallery/tribune level• Clerestory (usually small in Romanesque churches)• Barrel vault (the norm for Romanesque naves)• Groin vault (less common, used more in side aisles)• Cloister (element in a monastic abbey church) 5
  6. 6. South portal of Saint-Pierre,Moissac, France, ca. 1115–1135. 6
  7. 7. Interior of Saint-Etienne,Vignory, France, 1050-1057. 7
  8. 8. Plan of Saint-Etienne, Vignory, France,1050-1057. (1) nave, (2) aisles, (3) choir,(4) ambulatory, (5) radiating chapels. 8
  9. 9. Pilgrimage Churches• Examine the pilgrimages and crusades in terms of architecture in Europe.• Identify architectural elements associated with the large pilgrimage and monastery churches. 9
  10. 10. Geometry and Vaulting• Examine the architectural elements and scheme that made possible Saint-Sernin’s in Toulouse, France.• Understand that the design of a Romanesque church is based on mathematical ratios in relation to the size of its crossing square.• Understand the importance of Cluny and the Cistercian religious order in architecture and art. 10
  11. 11. Aerial view (looking northwest) of Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, France, ca. 1070–1120. 11
  12. 12. Plan of Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, France, ca. 1070-1120 (after Kenneth John Conant). 12
  13. 13. Interior of Saint-Sernin,Toulouse, France, ca. 1070-1120. 13
  14. 14. Emergence of Large Relief Sculpture• Observe one of the large marble relief panels from Saint-Sernin• Realize that these are the first precisely dated large relief panels of the Romanesque period and that they are by a known artist• Understand the prominent role that sculpture will play during the Romanesque period 14
  15. 15. BERNARDUS GELDUINUS,Christ in Majesty, relief in the ambulatoryof Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, France,ca. 1096. Marble, 4’ 2” high. 15
  16. 16. Restored cutaway view of the third abbey church (Cluny III), Cluny, France, 1088-1130 (John Burge). 16
  17. 17. General view of the cloister (left) and detail of the pier with the relief of Abbot Durandus (right), Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, ca. 1100–1115. Relief: limestone, 6’high. 17
  18. 18. Diagram of aRomanesque Portal 18
  19. 19. Lions and Old Testament prophet(Jeremiah or Isaiah?), trumeau of thesouth portal of Saint-Pierre,Moissac, France, ca. 1115–1130. 19
  20. 20. GISLEBERTUS, Last Judgment, west tympanum of Saint-Lazare, Autun, France, ca. 1120–1135. Marble, 21’ wide at base. 20
  21. 21. Pentecost and Mission of the Apostles,tympanum of the center portal of the narthex of La Madeleine, Vézelay, France, 1120–1132. 21
  22. 22. Interior of abbey church of Notre-Dame,Fontenay, France, 1139–1147. 22
  23. 23. Initial R with knight fighting dragons,folio 4 verso of the Moralia in Job, from Citeaux, France, ca. 1115-1125.Ink and tempera on vellum, 1’ 1 ¾” x 9 ¼”.Bibliothèque Municipale, Dijon.
  24. 24. Nave (left) and painted nave vault (right) of the abbey church, Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe, France, ca. 1100. 24
  25. 25. Christ in Majesty, apse, Santa María de Mur,near Lérida, Spain, mid-twelfth century.Fresco, 24’ X 22’. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 25
  26. 26. Regional Variations• Identify Romanesque architectural elements in Germany, Lombardy, Normandy and England.• Examine the distinct qualities of Italian Romanesque. 26
  27. 27. N. European Romanesque• Romanesque architectural elements in Germany, Lombardy, Normandy and England. 27
  28. 28. Virgin and Child (Morgan Madonna),from the Auvergne, France,second half of twelfth century.Painted wood, 2’ 7” high.Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY(gift of J. Pierpont Morgan, 1916). 28
  29. 29. Interior of Speyer Cathedral,Speyer, Germany, begun 1030;nave vaults, ca. 1082–1105. 29
  30. 30. Aerial view of Sant’Ambrogio, Milan, Italy,late 11th to early 12th century. 30
  31. 31. Interior of Sant’Ambrogio, Milan, Italy, late 11th to early 12th century. 31
  32. 32. Hildegard receives her visions,detail of a facsimile of a lost folio in theRuperts-berger Sciviasby Hildegard of Bingen,from Trier or Bingen, Germany, ca.1150–1179.Abbey of St. Hildegard, Rüdesheim/Eibingen. 32
  33. 33. RAINER OF HUY, baptism of Christ, baptismal font from Notre-Dame-des-Fonts, Liège, Belgium, 1118. Bronze, 2’ 1” high. Saint-Barthélémy, Liège. 33
  34. 34. Head reliquary of Saint Alexander,from Stavelot Abbey, Belgium, 1145.Silver repoussé (partly gilt), gilt bronze, gems,pearls, and enamel, 1’ 5 1/2” high.Musées Royaux d’Art et d’Histoire, Brussels. 34
  35. 35. Romanesque in Italy• Examine the distinct qualities of Italian Romanesque.• Notice architectural elements such as stone tracery, gables, and pinnacles that were later Gothic additions. 35
  36. 36. Cathedral complex, Pisa, Italy; cathedral begun 1063; baptistery begun 1153; campanile begun 1174. 36
  37. 37. Baptistery of San Giovanni,Florence, Italy, dedicated 1059. 37
  38. 38. Interior of San Miniato al Monte,Florence, Italy, ca. 1062–1090. 38
  39. 39. WILIGELMO, creation and temptation of Adam and Eve, detail of the frieze on the west facade, Modena Cathedral, Modena, Italy, ca. 1110. Marble, 3’ high. 39
  40. 40. BENEDETTO ANTELAMI,King David, statue in a niche on the westfacade of Fidenza Cathedral, Fidenza, Italy,ca. 1180–1190. Marble, life-size. 40
  41. 41. West facade of Saint-Étienne, Caen, France, begun1067. 41
  42. 42. Interior of Saint-Étienne, Caen, France,vaulted ca. 1115–1120. 42
  43. 43. Plan of Saint-Étienne, Caen, France. 43
  44. 44. Interior (left) and lateral section (right)of Durham Cathedral, England,begun ca.1093. 44
  45. 45. Plan of Durham Cathedral, England (after Kenneth John Conant). 45
  46. 46. Romanesque Sculpture• Examine the revival of stone sculpture, its placement and iconography.• Observe how the arrangement and form of Romanesque sculpture is closely tied to its architectural framework• Understand the narrative function of the human figure in Romanesque sculpture• Understand the role of relics and the artistic objects designed to contain relics.• Recall the names of two known Romanesque sculptors   46
  47. 47. Romanesque Painting & Other Arts• Examine the extent and styles of mural and fresco painting on walls and in vaulted ceilings.• Explore the continuing art of manuscript illumination.• Understand the artists, the themes, and the styles of Romanesque manuscripts.• Examine other two dimensional art, particularly weaving and embroidery.• Study the form and stylistic elements of the Bayeux Tapestry. 47
  48. 48. Funeral procession to Westminster Abbey (top) and Battle of Hastings (bottom), details of the Bayeux Tapestry, from Bayeux Cathedral, Bayeux, France, ca. 1070-1080.Embroidered wool on linen, 1’ 8” high (entire length of fabric 229’ 8”). Centre Buillaume le Conquerant, Bayeux. 48
  49. 49. MASTER HUGO, Moses expounding theLaw, folio 94 recto of the Bury Bible,from Bury Saint Edmunds, England, ca. 1135.Ink and tempera on vellum, 1’ 8” x 1’ 2”.Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.
  50. 50. EADWINE THE SCRIBE,Eadwine the scribe at work,folio 283 verso of the Eadwine Psalter,ca. 1160–1170. Ink and tempera on vellum.Trinity College, Cambridge. 50
  51. 51. Sources• Kleiner, Fred. Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, The Western Tradition, 13th ed., Cengage• Janson. History of Art. Pearson Prentice Hall
  52. 52. Gary gary