The Art of the Fauves Henri Matisse, Self-Portrait, 1906 Oil on canvas, 21 5/8 x 18 1/8 in., Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen
33-1 Henri Matisse, Woman with the Hat , 1905, oil on canvas, 3’ x 2’, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art GATA tells us that Matisse is about color, the luminosity of color. (Matisse wrote) “…we rejected imitative colors, and that with pure colors we obtained stronger reactions …” Color became the formal element most responsible for pictorial coherence and the primary conveyor of meaning.
Matisse. The Dance , 1910, oil on canvas 8‘ x 13‘, Hermitage, St. Petersburg
Wilkins writes: Matisse took the dancers from The Joy of Life and expanded them so that they seem ready to burst out of the boundaries of the huge canvas. The figures are almost life size, and the powerful curves of their shapes make their movement seem impulsive and unstoppable. The figures are organic and full of life, and yet Matisse avoided using traditional modeling to suggest three-dimensionality. Matisse limited the colors, setting the warm orangish hue of the figures and their outlines against two hues from the opposite side of the color wheel: blue and green. The drama and impulsive movement of the dance are conveyed here with limited means and careful control by the artist.
Figure 33-3 ANDRÉ DERAIN, The Dance, 1906. Oil on canvas, 6’ 7/8” x 6’ 10 1/4”. Fridart Foundation, London. The Fauves: Andre Derain
André Derain, Mountains at Collioure, 1905, National Gallery of Art, Washington, John Hay Whitney Collection
Derain, London Bridge .1906. Oil on canvas, 26 x 39" (66 x 99.1 cm), Museum of Modern Art, New York.
The Fauves: Maurice Vlaminck Maurice Vlaminck, Restaurant at Marly de Roi, 1906.
The German Expressionists <ul><li>Examine the styles of the German Expressionists, especially Die Brücke , Der Blaue Reiter , and later abstractions. </li></ul>Die Brücke Kirchener And Nolde Violent juxtapositions of color Wrenching distortions of forms Ragged outline Agitated brushstrokes A reaction to the dehumanization of industrial, urban society
33-4 Ernesr Kirchner, Street, Dresden , 1908, oil on canvas, 5’ x 7’, Museum of Modern Art, New York Die Brücke (Bridge) School: Kirchner and Nolde
Kirchner, Street, Berlin , 1913, oil on canvas, 48” x 38”, Museum of Modern Art, New York
Kirchner, Girl with a Japanese Umbrella , 1909, oil on canvas, 37” x 32”, Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Dusseldorf, Germany
Figure 33-5 EMIL NOLDE, Saint Mary of Egypt among Sinners, 1912. Left panel of a triptych, oil on canvas, approx. 2’ 10” x 3’ 3”. Hamburger Kunsthalle, Hamburg.
Nolde, Dance around the Golden Calf , 1910,Oil on canvas. 88 x 105.5 cm, Staatsgalerie moderner Kunst, Munich
Figure 33-6 VASSILY KANDINSKY, Improvisation 28 (second version), 1912. Oil on canvas, 3’ 7 7/8” x 5’ 3 7/8”. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York (gift of Solomon R. Guggenheim, 1937). Der Blaue Reiter (Blue Rider) School: Kandinsky and Marc
Kandinsky, Improvisation # 28 (1912) Movement toward abstraction; representational objects are suggested rather than depicted. Strongly articulated use of black lines Colors seem to shade around line forms
Kandinsky, Improvisation # 30 (War Theme) , 1913, oil on canvas, 43” x 43”, Art Institute of Chicago
Kandinsky, Improvisation # 30 (War Theme) , 1913, oil on canvas, 43” x 43”, Art Institute of Chicago This is a spiritual painting, not foretelling the coming great war. Kandinsky’s theme here is the destructive prelude to the Second Coming of Christ.
Kandinsky, Panel for Edwin R. Campbell, # 1 , 1914, oil on canvas, 64” x 32”, Museum of Modern Art, New York
Franz Marc, The Little Yellow Horses , 1912, oil on canvas, Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart,Germany
Marc, The Large Blue Horses , 1911, oil on canvas, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota
Figure 33-7 FRANZ MARC, Fate of the Animals, 1913. Oil on canvas, 6’ 4 3/4” x 8’ 9 1/2”. Kunstmuseum, Basel.
Picasso, (Blue Period) The Old Guitarist , 1903, oil on panel, Art Institute of Chicago The Blue Period is the period between 1900 and 1904 when Picasso painted essentially monochromatic paintings in shades of blue and blue-green, only occasionally warmed by other colors. These somber works, inspired by Spain but mostly painted in Paris, are now some of his most popular works, although he had difficulty selling them at the time.
Picasso, The Blind Man's Meal , 1903, Oil on canvas; 37 1/2 x 37 1/4 in. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
The Blind Man's Meal, painted in Barcelona in the autumn of 1903, summarizes the stylistic characteristics of Picasso's Blue Period: rigorous drawing, simple hieratic compositions and forms, and of course, a blue tonality. The composition presents a forlorn figure seated at a frugal repast. In a letter, preserved in the Barnes Collection in Merion, Pennsylvania, Picasso gives a very precise description of the composition: "I am painting a blind man at the table. He holds some bread in his left hand and gropes with his right hand for a jug of wine." An empty bowl and a white napkin complete the still life on the table. The man's slightly contorted figure, long thin El Greco–like hands, unadorned surroundings, and his blindness make his disenfranchised condition all the more poignant. The highlights on his face and neck, hands, bread, and napkin put the figure in relief against the austere background. The painting is not merely a portrait of a blind man; it is also Picasso's commentary on human suffering in general. The meager meal of bread and wine invites references to the figure of Christ and the principal dogma of Catholic faith, whereby bread and wine represent Christ's body and blood, sacramental associations that Picasso as a Spaniard would have known. Additionally, the work elicits affinities to Picasso's own situation at the time, when, impoverished and depressed, he closely identified with the unfortunates of society.
Picasso, (Rose Period) Harlequin on a Red Armchair , 1905, ink / watercolor, 32” x 24” The Rose Period signifies the time when the style of Picasso's painting used cheerful orange and pink colors in contrast to the cool, somber tones of the previous Blue Period. It lasted from 1904 to 1906. Harlequins, circus performers and clowns appear frequently in the Rose Period and will populate Picasso's paintings at various stages through the rest of his long career. The harlequin, a comedic character usually depicted in checkered patterned clothing, became a personal symbol for Picasso. The Rose Period has been considered French influenced, while the Blue Period more Spanish influenced, although both styles emerged while Picasso was living in Paris.
Picasso, (Rose Period) Family of Saltimbanques , 1905, oil on canvas, 84” x 90”, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC
Figure 33-8 PABLO PICASSO, Gertrude Stein, 1906–1907. Oil on canvas, 3’ 3 3/8” x 2’ 8”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (bequest of Gertrude Stein, 1947).
Ivory belt mask of a Queen Mother, from Benin, Nigeria, mid-16th century. Ivory and iron, 9 3/8” high. African Influences Head of a King, from Ife, 13th Century, brass, height: 11.5 inches
Picasso, Self-Portrait, 1906, 36” x 28”, Philadelphia Museum of Art
Figure 33-9 PABLO PICASSO, Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, June–July 1907. Oil on canvas, 8’ x 7’ 8”. Museum of Modern Art, New York (acquired through the Lillie P. Bliss Bequest). “ a tension between representation and abstraction.”
Picasso, Dance of the Veils , 1907, oil on canvas, 150 x 100 cm, Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia
Figure 33-19 GIACOMO BALLA, Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash, 1912. Oil on canvas, 2’ 11 3/8” x 3’ 7 1/4”. Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York (bequest of A. Conger Goodyear, gift of George F. Goodyear, 1964).
Figure 33-20 UMBERTO BOCCIONI, Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, 1913 (cast 1931). Bronze, 3’ 7 7/8” high x 2’ 10 7/8” x 1’ 3 3/4”. Museum of Modern Art, New York (acquired through the Lillie P. Bliss Bequest).
Figure 33-21 GINO SEVERINI, Armored Train, 1915. Oil on canvas, 3’ 10” x 2’ 10 1/8”. Collection of Richard S. Zeisler, New York.
33.3 Challenging Artistic Conventions <ul><li>Understand the influence of the Dada movement with its emphasis on spontaneity and intuition. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the issues of anarchy and chance as they apply to form and content in visual art. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the rejection of convention in Dada and its reaction to world events. </li></ul>
Dada: A State of Mind <ul><li>Understand Dada’s emphasis on intuition, spontaneity, anarchy and chance as elements in art. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize Dada’s rejection of artistic convention. </li></ul>
Figure 33-22 JEAN ARP, Collage Arranged According to the Laws of Chance, 1916–1917. Torn and pasted paper, 1’ 7 1/8” x 1’ 1 5/8”. Museum of Modern Art, New York (purchase).
Figure 33-23 MARCEL DUCHAMP, Fountain, (second version), 1950 (original version produced 1917). Ready-made glazed sanitary china with black paint, 12” high. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia (purchased with proceeds from the sale of deaccessioned works of art).
Marcel Duchamp, Readymade , 1913, Museum of Modern Art, New York
Figure 33-24 MARCEL DUCHAMP, The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even (The Large Glass), 1915-23. Oil, lead, wire, foil, dust, and varnish on glass, 9’ 1 1/2” x 5’ 9 1/8”. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia (Katherine S. Dreier Bequest).
Figure 33-25 HANNAH HÖCH, Cut with the Kitchen Knife Dada through the Last Weimar Beer Belly Cultural Epoch of Germany, 1919–1920. Photomontage, 3’ 9” x 2’ 11 1/2”. Neue Nationalgalerie, Staatliche Museen, Berlin.
Figure 33-26 KURT SCHWITTERS, Merz 19, 1920. Paper collage, approx. 7 1/4” x 5 7/8”. Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, (gift of Collection Société Anonyme).
Figure 33-27 JOHN SLOAN, Sixth Avenue and 30th Street, 1907, 1909. Oil on canvas, 26 1/4” x 32”. Private Collection (Mr. And Mrs. Meyer P. Potamkin).
Figure 33-28 Installation photo of the Armory Show, New York National Guard’s 69th Regiment, New York, 1913. Courtesy of the Museum of Modern Art, New York.
Figure 33-29 MARCEL DUCHAMP, Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2, 1912. Oil on canvas, approx. 4’ 10 “x 2’ 11”. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia (Louise and Walter Arensberg Collection).
Figure 33-30 ALFRED STIEGLITZ, The Steerage, 1907 (print 1915). Photogravure (on tissue), 1’ 3/8” x 10 1/8”. Courtesy of Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth.
Figure 33-31 EDWARD WESTON, Nude, 1925. Platinum print. Collection, Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona, Tucson.
Figure 33-32 MAN RAY, Cadeau (Gift), ca. 1958 (replica of 1921 original). Painted flatiron with row of 13 tacks with heads glued to the bottom, 6 1/8” high, 3 5/8” wide, 4 1/2” deep. Museum of Modern Art, New York (James Thrall Soby Fund).
Figure 33-33 MARSDEN HARTLEY, Portrait of a German Officer, 1914. Oil on canvas, 5' 8 1/4” x 3' 5 3/8”. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (Alfred Stieglitz Collection).
Figure 33-35 AARON DOUGLAS, Noah’s Ark, ca. 1927. Oil on masonite, 4’ x 3’. Fisk University Galleries, Nashville, Tennessee.
Figure 33-36 CHARLES DEMUTH, My Egypt, 1927. Oil on composition board, 2’ 11 3/4” x 2’ 6”. Collection of Whitney Museum of American Art, New York (purchase, with funds from Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney). Precisionism
Figure 33-37 GEORGIA O’KEEFFE, New York, Night, 1929. Oil on canvas, 3’ 4 1/8” x 1’ 7 1/8”. Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery, Lincoln, Nebraska (Nebraska Art Association, Thomas C. Woods Memorial Collection).
Georgia O’Keefe (1887 – 1986) Both photographs by her husband, Alfred Sieglitz 1918
O’Keefe, an earlier (1927) Night, New York Here you can actually see the building!
O’Keefe, Light Iris # 5 , 1924, oil on canvas, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond
O’Keefe, Jack-in-the-Pulpit # 4 , 1930, oil on canvas, 3’ x 3’, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.
33.5 European Expressionism after World War I <ul><li>Understand the intense realistic post-war expressionism of German artists. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the European post-war malaise and the importance of cathartic subject matter in Expressionist art. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the origins, development, methods and content of Surrealism and Fantasy art. </li></ul>
Figure 33-39 MAX BECKMANN, Night, 1918–1919. Oil on canvas, 4’ 4 3/8” x 5’ 1/4”. Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Düsseldorf.
Max Beckmann, The Departure , oil on canvas, side panels: 84 3/4 x 39 ¼, central panel: 85” x 45”, Museum of Modern Art, New York
The symbolic representation of torture and exile in Departure (1932–33) foreshadowed the calamity that was to affect Germany and most of Europe. By 1933 Hitler had come to power, and Beckmann had been stripped of his professorship at the Art Academy in Frankfurt. In 1937, when the Nazis denounced modernism in their propagandistic survey “Degenerate Art,” Beckmann was the most heavily represented artist.
Figure 33-40 OTTO DIX, Der Krieg (The War), 1929–1932. Oil and tempera on wood, 6’ 8 1/3” x 13’ 4 3/4”. Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, Gemäldegalerie Neue Meister, Dresden.
Figure 33-41 Kathe Kollwitz, Woman with Dead Child , 1903, Etching, 1.5’ x 2’, British Museum, London
Figure 33-45 MAX ERNST, Two Children Are Threatened by a Nightingale, 1924. Oil on wood with wood construction, 2’ 3 1/2” high, 1’ 10 1/2” wide, 4 1/2” deep. Museum of Modern Art, New York (purchase).
The Barron’s Guide to the AP exam describes this work as the “major work” reflective of the Metaphysical Style! It shows a … Deep pull into space Shadowy, eerie forms that create mystery and foreboding Juxtaposition of large dark spaces and open light vistas Empty van with nothing in it Canaday sees de Chirico as sort of pre-Surrealist.
Figure 33-46 SALVADOR DALÍ, The Persistence of Memory, 1931. Oil on canvas, 9 1/2” x 1’ 1”. Museum of Modern Art, New York (given anonymously).
Dali, Apparition of Face and Fruit Bowl on a Beach , 1938, oil on canvas, 45” x 57”, Wadsworth Athenaeum, Hartford, Connecticut
Dali, Dream Caused by the Flight of a Bumblebee Around a Pomegranate a Second Before Awakening , 1944, oil on canvas, 20” x 10”, Thyssen-Bornemisza Foundation Collection, Madrid
Figure 33-47 RENÉ MAGRITTE, The Treachery (or Perfidy) of Images, 1928–1929. Oil on canvas, 1’ 11 5/8” x 3’ 1”. Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles (purchased with funds provided by the Mr. and Mrs. William Preston Harrison Collection).
Figure 33-48 MERET OPPENHEIM, Object (Le Déjeuner en fourrure), 1936. Fur-covered cup, 4 3/8” in diameter; saucer, 9 3/8” in diameter; spoon, 8”. Museum of Modern Art, New York (purchase).
Figure 33-49 FRIDA KAHLO, The Two Fridas, 1939. Oil on canvas, 5’ 7” x 5’ 7”. Collection of the Museo de Arte Moderno, Mexico City.
Figure 33-50 JOAN MIRÓ, Painting, 1933. 5’ 8” x 6’ 5”. Museum of Modern Art, New York (Loula D. Lasker Bequest by exchange).
Figure 33-51 PAUL KLEE, Twittering Machine, 1922. Watercolor and pen and ink, on oil transfer drawing on paper, mounted on cardboard, 2’ 1” x 1’ 7”. Museum of Modern Art, New York (purchase).
Klee, Battle Scene from the Comic Opera “The Seafarer,” 1923, collection Tris Duerst-Hass, Basel, Switzerland
Figure 33-52 KAZIMIR MALEVICH, Suprematist Composition: Airplane Flying, 1915 (dated 1914). Oil on canvas, 1’ 10 7/8” x 1’ 7”. Museum of Modern Art, New York (purchase). Suprematism Celebrates / evokes the supremacy of pure feeling Basic forms: square, straight line, rectangle “ pure language of shape and color”
Figure 33-53 NAUM GABO, Column, ca. 1923 (reconstructed 1937). Perspex, wood, metal, glass, 3’ 5” x 2’ 5” x 2’ 5”. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York. Constructionism
Figure 33-54 Photograph of Vladimir Tatlin with Monument to the Third International, 1919–1920. Annenberg School for Communication, University of Southern California, Los Angeles. Productionism
Figure 33-55 PIET MONDRIAN, Composition in Red, Blue, and Yellow, 1930. Oil on canvas, 2’ 4 5/8” x 1’ 9 1/4”. Private Collection. De Stilj
Mondrian, Broadway Boogie Woogie . 1942-43. Oil on canvas, 50 x 50“, Museum of Modern Art, New York Escaping to New York after the start of World War II, Mondrian delighted in the city's architecture, and, an adept dancer, was fascinated by American jazz, particularly boogie–woogie. He saw the syncopated beat, irreverent approach to melody, and improvisational aesthetic of boogie–woogie as akin to his own "destruction of natural appearance; and construction through continuous opposition of pure means—dynamic rhythm." Bands of stuttering chromatic pulses, paths of red, yellow, and blue interrupted by light gray suggest the city's grid and the movement of traffic, while the staccato vibration of colors evokes the syncopation of jazz and the blinking electric lights of Broadway.
Figure 33-56 GERRIT THOMAS RIETVELD, Schröder House, Utrecht, the Netherlands, 1924.
Natural and Organic Forms <ul><li>Understand the desire for natural and organic forms in sculpture and architecture. </li></ul>Frank Lloyd Wright, 1954 Darwin Martin House, Buffalo See PPT Frank Lloyd Wright
Figure 33-69 CONSTANTIN BRANCUSI, Bird in Space, 1928. Bronze (unique cast), 4’ 6” x 8” x 6” high. Museum of Modern Art, New York (given anonymously). Organic Sculpture
Brancusi, The Kiss , 1913, stone, 10” x 13”, Philadelphia Museum of Art
Brancusi, Mlle Pogany III , 1933, bronze, 44,5 x 19 x 27 cm, Pompidou Centre, Paris
Romanian-born French sculptor Constantin Brancusi chose the egg as the dominant structure for his sculptures. Many of his creations, such as the numerous sculptures he made of Mademoiselle Pogany, share the egg’s smooth, oblong shape and simplicity. Brancusi liked to simplify his subject to its purest and most basic form. He is considered a forerunner of modern abstract sculpture because of his overriding interest in the inner form of his subject rather than its exterior appearance.
Barbara Hepworth Mother and Child The work of British artist Barbara Hepworth shows the influence of other 20th-century sculptors, such as Jean Arp, from France; Constantin Brancusi, from Romania; and Henry Moore, from Great Britain. Her Mother and Child, is typical of her early works, which are based on the human figure
Figure 33-70 BARBARA HEPWORTH, Oval Sculpture (No. 2), 1943. Plaster cast, 11 1/4” x 16 1/4” x 10”. Tate Gallery, London.
Figure 33-71 HENRY MOORE, Reclining Figure, 1939. Elm wood, 3’ 1” x 6’ 7” x 2’ 6”. Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit (Founders Society purchase with funds from the Dexter M. Ferry, Jr. Trustee Corporation). Moore: simplified forms with great areas of negative space; biomorphic forms
Henry Moore, Recumbent Figure , 1938, stone, length 55”, Tate Gallery, London
Figure 33-72 ALEXANDER CALDER, Untitled, 1976. Aluminum honeycomb, tubing, and paint, 29’ 10 1/2” x 76’. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. (Gift of the Collectors Committee).
And by the way … Ben Shahn designed the stained glass window at Temple Beth Zion, Buffalo
German bombers destroyed Guernica, a city with no strategic value. The purpose of the attack was to assess the impact of bombing on a civilian population. 1937 On the background of the Spanish Civil War …
Figure 33-73 PABLO PICASSO, Guernica, 1937. Oil on canvas, 11’ 5 1/2” x 25’ 5 3/4”. Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Madrid. Picasso responded with his Guernica .
Man at the Crossroads is a 63-foot-long portrait of workers facing symbolic crossroads of industry, science, socialism, and capitalism. The painter believes that his friendship with the Rockefeller family will allow him to insert an unapproved representation of Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin into a section portraying a May Day parade. The real decision-making power lies with the Center's building managers, who abhor Rivera's propagandistic approach. Horrified by newspaper articles attacking the mural's anti-capitalist ideology, they order Rivera to remove the offending image. When Rivera refuses, offering to balance the work with a portrait of Abraham Lincoln on the opposing side, the managers pay his full fee, bar him from the site, and hide the mural behind a massive drape. Despite negotiations to transfer the work to the Museum of Modern Art and demonstrations by Rivera supporters, near midnight, on February 10th, 1934, Rockefeller Center workmen, carrying axes, demolish the mural. Later, Rivera recreates the frescoes in the Palace of Fine Arts in Mexico City, adding a portrait of John D. Rockefeller, Jr., in a nightclub. Rivera never works in the United States again, but continues to be active, both politically and artistically, until his death in 1957.