Expressing anDISCURSIVE AND ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAYWRITING FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE PAPER 1(O’ LEVEL)
By the end of the lessonYou should be able toIdentify what is an “exposition” and its typesIdentify the language features of expositionsWork out & write an expositionUnderstand the requirements of exposition writing
What is an Exposition?What do you do when you have to persuade someone to consideryour point of view?Make a stand about an issueSupport your point of view (POV) with evidenceConclude by stating the benefits of your approach
“An exposition is a text that presentsone side of the issue. The purpose is topersuade the reader or listener bypresenting one side of an argument,that is, the case for or against…”Longmans, 2008: p.41
Types of ExpositionsDebatesExpository essaysEditorialsSpeeches (Situational Writing)Spoken argumentsLegal defences (in court)Reviews of books, movies, online games, blogs etc.
Discussion vs. ExpositionDISCUSSIONDo not immediately take astand.Present various possibilities,review the arguments and…then make a consideredjudgementEXPOSITIONTake a stand immediatelyPresent only one side of theissueAttempt to persuade theaudience (listeners orreaders) to accept theauthor’s POV
Language FeaturesUse simple present tenseGives a more “up-to-date” feel to your writingE.g. - “…some people disagree with…”- “ …The latest statistics prove that…”- “…The present situation is not satisfactory”
Language FeaturesUse words that express attitudeGives a more convincing/sincere toneE.g. - “…the people must be given the benefit of”- “…These things rarely occur more than once”
Language FeaturesUse verbs of belief“I can convince you that…”“I can prove to you that…”
Language FeaturesUse connectors to do with reason and choice“…You will fail unless you follow my suggestion…”“Because of our failure to deal with these issues, thisstate of affairs has become worse…”
Language FeaturesUse emotive words and phrases“…we all love our country and we are all proud ofour achievements…”“…It is distressing to see her suffer at this time…”
Language FeaturesUse adverbs that show time sequence andlink the arguments such as first, next,previously and finally“…we must resolve our difficulties before they becomeworse. First we need to…Then we must. After this wehave to…”
Language FeaturesUse rhetorical questions“…Can our country afford this?...”“…Do you really want this to happen?…”
Step 1Choose your topic & decide your standAre you for or against?
Step 2List 4 or 5 points to argue your POVBrainstorm – no particular orderArrange them in a coherent sequence that brings outyour stand
Step 3Collect all the evidence you will need for eachpointQuote statisticsGive examplesQuote statements from authoritiesInclude a moral statementTell a “real life” story that illustrates your point
Structure of an ExpositionAn IntroductoryStatementA Series of ArgumentsA Conclusion
Sample ofExpository(Adapted from pg. 46, Longman’s Complete Guide to upper Secondary composition)
What is an exposition?How is it different from a discussion?
What are the language features of expositions?S_____ P_____ TenseWords that express a_______Words that are e_________Verbs of be_____Connectors that show r_____ & c______Adverbs that show seq_______R_________ questions.imple resentttitudemotiveliefuencehetoricaleason hoice
Steps to writing expositionsStep 1: _____________________Step 2: _____________________Step 3: _____________________List 4 or 5 points to argue your POVCollect all the evidence you will need for each pointChoose your topic & decide your stand
Structure of an expositionIntroductory _________________A __________ of argumentsA _______________.statementseriesconclusion
WalkthroughO’ Level English Paper One, Nov 2010“…Some people say that the Internet does moreharm than good. What is your view?...”
Further notes on Discussion EssaysDiscussion essays are written to:…present a balanced argument giving points for oragainst a topic.…arrive at your opinion after careful analysis based onfacts.
Further notes on Discussion EssaysAdditional Language Features:Expressions showing contrastsa) “…however”, “but”b) “…on the other hand”c) “…whereas…”
Further notes on Discussion EssaysAdditional Language Features:Expressions showing analysisa) It can be seen that…b) based on our reviewc) Therefore
ComparisonEXPOSITORY ESSAYS1. “…Singapore has too many laws”Do you agree?2. “There is too much traffic on thestreets of Kuala Lumpur”. Do youagree?3. It is said that school uniforms givepupils a sense of identity andencourages good discipline. Wouldyou agree with this?DISCUSSION ESSAYS1. Some people believe that getting auniversity degree is the best routeto a successful career, while othersthink that it may be better to startwork after school. Discuss2. Should girls and boys be givenexactly the same type ofeducation?
References1. Longman’s Complete Guide to Upper SecondaryComposition