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Chapter 3 - Rise of Venice


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These slides introduce Chapter 3: Rise of Venice to the Secondary 4 students who are studying Social Studies for the Singapore current syllabus.

These slides are divided into 3 areas.
1. Background [Slide 3]
2. Factors leading to the Rise of Venice between 9th and 15th centuries [Slide 16]
3. Venice at its Peak of Development [Slide 58]

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Chapter 3 - Rise of Venice

  1. 1. Venice 5th – 15th Centuries
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes Explain the factors that led to the rise of Venice. Explain the lessons that nations can draw from the rise of Venice.
  3. 3. Part 1 Background
  4. 4. Italy 2014
  5. 5. Where is Venice?
  6. 6. Venice What was like in the 5th-9th centuries?
  7. 7. Venetian Society The early settlements consisted of small fishing villages. Craftsmen, fishermen, and salt traders
  8. 8. Venice had an urban plan with an organised infrastructure • Little land for farming; • Dependent on mainland
  9. 9. Economic Activities Capitalised on their skills in salt production and monopolized salt trade Traded salt and fishes for grain Established trade agreements with communities along Po River to gain access to mainland and forest products Obtained wood for shipbuilding and trade with Middle East (for gold, spices etc.)
  10. 10. Government System A vassal state of Byzantine Empire
  11. 11. Doge Ducal Council General Assembly 3-tiered Government System
  12. 12. Could elect own leader (Doge) Most experienced official from ruling family Appointed for life
  13. 13. Part 2 Factors leading to the Rise of Venice between 9th and 15th Centuries
  14. 14. Rise of Venice Leadership Reforms in Government Trade Developments & Expansion Industrial Development
  15. 15. Leadership Doge Peietro II Orseolo • established control in Adriatic Sea Doge Enrico Dandolo • directed the Fourth Crusade • captured Constantinople • weakened the Byzantine Empire Doge Pietro Ziani • set up military outposts along important trade routes to safeguard Venice’s territorial control.
  16. 16. This marked the beginning of Venice’s growth as a maritime empire over the Mediterranean Sea.
  17. 17. How is this a reason for Venice’s rise? Strong leadership in different aspects of the country’s development was needed. Sound strategic decisions were made that enhanced the country’s political and economic strengths. By seizing control and managing the territories well, these capable leaders contributed in no small way to the rise of importance of Venice.
  18. 18. Leadership – Military Campaigns
  19. 19. Genoa Capture of Constantinople in 12th Century What are the implications for Venice? • Rival • Territories Constantinople Defeat of Genoa in 14th Century What are the implications for Venice • Monopoly of trade in Mediterranean
  20. 20. Reforms Meeting New Challenges
  21. 21. Challenge Venice’s trade was growing and the city- state was growing in influence, hence a capable and efficient government was needed. Solution Creation of Great Council in 12th Century. How does this solve the problem?
  22. 22. Challenge With growth of trade and wealth, there were more noble & influential families. Solution Expansion of Great Council in 13th Century. How does this solve the problem?
  23. 23. Creation of the Involve more nobles to serve and decide on Venice’s future Allow for specialization of duties in law, finance, coinage, foreign relations, commerce and fleets Great Council Senate
  24. 24. Council of
  25. 25. Maintain Checks and Balance Monitor the activities of organisations to safeguard against corruption Crush plots against the government Limit the power of the Doge Prevent concentration of power Ensure best candidates for the election process
  26. 26. Doge Marin Falier Tried to overthrow government in 1355. Sought to gain supreme power of dogeship. Plans were discovered by Council of Ten and quickly captured.
  27. 27. Challenge Venice’s trade was growing and the city- state was growing in influence, hence the government needs to perform a wide range of duties. Solution Reorganisation of Great Council How does this solve the problem?
  28. 28. Council of 40created to handle matters of Law Finances Coinage
  29. 29. Senate created to take charge of Foreign Affairs Commerce Operation of Venetian Fleets
  30. 30. Reforms Maintain Checks & Balances Why was there a need to check the power of the Doge? What was done to check the power of the Doge? Why was there a need to prevent the concentration of power in any individual or family? What was done to prevent the concentration of power in any individual or family?
  31. 31. How is this a reason for Venice’s rise? Venice made constant improvements to their system of government. The Venice were able to respond to threats and challenges by ensuring strong political leadership. With a growing population and prosperity, the structure of the government was also reformed to respond to greater demands.
  32. 32. Trade Development Innovation&Enterprise Skilled Diplomats • obtain favourable trading terms (lower taxes, brought in highly prized spices from the East) Explorers • explored new trade routes, supplies and markets, beyond Middle East to China e.g. Marco Polo Foreign Traders • established permanent trading posts in the city state – Arabs, Armenians, Greeks and Africans
  33. 33. MARCO POLO
  34. 34. How is this a reason for Venice’s rise? By having an adventurous spirit, Venetian merchants and explorers were able to expand their trade which led to rapid economic growth. The increase in variety of valuable products traded created a lot of wealth for the country.
  35. 35. Innovation in Maritime technology Nautical Chart • provided information about known voyages (landmarks, distance, ports) for more accurate planning Mariner Compass • Improved visibility in winter for trade in the Mediterranean throughout the year
  36. 36. Advanced Shipbuilding Technology Venetian fleets propelled by both oars and sails and need not depend solely on the wind, allowing swift travel over long distance. Great Galley built in the 13th Century was a combination of a merchant and a war vessel to deter pirates.
  37. 37. GREATER This leads to Trade expansion & Territorial control
  38. 38. How is this a reason for Venice’s rise? Venice took advantage of the opportunities in maritime technology during the 13th Century The increase in variety of valuable products traded create a lot of wealth for the country.
  39. 39. Challenge Venice’s trade was growing and the city- state was growing in influence, hence the government needs to perform a wide range of duties. Solution Reorganisation of Great Council How does this solve the problem?
  40. 40. Trade Development Efficiency in Managing Voyages More frequent More goods Set up a management system to organise and monitor schedule of trade voyages. Grouped traders and ordered them to travel in convoys as it was more profitable to trade in larger quantities and greater trade volume. How did these developments lead to the rise of Venice? Technology Senate
  41. 41. Reasons Safety • Protect one another during pirate attacks Increased Profits • Price-fixing of goods and no bargaining No Time Loss • Coordinate arrival timing with other traders for efficiency Reliability • Consistency in arrival timing and the variety of goods
  42. 42. Trade Development Edging out Other Competitors Military Campaigns against Genoa – a trade competitor. Genoa was defeated in late 14th Century, and this led to more trade
  43. 43. Provision of wide variety of goods from the East e.g. Why was Venice able to do that? Spices Sugar Diamonds
  44. 44. Trade Monopoly Venice’s strategic location at the northern tip of Adriatic Sea, Central and Southern Europe Use of a combination of land and sea routes to Arabia Able to provide greater variety of goods than Genoa or the Hanseatic League (trading states of Northern Europe)
  45. 45. How is this a reason for Venice’s rise? With superior ships that were able to travel further and strong enough to repel pirate attacks enabled Venice to obtain exotic products from the Middle East and China for which there was a huge demand Monopolising the trade routes in Europe enabled Venice to raise the prices • Made large profits as European states had to buy from Venice and not from other states
  46. 46. With all-year round travel, expansion of trade and territorial control led to More Ships calling at Venice Increased Trade A Higher Level of Economic Prosperity.
  47. 47. Industrial Development Industries All shipbuilders centralised at the Arsenal around 1100, producing great galleys. • Why was the Arsenal the backbone of Venice’s power? Shipbuilding Glassmaking Exquisite glassware demanded all over Europe. Skilled craftsmen from other parts of Europe attracted to settle down and work in Venice.
  48. 48. Shipbuilding Glassmaking
  49. 49. Print New industries such as printing emerged
  50. 50. How is this a reason for Venice’s rise? Venice’s trade expansion encouraged its industrial development. Craftsmen were well-paid and this attracted other craftsmen from Europe and surrounding region to settle in the city-state Arsenal, the shipbuilding centre became the backbone of Venice’s maritime industry and power The success of the industries and particularly its maritime trade brought Venice wealth and recognition.
  51. 51. Industrial Developments Innovative Practices Standardised columns of credit and debit columns and entries Useful system to record transactions. Double-entry, rather than single entry, helps to prevent errors. • How did this facilitate trade? Double-entry booking
  52. 52. Industrial Developments Innovative Practices Giro-banking Traders can make or receive payment by making the request at the bank. No need to carry large amounts of cash and different currencies. Allow for loans and several transactions to be made in a day • How did this facilitate trade?
  53. 53. How is this a reason for Venice’s rise? The Venetians were highly innovative as seen in the new ways of conducting business. Trade efficiency increased and Venice’s economy expanded.
  54. 54. Part 3 Venice at its Peak of Development
  55. 55. Political Stability Strong & stable government-controlled territories along important trade routes, especially around the Mediterranean Sea • Why was this important? Adriatic Sea • Strong navy was able to suppress piracy • How did this influence other developments of Venice?
  56. 56. Economic Prosperity Trade • Monopolised trade in the region. Manufacturing • Venetian goods renowned for their quality. • Talented craftsmen were well- paid • Trade unions and guilds were formed to ensure job security and quality of goods produced. What are the implications of economic prosperity?
  57. 57. Social Transformation Cosmopolitan City-state Attracted foreign talents • promoted migration (owing to labour shortage) Renowned as Centre of the Arts in Europe • Government funds were provided to support the development of Universities for scientific and literary fields
  58. 58. Scientific & Literary Developments Venetian universities attracted many foreign nobles as the government provided funds to attract distinguished professors. Venetian professors explored new areas of knowledge like astrology & astronomy.
  59. 59. Artistic Achievements Famous for its mosaic art (broken pieces of coloured tiles, stones or glass put together to form pictures). Attractive destination for those who embarked on Grand Tour. Why was Venice able to develop aesthetically?
  60. 60. Question of the Day The enterprising spirit of the Venetians was the most critical factor that enabled Venice to emerge as a great city-state. How far do you agree with this statement? “ ”
  61. 61. Summary Rise of Venice Leadership Diplomacy Military Campaigns Reforms in Government Meet Challenges of Growing City-State Maintain Checks & Balances Trade Developments & Expansion Innovation & Enterprise Efficiency in Managing Voyages Edge Out Other Competitors Industrial Development Industries Innovative Practices
  62. 62. Created by Goh Bang Rui Follow me on @slideshare. @gohbangrui