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  1. 1. MEMS in biomedical applications U.GAYATHRI, Dept of EEE, Surya group of institutions, Villupuram.
  2. 2. ABSTRACT: Micromachining and MEMS technologies can be used to produce complex electrical, mechanical, fluidic, thermal, optical , and magnetic structures, devices, and systems on a scale ranging from organs to subcellular organelles.This miniaturization ability has enabled MEMS to be applied in many areas of biology, medicine, and biomedical engineering a field generally referred to as BioMEMS.
  3. 3. what is MEMS ?  MEMS stands for Micro Electro Mechanical Systems.  It is a technique of combining Electrical and Mechanical components together on a chip, to produce a system of miniature dimensions …  By miniature, we mean dimensions less than the thickness of human hair !!!!
  4. 4. Benefits of MEMS in medical applications  Small volume of reagent samples (like blood), required for analysis.  Low power consumption, hence lasts longer on the same battery.  Less invasive, hence less painful.  Integration permits a large number of systems to be built on a single chip.  Batch processing can lower costs significantly.  Existing IC technology can be used to make these devices.  Silicon, used in most MEMS devices, interferes lesser with body tissues.
  5. 5. Can MEMS devices really replace the existing medical devices ?  A lot of MEMS medical devices have been developed that are much more sensitive and robust than their conventional counterparts.  Market trends for MEMS medical devices show a promising future ahead. bp_monitors3.htm
  6. 6. Classification of biological MEMS devices  Biomedical MEMS – deals “in vivo”, within the host body. → precision surgery → Biotelemetry → Drug delivery → Biosensors and other physical sensors  Biotechnology MEMS – deals “in vitro”, with the biological samples obtained from the host body. → Diagnostics → gene sequencing → Drug discover → pathogen detection
  7. 7. MEMS Sensors MEMS sensors in the biomedical field maybe used as:  Critical sensors, used during operations.  Long term sensors for prosthetic devices.  Sensor arrays for rapid monitoring and diagnosis at home.
  8. 8. MEMS and endoscopy  What is endoscopy ?  A diagnostic procedure which involves the introduction of a flexible device into the lower or upper gastrointestinal tract for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.  Conventional endoscopes  Can be used to view only the first third of the small intestine.  Require sedation of patient  Is an uncomfortable procedure
  9. 9. MEMS redefines endoscopy with “Lab on a Pill” Size : 35mm Components of lab on a pill  Digital camera (CMOSTechnology)  Light source  Battery  Radio transmitter  Sensors (MEMSTechnology)  Requires no sedation  Can show a view of the entire small intestine  Can aid in early detection of colon cancer
  10. 10. Ultrasonic MEMS cutting tool  These tools make use of piezoelectric materials attached to the cutter.  Consist of microchannels to flush out the fluid and debris while cutting.  Can be used to cut tough tissues, like the hardened lenses of patients with cataract
  11. 11. Skin Resurfacing  Skin resurfacing is a form of cosmetic surgery that is often used to aesthetically enhance the appearance of wrinkles, skin lesions, pigmentation irregularities, moles, roughness, and scars. Conventional resurfacing techniques involve the use of :  Dermabraders – devices or tools used in plastic surgery.  Chemical peels – chemicals such as glycolic acid.  Though still not commercially available, MEMS tools have been found to overcome many drawbacks present in the conventional techniques.  They can be used to remove raised skin lesions as well as lesions up to certain depths.  These MEMS structures are packaged onto rotary elements and used over the affected areas.  The debris can then be sucked out using a suction pump.
  12. 12. Removal of the diseased area  Fatty material deposited on the arterial walls causing artery blockage, can be physically removed using nanoblades.  Physically shredding tumor can pose a great threat.The pieces can be carried to other locations and result in furthering of cancerous cells.  One effective approach to kill the cancerous cells would be to enclose the entire tumor in a nano box and destroying everything in the box. Captions/Image201.html
  13. 13. A Graphical Representation of Nano robots working in a blood vessel, to remove a cancerous cells using MEMS.
  14. 14. MEMS microneedles  MEMS enables hundreds of hollow microneedles to be fabricated on a single patch of area, say a square centimeter.  This patch is applied to the skin and drug is delivered to the body using micropumps.  These micropumps can be electronically controlled to allow specific amounts of the drug and also deliver them at specific intervals.  Microneedles are too small to reach and stimulate the nerve endings, and hence cause no pain to the body. newsrelease/NEEDLES.htm
  15. 15. Smart Pill  A MEMS device that can be implanted in the human body.  Consists of  biosensors  Battery  Control circuitry  Drug reservoirs  The biosensors sense the substance to be measured, say insulin.  Once this quantity falls below a certain amount required by the body, the pill releases the drug.
  16. 16. Challenges for MEMS medical sensors  Biocompatibility remains the biggest hurdle for MEMS medical devices.  Life of the device.  Retrieving data out of the device.  Resist drifting along with the body fluids.
  17. 17. REFERENCES:  1.WCB/McGaw-Hill, 1998, ISBN  0-07-290722-[1] Micromechanics and MEMS: Classic and  Seminal Papers to 1990,W.Trimmer (Ed.),  IEEE Press, NewYork, NY, 1996, ISBN  0-7803-1085-3.  [2]G.T.A. Kovacs, MicromachinedTransducers  Sourcebook3.  [3] M. Madou, Fundamentals of Microfabrication.  Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc., 1997, ISBN  0-8493-9451-1.  [4] J. Bustillo, R.T. Howe, and R. S. Muller,  “Surface micromachining for microelectromechanical  systems”, Proceedings of the IEEE,  vol. 86, no. 8, August 1998, pp. 1552-1574.  [5] K. E. Petersen, “Silicon as a Mechanical  Material”, Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 70,  no. 5, May 1982, pp. 420-457.