Dept of EEE,
Surya group of institutions,
Micromachining and MEMS
technologies can be used to produce complex
electrical, mechanical, fluidic, thermal, optical
and magnetic structures, devices, and systems
on a scale ranging from organs to subcellular
organelles.This miniaturization ability has
enabled MEMS to be applied in many areas of
biology, medicine, and biomedical engineering
a field generally referred to as BioMEMS.
what is MEMS ?
MEMS stands for Micro Electro Mechanical
It is a technique of combining Electrical and
Mechanical components together on a chip, to
produce a system of miniature dimensions …
By miniature, we mean dimensions less than the
thickness of human hair !!!!
Benefits of MEMS in medical
Small volume of reagent samples (like blood), required for
Low power consumption, hence lasts longer on the same
Less invasive, hence less painful.
Integration permits a large number of systems to be built on a
Batch processing can lower costs significantly.
Existing IC technology can be used to make these devices.
Silicon, used in most MEMS devices, interferes lesser with
Can MEMS devices really
replace the existing medical
A lot of MEMS medical
devices have been
developed that are
much more sensitive
and robust than their
Market trends for MEMS
medical devices show a
promising future ahead.
Classification of biological
Biomedical MEMS – deals “in vivo”, within the host body.
→ precision surgery
→ Drug delivery
→ Biosensors and other physical sensors
Biotechnology MEMS – deals “in vitro”, with the biological
samples obtained from the host body.
→ gene sequencing
→ Drug discover
→ pathogen detection
MEMS sensors in the biomedical field maybe used
Critical sensors, used during operations.
Long term sensors for prosthetic devices.
Sensor arrays for rapid monitoring and
diagnosis at home.
MEMS and endoscopy
What is endoscopy ?
A diagnostic procedure which involves the introduction of a
flexible device into the lower or upper gastrointestinal tract for
diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
Can be used to view only the first
third of the small intestine.
Require sedation of patient
Is an uncomfortable procedure
MEMS redefines endoscopy with
“Lab on a Pill”
Size : 35mm
Components of lab on a pill
Digital camera (CMOSTechnology)
Requires no sedation
Can show a view of the
entire small intestine
Can aid in early detection
of colon cancer
Ultrasonic MEMS cutting tool
These tools make use of piezoelectric materials attached to the
Consist of microchannels to flush out the fluid and debris while
Can be used to cut tough tissues, like the hardened lenses of
patients with cataract
Skin resurfacing is a form of cosmetic surgery that is often used to
aesthetically enhance the appearance of wrinkles, skin lesions, pigmentation
irregularities, moles, roughness, and scars.
Conventional resurfacing techniques involve the use of :
Dermabraders – devices or tools used in plastic surgery.
Chemical peels – chemicals such as glycolic acid.
Though still not commercially available, MEMS tools have been found to
overcome many drawbacks present in the conventional techniques.
They can be used to remove raised skin lesions as well as lesions up to certain
These MEMS structures are packaged
onto rotary elements and used
over the affected areas.
The debris can then be sucked out
using a suction pump.
Removal of the diseased area
Fatty material deposited on the
arterial walls causing artery
blockage, can be physically
removed using nanoblades.
Physically shredding tumor can
pose a great threat.The pieces
can be carried to other locations
and result in furthering of
One effective approach to kill the
cancerous cells would be to
enclose the entire tumor in a nano
box and destroying everything in
the box. www.foresight.org/.../Gallery/ Captions/Image201.html
A Graphical Representation of Nano robots working in a blood vessel, to remove
a cancerous cells using MEMS.
MEMS enables hundreds of hollow
microneedles to be fabricated on a
single patch of area, say a square
This patch is applied to the skin and
drug is delivered to the body using
These micropumps can be
electronically controlled to allow
specific amounts of the drug and
also deliver them at specific
Microneedles are too small to reach
and stimulate the nerve
endings, and hence cause no pain to
A MEMS device that can be
implanted in the human body.
The biosensors sense the
substance to be measured, say
Once this quantity falls below a
certain amount required by the
body, the pill releases the drug.
Challenges for MEMS medical
Biocompatibility remains the biggest hurdle
for MEMS medical devices.
Life of the device.
Retrieving data out of the device.
Resist drifting along with the body fluids.
1.WCB/McGaw-Hill, 1998, ISBN
0-07-290722- Micromechanics and MEMS: Classic and
Seminal Papers to 1990,W.Trimmer (Ed.),
IEEE Press, NewYork, NY, 1996, ISBN
G.T.A. Kovacs, MicromachinedTransducers
 M. Madou, Fundamentals of Microfabrication.
Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc., 1997, ISBN
 J. Bustillo, R.T. Howe, and R. S. Muller,
“Surface micromachining for microelectromechanical
systems”, Proceedings of the IEEE,
vol. 86, no. 8, August 1998, pp. 1552-1574.
 K. E. Petersen, “Silicon as a Mechanical
Material”, Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 70,
no. 5, May 1982, pp. 420-457.