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El172 unit6

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Participial Phrases

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El172 unit6

  1. 1. UNIT 6
  2. 2. PARTICIPIAL PHRASE •Group of words used to modify a noun •Two [2] forms •Present participial phrase •Verb in -ing form •Past participial phrase •Verb in -ed form
  3. 3. PARTICIPIAL PHRASE •Start with a verb, followed by modifier or object •Enjoying herself a great deal, Jill takes several photos along the way. •Displayed at the museum, the painting is appreciated by viewers around the world. •Same subject in the sentence
  4. 4. PLACE •Beginning •Working all night, staff were able to complete the project. •Middle •The yellow cat, hugged by the little girl, belongs to my neighbor. •End •It had been raining for days, causing floods everywhere.
  5. 5. FORMS •Present participial phrase •Shouting from the rooftop, Jack was over the moon. •Past participial phrase •Located in the heart of London, Harrods is one of the most prestigious stores in the world.
  6. 6. -ED OR -ING •Active voice - ing •Shouting from the rooftop, Jack was over the moon. •Who does the verb activity? •Passive voice - ed •Located in the heart of London, Harrods is one of the most prestigious stores in the world. •Can Harrods locate itself?
  7. 7. ADJECTIVE CLAUSE (1) •Can serve as “adjective [relative]clause” •London, which stands on the River Thames, attracts a great number of tourists each year. •London, standing on the River Thames, attracts a great number of tourists each year.
  8. 8. ADJECTIVE CLAUSE (2) •Can serve as “adjective [relative]clause” •Jack, who was injured in the last game, sat on the bench. •Jack, injured in the last game, sat on the bench.
  9. 9. HOW TO •Omit “relative pronoun” e.g. who, that, which •Change the verb to -ing or -ed form, depending on the voice
  10. 10. TENSES & VOICE [1] •Perfect Tense in Active Voice •Hello Kitty, who has been famous worldwide, is a girl. •---, having been famous worldwide, --- •Perfect Tense in Passive Voice •This cell phone, which had been used for several years, unexpectedly broke down. •---, having been used for several years, ---
  11. 11. HOW TO •Same for present/past perfect •Active voice - having + V3 •Passive voice - having + been + V3
  12. 12. TENSES & VOICE [2] •FUTURE TENSE: WILL •Use the same form as present tense •Jane, who will travel to London next month, is the honor student. •Jane, traveling to London next month, is the honor student.
  13. 13. ADVERB CLAUSE •Can serve as “adverb clause” •When Harry arrived at Platform 9 3/4, he was excited. •When arriving at Platform 9 3/4, Harry was excited.
  14. 14. ADVERB CLAUSE •While •While Harry was on Hogwarts Express, he chatted with Ron and Hermione all the way. •While being on Hogwarts Express, Harry chatted with Ron and Hermione all the way.
  15. 15. ADVERB CLAUSE •Because [As] - can be omitted •Harry wanted to go back to school because he was unhappy living with his uncle. •Being unhappy living with his uncle, Harry wanted to go back to school.
  16. 16. HOW TO When Harry arrived at Platform 9 3/4, he was excited. Arriving at Platform 9 3/4, Harry was excited. •Remove the subject in the adverb clause •Replace the pronoun in the main clause with the subject •Finite verb in adverb clause is changed to [present or past] participle
  17. 17. PAY ATTENTION •Subject of the sentence must be the same ✓Before inventing the light bulb, Edison had done several experiments. •While Jill is listening to the music, Jack talks on the phone. ⌧While listening to the music, Jack talks on the phone.

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