•Minimum of a subject & a verb
•Independent clause = can stand alone
•A cat sat on a mat
•The cat was sleeping
•Two  simple sentences joined
•Comma [,] between clauses
•Odie is about to have a hotdog, and
Garﬁeld is standing behind him.
•For - because || Yet - but
•I will love the light, for it shows me the
way, yet I will love the darkness
because it shows me the stars.
•Nor - and [in negative]
•A gem is not polished without rubbing,
nor is a man perfect without trials.
•Main clause & subordinate
•Main clause can stand alone
•Subordinate clause CANNOT
•I don’t like to go out when it
•I don’t like to go out - main clause
as it makes sense when standing
•when it rains - subordinate clause
since it causes FRAGMENT when
•Used as modiﬁer to the main clause
•Time: before, after, when
•Condition: if, unless, provided that
•Reason: because, as, since
•Although time seems to ﬂy, it never travels
faster than one day at a time. -- Steve
•I will search for you through a
thousand worlds and ten thousand
lifetimes until I ﬁnd you. -- 47 Ronin
•Function as an adjective to the noun
•The company is hiring a new
programmer who has experience in
•The girl whose cat is missing is very
•Function as a noun in a sentence
•Do you know where we are?
•I can’t believe that you are so mean.
•What she said is totally wrong.
•2+ independent clauses AND
•1+ dependent clause[s]
•While Jane is waiting for her friend,
Jill, who is always late, she has a good
time watching people walking by, and
she quite likes this time to herself.