Motivation Slides

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  • Motivation Slides

    1. 1. Introduction to Motivation m34
    2. 2. Objectives Students should be able to • define motivation and name four perspectives useful for studying motivated behavior • discuss instinct theory and its uses • explain how drive-reduction their views human motivation • discuss the contribution of arousal theory to the study of motivation • describe Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
    3. 3. Instincts & Evolution Motivation is a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior – Internal motivation • eg ? – External motivation • eg ?
    4. 4. Instincts & Evolution An instinct is a complex, unlearned behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species. • Birds build nests by instinct • Ducks imprinting at hatching • Human instincts . . . ?
    5. 5. Drives & Incentives • Without clear human instincts, psychologists turned to drive-reduction theory: – The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused state of tension (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need. • The drive-reduction theory attempts to recreate homeostasis – a balanced internal state.
    6. 6. Drives push, but incentives pull. Hunger pushes us to eat, and yummy food pulls us to eat. Hull’s Drive Theory Performance = Habit x Drive
    7. 7. Drives push, but incentives pull. Hunger pushes us to eat, and yummy food pulls us to eat. Hull’s Drive Theory Performance = Habit x Drive
    8. 8. Optimum Arousal Rather than seeking some biologically based balance, the optimum arousal theory says that people are motivated to reach an optimal state of alertness or activation. – The Yerkes-Dodson theory predicts that people perform better at a moderate level of arousal
    9. 9. The optimal level of arousal is: – lower for more difficult or cognitive tasks (the learners need to concentrate on the material) – higher for tasks requiring endurance and persistence (the learners need more motivation).
    10. 10. Hierarchy of Needs Self-actualization needs Esteem needs Belongingness needs Safety needs Physiological needs

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