Motivation. chpt 14

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WACE PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT LECTURES 2010

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Motivation. chpt 14

  1. 1. SEWP ZC 241:SEWP ZC 241: PRINCIPLES OFPRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENTMANAGEMENT Human FactorsHuman Factors and Motivationand Motivation
  2. 2. THE AIM OF THIS SESSION:THE AIM OF THIS SESSION: The basic human factors that affect managing. The meaning of motivation. Various theories of motivation and their strengths and weaknesses. Special motivational techniques, with emphasis on the role of money, participation, the quality of working life and job enrichment. The systems and situational approach to motivation.
  3. 3. What is Managing?What is Managing? Managing requires the creation and maintenance of an environment in which individuals work together in groups toward the accomplishment of common objectives
  4. 4. Importance of PersonalImportance of Personal DignityDignity The concept of individual dignity means that people must be treated with respect, no matter what their position in the organization
  5. 5. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES?WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES? GROUP ‘A’ GROUP ‘B’
  6. 6. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES?WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES? GROUP ‘A’ GROUP ‘B’
  7. 7. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES?WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES? GROUP ‘A’ GROUP ‘B’
  8. 8. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES?WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES? GROUP ‘A’ GROUP ‘B’
  9. 9. WHAT MAKES THE DIFFERENCE?
  10. 10. WHAT IS MOTIVATION?
  11. 11. What is Motivation?What is Motivation? • Derived from Latin word, ‘movere’, meaning “to move”. • Motivation is a general term applying to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes, and similar forces
  12. 12. MOTIVATION IS…….. Why WE DO SOMETHING AND DON’T DO OTHERS
  13. 13. SOME THINGS IN LIFE ARE PURE BLACK AND WHITE
  14. 14. MOST THINGS IN LIFE ARE IN VARIOUS SHADES OF GREY!!
  15. 15. THERE IS NO UNIVERSALLY ACCEPTABLE SINGLE THEORY OF LEADESHIP!!!
  16. 16. MAJOR TYPES OF MOTIVATIONMAJOR TYPES OF MOTIVATION THEORIESTHEORIES • CONTENT THEORIES OF MOTIVATION • PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
  17. 17. CONTENT THEORIES OFCONTENT THEORIES OF MOTIVATIONMOTIVATION • Views motivation a result if INTERNAL DRIVES that force an individual to take ACTION. • Focuses on INNER FACTORS that boost and direct behavior.
  18. 18. MAJOR CONTENT THEORIESMAJOR CONTENT THEORIES • MASLOW’s Hierarchy of Needs. • ALDERFER’s ERG Theory • HERZBERG’s Motivator- Hygiene Theory • McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory
  19. 19. The Hierarchy of Needs TheoryThe Hierarchy of Needs Theory • Maslow concluded that when one set of needs is satisfied, this kind of need ceases to be a motivator
  20. 20. Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsMaslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  21. 21. Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsMaslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  22. 22. PHYSIOLOGICAL NEED: FOODPHYSIOLOGICAL NEED: FOOD
  23. 23. PHYSIOLOGICAL NEED: SHELTERPHYSIOLOGICAL NEED: SHELTER
  24. 24. PHYSIOLOGICAL NEED: CLOTHINGPHYSIOLOGICAL NEED: CLOTHING
  25. 25. SECURITY NEEDSECURITY NEED
  26. 26. BELONGING NEEDBELONGING NEED
  27. 27. ESTEEM NEEDESTEEM NEED
  28. 28. SELF ACTUALIZATIONSELF ACTUALIZATION NEEDNEED
  29. 29. MASLOWS HEIRACHY THEORY OF NEEDS Individuals needs live within a hierarchy of physiological needs. Physiological needs are necessity factors for SURVIVAL. Lower level needs like security and physiological needs required to be met before upper level needs.
  30. 30. MAJOR CONTENT THEORIESMAJOR CONTENT THEORIES • MASLOW’s Hierarchy of Needs. • ALDERFER’s ERG Theory • HERZBERG’s Motivator- Hygiene Theory • McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory
  31. 31. Alderfer's ERG TheoryAlderfer's ERG Theory • ERG theory has three categories: existence needs, relatedness needs, and growth needs
  32. 32. ALDERFER’S ERG THEORY Classification into 3 groups. Existence Relatedness Growth Does not suggest that lower level needs are to be met COMPLETELY in order for upper levels to become MOTIVATIONAL.
  33. 33. MASLOW TO ALDERFER
  34. 34. MAJOR CONTENT THEORIESMAJOR CONTENT THEORIES • MASLOW’s Hierarchy of Needs. • ALDERFER’s ERG Theory • HERZBERG’s Motivator- Hygiene Theory • McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory
  35. 35. Theory X and Theory YTheory X and Theory Y • Theory X and Theory Y : Assumptions about the nature of people Example of Theory X Average human beings have an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if they can • Example of Theory Y The expenditure of physical effort and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest
  36. 36. Theory X and Theory YTheory X and Theory Y
  37. 37. Herzberg’s Motivation Hygiene‑Herzberg’s Motivation Hygiene‑ TheoryTheory • According to Herzberg, dissatisfiers are not motivators. They are also called maintenance, hygiene, or job context factors • Satisfiers are motivators – related to job content
  38. 38. HERZBERGS HYGEINE THEORY
  39. 39. HERZBERGS HYGEINE THEORY
  40. 40. HERZBERGS HYGEINE THEORY
  41. 41. The satisfiers and dissatisfiers identified by Herzberg are similar to the factors suggested by Maslow.
  42. 42. MAJOR CONTENT THEORIESMAJOR CONTENT THEORIES • MASLOW’s Hierarchy of Needs. • ALDERFER’s ERG Theory • HERZBERG’s Motivator- Hygiene Theory • McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory
  43. 43. McClelland's Needs Theory ofMcClelland's Needs Theory of MotivationMotivation •McClelland’s types of motivating needs are:
  44. 44. NEED FOR POWERNEED FOR POWER
  45. 45. NEED FORNEED FOR ACHIEVEMENTACHIEVEMENT
  46. 46. NEED FOR POWERNEED FOR POWER
  47. 47. PROCESS THEORIES OFPROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATIONMOTIVATION • Aimed at determining how behavior starts, is directed and maintained.. • Focuses on human decision process as an explanation for behavior.
  48. 48. MAJOR PROCESS THEORIESMAJOR PROCESS THEORIES • EXPECTANCY Theory • EQUITY Theory • GOAL SETTING Theory • REINFORCEMENT Theory
  49. 49. The Expectancy Theory ofThe Expectancy Theory of MotivationMotivation Vroom holds that people will be motivated to do things to reach a goal if they believe in the worth of that goal and if they can see that what they do will help them in achieving it
  50. 50. VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY Individuals choose work behaviour that they believe would lead to an OUTCOME which they VALUE. Force = Valence xForce = Valence x ExpectancyExpectancy
  51. 51. Force = Valence x ExpectancyForce = Valence x Expectancy • Force is the strength of a person's motivation. • Valence is the strength of an individual's preference for an outcome. • Expectancy is the probability that a particular action will lead to a desired outcome
  52. 52. VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY VALENCE= The extent of attractiveness or unattractiveness of EXPECTED outcomes EXPECTANCY= The degree of effort .
  53. 53. MAJOR PROCESS THEORIESMAJOR PROCESS THEORIES • EXPECTANCY Theory • EQUITY Theory • GOAL SETTING Theory • REINFORCEMENT Theory
  54. 54. VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY
  55. 55. VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY
  56. 56. VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY
  57. 57. MAJOR PROCESS THEORIESMAJOR PROCESS THEORIES • EXPECTANCY Theory • EQUITY Theory • GOAL SETTING Theory • REINFORCEMENT Theory
  58. 58. Equity TheoryEquity Theory • Equity theory refers to an individual's subjective judgments about the fairness of the reward she or he got, relative to the inputs in comparison with the rewards of others • Outcomes by a person Outcomes by another person ------------------------------ = ----------------------------- • Inputs by a person Inputs by another person
  59. 59. EQUITY THEORYEQUITY THEORY
  60. 60. EQUITY THEORYEQUITY THEORY
  61. 61. MAJOR PROCESS THEORIESMAJOR PROCESS THEORIES • EXPECTANCY Theory • EQUITY Theory • GOAL SETTING Theory • REINFORCEMENT Theory
  62. 62. The Porter and Lawler MotivationThe Porter and Lawler Motivation ModelModel
  63. 63. Skinner’s Reinforcement TheorySkinner’s Reinforcement Theory • Positive reinforcement or behavior modification, holds that individuals can be motivated by proper design of their work environment and praise for their performance and that punishment for poor performance produces negative results
  64. 64. Job EnrichmentJob Enrichment • Job enlargement means enlarging the scope of the job by adding similar tasks without enhancing responsibility • Job enrichment attempts to build into jobs a higher sense of challenge and achievement

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