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# M29 thinking slides

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### M29 thinking slides

1. 1. Thinking m29
2. 2. What are they?How do you know?
3. 3. What is the mostdog-like dog that you can imagine?
4. 4. Concepts
5. 5. Concept: a mental grouping of similar objects,events, ideas, or peoplePrototype: a best example of a concept
6. 6. Analogous toschemas and hierarchies
7. 7. Solving Problems
8. 8. !?
9. 9. Algorithm 0-0-0, 0-0-1, 0-0-2, etcHeuristic 21-0-0, 21-0-1, 21-0-2, etc Insight I remember now!
10. 10. try it . . .So, let’s Find a partner for a bit of fun
11. 11. Obstacles to Problem Solving Conﬁrmation bias Fixation Mental set Functional ﬁxedness
12. 12. Confirmation BiasAfter committing to a college, students will seek others who have made the same decision — rather than ﬁnd others who chose not to attend that college
13. 13. Fixation
14. 14. Mental setAssume that you’re an engineer of apassenger train, and you like to countthings...
15. 15. 1. How many stations were there?2. How many passengers are left on the train?3. How old is in the engineer?
16. 16. Mental set There are six eggs in a basket. Six peopletake one of the eggs each. How is it that one egg can still be left in the basket?
17. 17. Functional fixedness
18. 18. Decisions &Judgments
19. 19. Heuristic: a rule of thumb, based onexperience, that enables quicker problem solving List all the English words that start with the letter Q
20. 20. Three dangers of heuristics: Representativeness heuristic Availability heuristic Overconﬁdence Framed decisions
21. 21. Representativeness Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they ﬁt your prototypeMeeting people in players fromyou might assume You meet three your dorm, the University’s that the laid-back, long-haired guy is fromQuidditch team, and they are all really nice; youCalifornia, whereas all Quidditch players are thatmight assume that the fast-talking, clean-cut guy is fromway. York New
22. 22. Availability Judging the likelihood of things based on how easily they come to mindAfter hearing about several couples who haveAfter news of a school shooting in Omaha, you recently broken up because of inﬁdelity, youmight think the possibility of a similar attack ismight be more suspicious of your own partner higher than it really is
23. 23. Overconﬁdence: tendency to overestimatethe accuracy of our own knowledge and judgments Vacation time vs assignments to do
24. 24. Overconﬁdence:Why you shouldn’t show off
25. 25. Framing: the way an issue is posed cansigniﬁcantly affect decisions and judgments Condoms are 98% effective 85% lean ground beef vs Condoms have a 2% failure rate 15% fat ground beef
26. 26. Belief Bias
27. 27. Belief bias: the tendency for our beliefsto distort our ability to reason clearly Beliefs are stronger than logic
28. 28. Belief perseverance: clinging toone’s initial beliefs despite contraryevidence