Motivation

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Motivation

  1. 1. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Chapter 11 Motivation
  2. 2. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Motivation Motivation Psychologists have made strides in understanding complicated motivated behaviors. But many human motivations are still puzzling or seem illogical when scrutinized. We will begin with some general principles of motivation, and then examine three areas of interest: hunger, the sex drive, and achievement.
  3. 3. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Module 11.1 General Principles of Motivation What are you most highly motivated for? Create a top-five 1 2 3 4 5
  4. 4. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Properties of Motivated Behavior Characteristics of motivated behavior: They are goal directed behaviors – motivated individuals keep working until they reach their goal. They vary from time to time and one individual to the next. If an individual varies the behavior and persists until reaching a goal, it is a motivated behavior.
  5. 5. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Views of Motivation It is hard to develop a satisfactory definition of motivation There are several frameworks that are used in psychology to understand what motivation is.
  6. 6. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Views of Motivation Motivation as an energy The word motivation is derived from the same root as “motion” – something that moves an organism. Lorenz and others proposed that animals behave in instinctive ways when certain energies reach a critical level. It is as if a specific kind of energy builds up and needs to be released, if it is not released through the preferred outlet, it will “spill” through a less preferred one. Motivation as energy building up in reservoirs ...
  7. 7. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Views of Motivation Motivation as an energy This view is based upon an obsolete conception of how the nervous system works. We now understand that individuals can inhibit impulses towards a disadvantageous behavior; there is no “spilling” of unreleased energy.
  8. 8. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Views of Motivation Drive theories A drive is a state of unrest or irritation that energizes one behavior after another until one of them removes the irritation. (e.g., splinter) Drive-reduction theory proposes that animals strive to reduce their drives as much as possible. Can you use drive reduction theory to explain the following needs? Rest Exercise Money Power Self expression Can you use drive reduction theory to explain your top 5 needs?
  9. 9. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Views of Motivation Drive theories By extension, drive-reduction theory would predict that once all needs have been met, the organism would become inactive. People seek variety and activity in life, not a condition of non-stimulation. The theory ignores the role of external stimulation. Interest in food depends not only on hunger but also on what foods are available.
  10. 10. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Views of Motivation Homeostasis--an important advance on drive-reduction theories Homeostasis is the maintenance of an optimum level of biological conditions within an organism. Conditions such as temperature, hydration, nutrition, and weight are maintained at a state of equilibrium. Unlike drive-reduction theory, in homeostasis it is necessary for the organism to expend energy to maintain the optimum state.
  11. 11. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Views of Motivation Homeostasis The homeostasis framework overlooks the power of new stimuli to arouse behavior. Humans also will adjust current behavior or consumption in anticipation of future needs. A person may eat one large meal in anticipation of skipping the next one, for example.
  12. 12. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Views of Motivation Incentive theories Incentives are external stimuli that pull us toward certain actions. Most motivated behaviors are controlled by a combination of drives (internal behaviors that push us from within) and incentives (external stimuli that pull us toward certain actions). You eat because you are hungry and also because you are standing in front of a restaurant offering appealing sights and smells of food. Can you use push and pull principles to explain the following needs? Rest Exercise Money Power Self expression
  13. 13. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations An intrinsic motivation is a motivation to do an act for its own sake. An extrinsic motivation is based on the reinforcements and punishments that may follow an action. Most motivated behaviors result from a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. Views of Motivation
  14. 14. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations Sometimes providing extrinsic motivations for a behavior that are already intrinsically motivated may result in a reduction of the performance of that behavior. This effect is known as overjustification. Overjustification predicts that if people are given more extrinsic motivation than needed to perform a task, the intrinsic motivation declines. Views of Motivation
  15. 15. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Figure 11.2 Monkeys learned to remove the pin, hook, and hasp in that order to open this device. When they started receiving a raisin instead of opening it just for fun, their performance deteriorated.
  16. 16. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Table 11.1 Four views of motivation
  17. 17. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Concept Check: You enjoy taking guitar lessons. Would it increase or decrease your interest if your parents offered to pay you for practicing? According to overjustification, it would decrease your interest.
  18. 18. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Types of Motivation Primary and secondary motivation Primary motivations are automatic, built-in processes (e.g., food and water) Secondary motivations develop as a result of specific learning experiences. You learn to perform these behaviors because they bring you closer to satisfying primary motivations. These motivations are analogous to the conditioned and unconditioned reinforcers that we discussed in the chapter on learning
  19. 19. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Concept Check: Is your interest in getting in “A” in this class an example of a primary or secondary motivation? A secondary motivation
  20. 20. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Many Types of Motivation We understand some motivations that are directly related to survival, but still puzzle over those that seem to have nothing to do with staying alive. Unusual behaviors are most likely driven by a combination of motivating factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic in origin.
  21. 21. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Module 11.3 Sexual Motivation
  22. 22. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation What Do People Do, and How Often? There are many academic and scientific reasons to research the habits and attitudes of human beings regarding sexuality. Most of us also are just plain curious and wonder “Am I normal?”
  23. 23. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation What Do People Do, and How Often? The answer to that question depends on what we mean by “normal.” “A nymphomaniac is someone who wants more sex than you do.” -- Alfred Kinsey
  24. 24. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation The Kinsey Survey Alfred C. Kinsey conducted the first major survey of human sexual behavior. He had a large sample, but it was not randomly gathered and since it was from only one area of the United States, cannot be considered representative. His results are still useful in that they are indicative of the wide variation in human sexual habits and attitudes.
  25. 25. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Contemporary Surveys Surveys from the 1980s and 1990s have been more successful in obtaining random and representative samples Results suggest that the most popular sexual activities are vaginal sex, oral sex, and watching one’s partner undress. Men indicate stronger preferences for activities such as masturbation and casual sex than do women. The number of partners reported in the past year tends to be greatest in young adulthood.
  26. 26. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Figure 11.12 The percentage of U.S. adults who rate various sexual activities as “very appealing,” as opposed to “somewhat appealing,” “not appealing,” or “not at all appealing.” (Based on data of Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, & Michaels, 1994)
  27. 27. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Sexual Behavior in the Era of AIDS AIDS, or acquired immune deficiency syndrome is a sexually transmitted disease that gradually destroys the body’s immune system. The virus does not survive long outside of body fluids and must enter a person’s blood.
  28. 28. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Sexual Behavior in the Era of AIDS The three most common modes of transmission are blood transfusion, sharing needles for IV drug use, and sexual contact. Information campaigns have had limited success in promoting condom use, abstinence and other “safe sex” strategies even in places where the disease affects a large proportion of the population.
  29. 29. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Sexual Identity and Orientation People vary in their sexual preferences. Gender identity is the sex that a person regards him- or herself as being. Sexual orientation is a person’s preference for male partners, female partners, both, or neither. People who prefer partners of their own sex are referred to as homosexual; those who like partners of both sexes are called bisexual.
  30. 30. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Influences on Sexual Anatomy The human fetus starts off with a “unisex” body structure. Hormonal influences starting in the seventh or eighth week of prenatal development determine whether a fetus becomes anatomically male or female. Male fetuses generally secrete higher levels of the hormone testosterone than do females. Testosterone causes the development of a penis and scrotum in males. Lower levels of testosterone in female fetuses are responsible for the development of the clitoris and labia.
  31. 31. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Figure 11.16 The human genitals look the same in male and female fetuses for about the first 6 or 7 weeks after conception (a).
  32. 32. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Figure 11.16 (cont.) Differences begin to emerge over the next couple of months (b) and are well developed at birth (c)
  33. 33. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Figure 11.16 (cont.) Differences begin to emerge over the next couple of months (b) and are well developed at birth (c)
  34. 34. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Influences on Sexual Anatomy Levels of estrogen increase in females at this time and influence internal female development. Some fetuses develop into individuals who have an intermediate appearance between male and female. These individuals are referred to as intersexes. These individuals used to be surgically altered to create either a distinct male or female appearance, but this practice is no longer common because of the many problems it created for intersex individuals when they matured
  35. 35. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Concept Check: In order for a fetus to develop a male appearance, which hormone must be present in sufficient quantity? Testosterone
  36. 36. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Influences on Sexual Orientation Sexual preference is most accurately viewed as falling along a continuum. A small number of people who identify as gay or lesbian have had heterosexual experiences. A small number of people who identify as straight have had at least one homosexual experience as adults, and about 9% of males have had a homosexual contact as adolescents.
  37. 37. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Figure 11.18 The percentages of U.S. adults who report sexual activity or interest in sexual activity with people of their own sex. (Based on data of Laumann et al., 1994)
  38. 38. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Influences on Sexual Orientation Attitudes towards homosexuality are culturally determined and have changed repeatedly over the course of human history. In ancient Greece and Rome it was considered normal for men to engage in occasional sexual activities with each other. In more recent times in Western Europe, homosexuality has been viewed as a criminal activity, a sin, or to the more enlightened person, a sign of mental illness. The idea that homosexuality was a sign of mental illness has persisted up until very recently.
  39. 39. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Figure 11.19 Comparisons of the results of surveys conducted in five countries, in which people were asked whether they had had homosexual experiences. (Based on data of Izazola-Licea, Gortmaker, Tolbert, De Gruttola, & Mann, 2000; Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, & Michaels, 1994; Sandfort, de Graaf, Bijl, & Schnabel, 2001; Spira et al., 1993; Wellings, Field, Johnson, & Wadsworth, 1994)
  40. 40. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Influences on Sexual Orientation This impression was perpetuated by the fact that mental health practitioners only encountered emotionally troubled gay and lesbian individuals; those without serious issues did not seek mental health treatment. Recent studies suggest that homosexual people may experience a fair amount of depression and alcohol abuse, but most are mentally healthy and well adjusted. Psychologists and psychiatrists now view homosexuality as a normal variation in sexual motivation.
  41. 41. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Influences on Sexual Orientation Some researchers are inquiring about what causes people to develop their sexual preference. Most available research has been done using samples of gay males. Twin studies suggest that genetic factors contribute to sexual orientation. Hormone levels in adults do NOT play a role in sexual preference although prenatal hormone levels may play a role.
  42. 42. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Figure 11.20 The probability of a homosexual orientation is higher among monozygotic twins of adult homosexuals than among their dizygotic twins. The probability is higher among dizygotic twins than among adopted brothers or sisters who grew up in the same family. These data suggest a possible genetic role in the development of sexual orientation. (Based on results of Bailey & Pillard, 1991; Bailey, Pillard, Neale, & Agyei, 1993)
  43. 43. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Influences on Sexual Orientation The research of Simon LeVay has provided evidence that the INAH3 section of the anterior hypothalamus is larger in straight men than in gay men or women. This may also relate to sexual orientation. The research of LeVay and others is new and requires replication. It is likely that sexual orientation is formed through a combination of biological predispositions and experiences. All conclusions in this area at this time are tentative at best.
  44. 44. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Biology, Society and Sexual Motivation Human sexual motivation and behavior reflects interplay of biology, experience and context. The development of sexual interest and preference is most likely the end result of biology and experience. Research on the psychology of sex and sexuality is very new and much remains to be learned.
  45. 45. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Module 11.4 Achievement Motivation
  46. 46. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation The Need for Achievement The need for achievement is a striving for accomplishment and excellence. People tend to describe this in themselves in terms of the extrinsic motivation involved – the attainment of rewards. There is also an intrinsic need for achievement, the accomplishment of goals for their own sake.
  47. 47. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation The Need for Achievement and Setting Goals Individuals who are experiencing a strong fear of failure, the concern with avoiding defeat rather than achieving success, may choose either very easy or almost impossible goals. In low-pressure situations, those with fear of failure tend to put forth a good effort, but if told that the task is of crucial importance, they exert less effort.
  48. 48. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation High and Low Goals Very high goals tend to promote good performance, as long as the goals seem realistic. Students and workers must have enough ability to attain the goals. They must take the goals seriously. They need to receive specific and frequent feedback. Challenging goals require intrinsic motivation, rewards are less motivating for difficult goals than they are for easy goals.
  49. 49. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Figure 11.22 Conditions for high activity toward achieving goals.
  50. 50. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Job Design Should jobs be designed to be challenging and interesting, or simple and foolproof? According to the scientific-management approach, or Theory X, most employees are lazy, indifferent and not creative. Work should be easy to perform and strictly supervised. According to the human-relations approach, or Theory Y, employees crave a sense of responsibility, variety of tasks, and a feeling of accomplishment.
  51. 51. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Job Satisfaction Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction is influenced by a variety of factors. Some factors are related to the job – interest level, pay, coworkers and management. The employee’s personality is also a factor. Job satisfaction appears to be heritable – if other people in your family are happy with their work, chances are you will be also.
  52. 52. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Job Satisfaction Job Satisfaction In general job satisfaction is strongly related to overall life satisfaction. Most adults say they are satisfied with their work, but also say that they would choose a different job if they could “start over.” Younger workers generally report being less satisfied than older workers. Few people change jobs once they have reached middle age.
  53. 53. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Job Satisfaction Job Satisfaction What about the influence of pay on job satisfaction? It appears to be very important, although probably not the most important consideration. The perception that the pay level is fair is crucial. People will work at a lower-paying job that offers a deep sense of accomplishment.
  54. 54. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Figure 11.24 Psychologists propose several reasons why most older workers report higher job satisfaction than younger workers do.
  55. 55. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Leadership How hard one works at a job is also influenced by perceptions of how your organization is led. It is hard to measure the qualities of an effective leader. In describing the characteristics of an effective leader, an interesting distinction has been made between two main types. Transformational leaders articulate a vision for the future, and challenge and motivate subordinates to be creative in improving the organization. Transactional leaders try to make the organization more efficient at what it already does, usually through the use of incentives.
  56. 56. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Leadership The types are not mutually exclusive. Some leaders have features of both types, and some have none. Transformational leaders tend to be viewed as effective across a variety of contexts. Transactional leaders are described as more effective in stable organizations where activities tend not to vary in the long run.
  57. 57. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Achievement Motivation Unlike hunger, the motivation for achievement is complicated by the fact that there rarely is a point of satiety. People who achieve major goals tend to set new ones and begin striving for them. We would probably be distressed if we had no further goals.
  58. 58. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Achievement Motivation “(People) like the process of attaining, but do not quite like to have attained.” -- Fyodor Dostoevsky
  59. 59. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Module 11.2 Hunger Motivation Food selection depends on a combination of physiological, social, and cognitive factors.
  60. 60. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Motives in Food Selection Food selection based on taste Some taste preferences are present at birth. E.g., infants like sweet, and reject bitter and sour Humans and mammals prefer the taste of fat. Temporary taste cravings are reported by most people on occasion, and most are difficult to explain.
  61. 61. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Motives in Food Selection Preference for familiar foods The human taste sense is uniform among all people, but people from different parts of the world exhibit different taste preferences. People’s food preferences are heavily influenced by familiarity. Cuisine is one of the most stable and defining features of any culture. People are cautious about eating things that are unfamiliar. What’s the strangest thing you’ve ever eaten?
  62. 62. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Motives in Food Selection Learned association with food Animals and people associate foods with the gastrointestinal consequences of consumption. Feeling full and satiated > want more next time Feeling nausea > a strong aversion to the food may be formed Humans also develop preferences by associating one food with another food that they already enjoy. Often foods are rejected because of its origins (i.e., a cat is a standard type of pet in this country and that makes the idea of eating cat distasteful to most Americans).
  63. 63. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation The Physiological Mechanisms of Hunger Hunger is a homeostatic drive (remember “homeostasis”?) that makes fuel available to the body. Glucose is the most abundant sugar in the blood, and is an important source of energy, especially for the brain. One way to think of hunger is as a homeostatic mechanism that motivates you to provide your body with the optimal amount of glucose A drop in glucose entering the body’s cells is a major factor in initiating hunger Excess glucose is converted into fat and stored for later use.
  64. 64. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation The Physiological Mechanisms of Hunger Two hormones secreted by the pancreas work in complimentary fashion to regulate hunger and nutrition: Insulin increases the flow of glucose and other nutrients into body cells. Insulin production usually surges at the beginning of a meal and falls off after the meal is over. Glucagon converts stored nutrients into blood glucose. Glucagon is released between meals when energy is needed.
  65. 65. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Figure 11.5 A feedback system between eating and insulin levels maintains homeostatic control of nutrition
  66. 66. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation The Physiological Mechanisms of Hunger If insulin is consistently in short supply, as in those individual afflicted with diabetes, the body will absorb little nutrition. If insulin is consistently present in excessive amounts (e.g., hypoglycemia), most of the nutrients that are consumed are stored as fat. In both of these instances, appetite is increased, though low insulin levels usually lead to weight loss (eat and excrete), and high insulin levels lead to weight gain (eat and stored as fat).
  67. 67. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation The Long-Term Regulation of Hunger In the short run, food intake does not always match the individual’s nutritional needs Weight tends to fluctuate in the short-term, but is very stable in the long-term. Most individuals’ weights are very close to a set point, a level that the brain and body work to maintain. Part of the mechanism for regulating weight in the long term is the hormone leptin, which is secreted by the fat cells themselves.
  68. 68. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Figure 11.6 For most people, weight fluctuates around a set point, the way a diving board bounces up and down from a central position.
  69. 69. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation The Long-Term Regulation of Hunger Leptin works in the hypothalamus to alert the brain that no more fat cells are needed. Extra leptin causes meals to satisfy hunger faster. Some cases of obesity are linked to a lack of leptin. Many other obese individuals have the hormone but are relatively insensitive to its effects.
  70. 70. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation The hypothalamus is the location of several areas critical to regulation of food intake E.g., lateral hypothalamus appears to be critical for starting eating. Damage to this area will cause starvation through lack of interest in food. Brain Mechanisms of Hunger and Satiety
  71. 71. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Eating Too Much or Too Little Obesity is the excessive accumulation of body fat Obesity is a serious health risk because it increases the individual’s risk of: Diabetes Coronary diseases Some types of cancer Sleep apnea
  72. 72. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Eating Too Much or Too Little Obesity is usually due to the individual’s taking in more calories than he or she is using. There is no reliable connection between emotional disturbances and obesity. It neither causes obesity nor necessarily results from it, despite the acceptability of “fat prejudice” in our culture. Emotional disturbance can cause temporary fluctuations in food intake and weight.
  73. 73. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Eating Too Much or Too Little Obesity tends to run in families. Genes play a role but they are not the only cause. The dramatic increase in obesity in the United States over the past 50 years has been linked to lifestyle factors. We have sophisticated technology to do most of the heavy work that was done as part of day-to-day life a century ago. We also have a diet rich in fat, salt and sugar (due to the success of “fast-food”) and a food industry that uses advertising and persuasion to encourage the over-consumption of food. Many overweight individuals are eating more than is needed, but there are some who are eating normal-sized meals and are hampered by low energy output, or low metabolism.
  74. 74. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Losing Weight Although losing weight can seem to be extraordinarily difficult, there are a number of strategies available to the motivated individual. A certain amount of exercise must be a part of any long- term weight loss strategy. Surgery should only be utilized for those with life- threatening levels of obesity. Twelve-step programs such as OA can be useful for those who are comfortable with the spiritual focus of such groups. Private counseling can be utilized for those overweight individuals who are also struggling with psychological problems.
  75. 75. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Losing Weight What about medications? The use of medications for weight loss remains controversial. The variety of drugs available has increased. Medications act by weakening hunger signals to the brain, blocking absorption of fat in the intestines, or increasing metabolism.
  76. 76. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation The Effect of Intentional Weight Loss on Appetite In present-day American society it is common for everyone, and particularly women, to be unhappy with their physiques. Americans tend to worry more about what they eat. Americans express more interest in obtaining low-fat, low-salt, “health foods.” A slender ideal figure is presented in the media and there is a great deal of social pressure to be very thin. Even normal weight people are frequently dieting.
  77. 77. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Figure 11.10 In a study by Fallon and Rozin (1985), women and men were asked which figure they considered most attractive and which figure they believed the opposite sex considered most attractive. Each sex misestimated the other’s preferences.
  78. 78. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation The Effect of Intentional Weight Loss on Appetite Dieting can be extremely difficult. Dieting requires a great deal of mental energy. Vohs & Heatherton (2000) Does the stress of dieting can make the dieter more vulnerable to temptation? Task 1: Watch video and answer questions Task 2: Sample and rate ice cream. “Help yourself to any ice cream you want; we have tons in the freezer.”
  79. 79. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation
  80. 80. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation
  81. 81. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Who ate the most ice cream?
  82. 82. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Results: The dieters who were seated close to snacks and been told “help yourself” ate the most ice crem Interpretation: People have limited resources for self-regulation After you resist for a while your ability weakens, leaving you more vulnerable to the next temptation Implication: Avoid putting yourself into one tempting situation after another (especially within a short time) Applies to any habit (smoking, drinking, etc. etc.)
  83. 83. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Anorexia Nervosa Dieting can contribute to the development of eating disorders. Anorexia nervosa is a condition in which a person refuses to eat an adequate amount of food and steadily loses weight. Anorexia usually begins at puberty. It is uncommon in cultures where a plump female body is considered acceptable or desirable. It tends to occur more in middle-class or upper-middle- class women, regardless of ethnicity. It seems to be related to social pressure and media influence.
  84. 84. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Anorexia Nervosa There is an intense “fear of fatness” involved in anorexia, so it is more likely that a tendency to perfectionism, coupled with the constant social pressures around body image, contribute to the development of this disorder.
  85. 85. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Bulimia Alternation between self-starvation and bingeing is called bulimia It is highly likely that dieting causes the feeling of starvation that brings on the bingeing behavior. People with bulimia tend to have low self-esteem, great dissatisfaction with their bodies, and histories of family dysfunction. Many bulimics fluctuate around normal to high body weight; a few are very thin.
  86. 86. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Eating Disorders Eating disorders have increased in prevalence in the United States over the past two decades. At the same time, the number of women who are unhappy with their bodies is also increasing. The lifestyle changes that make it easy to become overweight, coupled with the high pressure on women to look very thin, have probably both contributed to this disturbing trend.
  87. 87. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation The Complexities of Hunger Eating, hunger and dieting are topics that underscore the message of this chapter. Our motivations are diverse and interact with each other. How much and what we eat depends not only on our need for sustenance, but on social and psychological forces as well.
  88. 88. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Module 11.4 Achievement Motivation
  89. 89. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation The Need for Achievement The need for achievement is a striving for accomplishment and excellence. People tend to describe this in themselves in terms of the extrinsic motivation involved – the attainment of rewards. There is also an intrinsic need for achievement, the accomplishment of goals for their own sake.
  90. 90. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation The Need for Achievement and Setting Goals Individuals who are experiencing a strong fear of failure, the concern with avoiding defeat rather than achieving success, may choose either very easy or almost impossible goals. In low-pressure situations, those with fear of failure tend to put forth a good effort, but if told that the task is of crucial importance, they exert less effort.
  91. 91. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation High and Low Goals Very high goals tend to promote good performance, as long as the goals seem realistic. Students and workers must have enough ability to attain the goals. They must take the goals seriously. They need to receive specific and frequent feedback. Challenging goals require intrinsic motivation, rewards are less motivating for difficult goals than they are for easy goals.
  92. 92. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Figure 11.22 Conditions for high activity toward achieving goals.
  93. 93. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Job Design Should jobs be designed to be challenging and interesting, or simple and foolproof? According to the scientific-management approach, or Theory X, most employees are lazy, indifferent and not creative. Work should be easy to perform and strictly supervised. According to the human-relations approach, or Theory Y, employees crave a sense of responsibility, variety of tasks, and a feeling of accomplishment.
  94. 94. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Job Satisfaction Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction is influenced by a variety of factors. Some factors are related to the job – interest level, pay, coworkers and management. The employee’s personality is also a factor. Job satisfaction appears to be heritable – if other people in your family are happy with their work, chances are you will be also.
  95. 95. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Job Satisfaction and Job “Fit” What did you want to be when you were in Kindergarten? What is the overlap between your skills and interests? Skills Interests strengths
  96. 96. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Job Satisfaction Job Satisfaction In general job satisfaction is strongly related to overall life satisfaction. Most adults say they are satisfied with their work, but also say that they would choose a different job if they could “start over.” Younger workers generally report being less satisfied than older workers. Few people change jobs once they have reached middle age.
  97. 97. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Job Satisfaction Job Satisfaction What about the influence of pay on job satisfaction? It appears to be very important, although probably not the most important consideration. The perception that the pay level is fair is crucial. People will work at a lower-paying job that offers a deep sense of accomplishment.
  98. 98. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Figure 11.24 Psychologists propose several reasons why most older workers report higher job satisfaction than younger workers do.
  99. 99. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Leadership How hard one works at a job is also influenced by perceptions of how your organization is led. It is hard to measure the qualities of an effective leader. In describing the characteristics of an effective leader, an interesting distinction has been made between two main types. Transformational leaders articulate a vision for the future, and challenge and motivate subordinates to be creative in improving the organization. Transactional leaders try to make the organization more efficient at what it already does, usually through the use of incentives.
  100. 100. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Leadership The types are not mutually exclusive. Some leaders have features of both types, and some have none. Transformational leaders tend to be viewed as effective across a variety of contexts. Transactional leaders are described as more effective in stable organizations where activities tend not to vary in the long run.
  101. 101. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Achievement Motivation Unlike hunger, the motivation for achievement is complicated by the fact that there rarely is a point of satiety. People who achieve major goals tend to set new ones and begin striving for them. We would probably be distressed if we had no further goals.
  102. 102. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 11: Motivation Achievement Motivation “(People) like the process of attaining, but do not quite like to have attained.” -- Fyodor Dostoevsky

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