Outline What is a group? Primary and Secondary Groups Anomie In-groups and Out-groups Group Cohesion Social Influence Qualities of Leadership
What defines a group? Group-collection of people who share some attribute, identify with one another, and interact with each other Not groups: Crowd-temporary gathering of people in a public place; might interact, but don’t identify w/ each other- won’t remain in contact Aggregate-collection of people who share a physical location but do not have lasting social relations
Primary and Secondary Groups Primary groups-people Secondary groups-larger who are most important to and less intimate than our sense of self; relations primary groups; characterized by: *relationships usually Face-to-face interaction organized around a High levels of specific goal cooperation often temporary Intense feelings of Ex.: your job belonging Ex. Family
Social Networks Social network-the web of direct and indirect ties connecting an individual to other people who may also affect her Social ties-connections between individuals Direct or indirect Social networks Sociologists study construction and influence of social networksSocial ties directly and indirectly Ex.: We may change our mindsconnect people whom we vote for if enough of our friends vote for other candidate
Separate from Groups: Anomie Anomie- normlessness; alienation and loss of purpose that result from weaker social bonds and an increased pace of change Durkheim believed group membership keeps us from feeling anomie More common with modernization?
In-Groups and Out-Groups In-group-a group that one identities with and feels loyalty toward Out-group-any group an individual feels opposition, rivalry, or hostility toward Both can come from our ethnic, familial, professional, educational backgrounds We may feel a sense of superiority towards those excluded from our in-group At their worst in-group/out-group dynamics create the backdrop for social tragedies like slavery and genocide
Group Dynamics How do groups form, change, achieve goals, disintegrate, etc…? Group Dynamics-patterns of interaction between groups and individuals Dyad-two-person social group Intense, unstable Triad-three-person social group More stable because conflicts can be refereed *The smaller a group is, the more likely it is to be based on personal ties; large groups are more likely to be based on rules and regulations
Reference Groups Reference group-group that provides a standard of comparison against which we evaluate ourselves can be crucial to our sense of self Ex.: Family, celebrities, pro athletes etc… Live up to its standards Sometimes you may aspire to belong, but are not yet a part
Group Cohesion Group cohesion-the sense of solidarity or loyalty that individuals feel toward a group to which they belong Force that binds members together Relies on shared values or demographic traits (race, age, gender…) Excessive group cohesion can bring about negative consequences Groupthink-in very cohesive groups, the tendency to enforce a high degree of conformity among members May punish those who threaten to undermine consensus
ChallengerexplosionGroupthink may have playeda role in the Challengershuttle explosion. Scientistsmay have not takenweaknesses in the shuttle’sdesign seriously.
Social Influence Social influence (peer pressure)-the influence of one’s fellow group members Part of being in groups Can affect all ranges of behavior We conform because we want to gain acceptance Prescriptions-behaviors approved of by social group Proscriptions-behaviors a particular social group wants members to avoid
Social Influence Social influence results in one of three kinds of conformity Compliance-mildest type of conformity, undertaken to gain rewards or avoid punishments Identification-type of conformity stronger than compliance and weaker than internalization, caused by a desire to establish or maintain a relationship with a person or group Internalization-strongest type of conformity; occurs when an individual adopts the beliefs or actions of a group and makes them her own
The AschExperiment Study on compliance conducted by Solomon Asch in 1951 Groups of 7-8 “students” each to participate in “visual perception” Only one student in group was real research subject Results: 33%: yielders-gave wrong answer though they knew it was wrong Another 40% yielded less frequently Only 25% were independents refusing to give in to majority
Qualities of Leadership Power-ability to control the actions of others; getting people to do things they may or may not want to do Quality of all leaders Coercive-backed by the threat of force Influential-supported by persuasion Authority-legitimate right to wield power Max Weber identified three types of authority found in social orgs.
Types of Authority Traditional authority- based on custom, birthright, or divine right Legal-rational authority- based on laws, rules, and procedures (not on heredity or personality) Charismatic authority- based in the perception of remarkable personal qualities in a leader 3 types not necessarily mutually exclusive
Bureaucracies McDonaldization of Society Bureaucracies-secondary McDonaldization-Ritzer’s group designed to perform term spread of bureaucratic tasks efficiently rationalization and the Specialization accompanying increases in Technical competence efficiency and dehumanization Make us aware of “iron cage” of Hierarchy bureaucracy Rules and regulations Rationalization- Impersonality implementation of formal Formal written rules in order to be more communications efficient w/out consideration of subjective concerns