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Soc. 101 rw ch. 6

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Soc. 101 rw ch. 6

  1. 1. Chapter 6
  2. 2. Outline What is a group? Primary and Secondary Groups Anomie In-groups and Out-groups Group Cohesion Social Influence Qualities of Leadership
  3. 3. What defines a group? Group-collection of people who share some attribute, identify with one another, and interact with each other Not groups: Crowd-temporary gathering of people in a public place; might interact, but don’t identify w/ each other- won’t remain in contact  Aggregate-collection of people who share a physical location but do not have lasting social relations
  4. 4. Primary and Secondary Groups Primary groups-people  Secondary groups-larger who are most important to and less intimate than our sense of self; relations primary groups; characterized by:  *relationships usually  Face-to-face interaction organized around a  High levels of specific goal cooperation  often temporary  Intense feelings of  Ex.: your job belonging  Ex. Family
  5. 5. Social Networks  Social network-the web of direct and indirect ties connecting an individual to other people who may also affect her  Social ties-connections between individuals  Direct or indirect  Social networks  Sociologists study construction and influence of social networksSocial ties directly and indirectly  Ex.: We may change our mindsconnect people whom we vote for if enough of our friends vote for other candidate
  6. 6. Separate from Groups: Anomie Anomie- normlessness; alienation and loss of purpose that result from weaker social bonds and an increased pace of change  Durkheim believed group membership keeps us from feeling anomie  More common with modernization?
  7. 7. In-Groups and Out-Groups In-group-a group that one identities with and feels loyalty toward Out-group-any group an individual feels opposition, rivalry, or hostility toward Both can come from our ethnic, familial, professional, educational backgrounds We may feel a sense of superiority towards those excluded from our in-group At their worst in-group/out-group dynamics create the backdrop for social tragedies like slavery and genocide
  8. 8. Group Dynamics How do groups form, change, achieve goals, disintegrate, etc…? Group Dynamics-patterns of interaction between groups and individuals Dyad-two-person social group  Intense, unstable Triad-three-person social group  More stable because conflicts can be refereed *The smaller a group is, the more likely it is to be based on personal ties; large groups are more likely to be based on rules and regulations
  9. 9. Reference Groups Reference group-group that provides a standard of comparison against which we evaluate ourselves  can be crucial to our sense of self  Ex.: Family, celebrities, pro athletes etc…  Live up to its standards  Sometimes you may aspire to belong, but are not yet a part
  10. 10. Group Cohesion Group cohesion-the sense of solidarity or loyalty that individuals feel toward a group to which they belong  Force that binds members together Relies on shared values or demographic traits (race, age, gender…) Excessive group cohesion can bring about negative consequences Groupthink-in very cohesive groups, the tendency to enforce a high degree of conformity among members  May punish those who threaten to undermine consensus
  11. 11. ChallengerexplosionGroupthink may have playeda role in the Challengershuttle explosion. Scientistsmay have not takenweaknesses in the shuttle’sdesign seriously.
  12. 12. Social Influence Social influence (peer pressure)-the influence of one’s fellow group members  Part of being in groups  Can affect all ranges of behavior  We conform because we want to gain acceptance  Prescriptions-behaviors approved of by social group  Proscriptions-behaviors a particular social group wants members to avoid
  13. 13. Social Influence Social influence results in one of three kinds of conformity Compliance-mildest type of conformity, undertaken to gain rewards or avoid punishments Identification-type of conformity stronger than compliance and weaker than internalization, caused by a desire to establish or maintain a relationship with a person or group Internalization-strongest type of conformity; occurs when an individual adopts the beliefs or actions of a group and makes them her own
  14. 14. The AschExperiment  Study on compliance conducted by Solomon Asch in 1951  Groups of 7-8 “students” each to participate in “visual perception”  Only one student in group was real research subject  Results:  33%: yielders-gave wrong answer though they knew it was wrong  Another 40% yielded less frequently  Only 25% were independents refusing to give in to majority
  15. 15. Qualities of Leadership Power-ability to control the actions of others; getting people to do things they may or may not want to do  Quality of all leaders  Coercive-backed by the threat of force  Influential-supported by persuasion Authority-legitimate right to wield power  Max Weber identified three types of authority found in social orgs.
  16. 16. Types of Authority Traditional authority- based on custom, birthright, or divine right Legal-rational authority- based on laws, rules, and procedures (not on heredity or personality) Charismatic authority- based in the perception of remarkable personal qualities in a leader 3 types not necessarily mutually exclusive
  17. 17. Bureaucracies  McDonaldization of Society Bureaucracies-secondary  McDonaldization-Ritzer’s group designed to perform term spread of bureaucratic tasks efficiently rationalization and the Specialization accompanying increases in Technical competence efficiency and dehumanization  Make us aware of “iron cage” of Hierarchy bureaucracy Rules and regulations  Rationalization- Impersonality implementation of formal Formal written rules in order to be more communications efficient w/out consideration of subjective concerns


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