Social science 2 Social Groups


Published on

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Social science 2 Social Groups

  1. 1. Republic of the Philippines AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY School of Management Sciences Banga, Aklan SOCIAL GROUPS AND SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONSSocial Science 2 – Society and Culture with Family Planning MARICHU T. CALIZO, Instructor JUSTINE ROWEL N. OROZCO ROSMARY D. ROLDAN Associate in Office Information Management 2-1 Free Powerpoint Templates First Semester A. Y. 2012-2013 Page 1
  2. 2. What is SocialGroups mean? Free Powerpoint Templates Page 2
  3. 3. • Social Groups is defined as two or more people who have a high degree of common identity and who interact on a regular basis. (Macionis, John J. : Sociology Second Edition Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs New Jersy 07632)• Social group is two or more humans who interact with one another, share similar characteristics and collectively have a sense of unity although the best way to define social group is a matter of conjecture. (• A social group is a collection of people who interact with each other and share similar characteristics and a sense of unity.( study_guide/Social- Groups.topicArticleId-26957,articleId-26868.html) Free Powerpoint Templates Page 3
  4. 4. SOCIAL GROUPSAs a social being, a person isborn into the company of others,never in isolation. He has todepend on others, and vice-versa. An individual who livesand interacts in an environment,ex. the family, the school, thechurch, the office, the factory, ora basketball court, shares andacquires his personal habits andattitudes, values, and ambitious. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 4
  5. 5. The Family The School The Church Free Powerpoint Templates The Office The Factory Page 5
  6. 6. What are theTypes ofSocial Groups? Free Powerpoint Templates Page 6
  7. 7. TYPES OF SOCIAL GROUPSSociologists recognize severaltypes of groups. These are:1. Categorical Group2. Aggregate Group3. Collective Groups4. Associational Group Free Powerpoint Templates Page 7
  8. 8. CATEGORICAL GROUPMembers of this group shareparticular characteristics and acommon identity. The categoricalgrouping is important to people forthey tend to share certaincharacteristics and interest andbe aware of their similarity toother members of their own socialcategory. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 8
  9. 9. AGGREGATE GROUPAn aggregate is anycollection of people who aretogether in one placewithout interacting with oneanother. Participants in anaggregate are generally notconcerned with the feelingsand attitudes of others. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 9
  10. 10. COLLECTIVE GROUPSThese are temporary groupswhich are not generallygoverned by establishednorms of the culture and arecomposed of people whoshare some kind of beliefwhich motivates them toprepare for action. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 10
  11. 11. ASSOCIATIONAL GROUPThis group is composed ofpeople who join together inan organized manner topursue a common interest.Generally, this group has aformal group. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 11
  12. 12. From the group that have beenidentified, these groups may be classified onthe basis of social boundaries betweenmembers and non-members and adherenceto a special set of norms. There would besome kind of agreement that membership ina social group involves:1. Some type of interaction.2. A sense of belonging or membership3. Shared interest or agreement on values, norms.4. A structure (Eshleman J. Ross et al., 1988). Free Powerpoint Templates Page 12
  13. 13. THE PRIMARY AND THE SECONDARY GROUPSPerhaps the most fundamental difference inthe classification of social groups is thatmade between primary and secondarygroups. The term primary group was coinedby Charles W. Cooley and is used to refer tosmall, informal groups of people whointeract in a personal, direct and intimatemanner. Primary groups include the familyand play groups which Cooley believedwere the most important in shaping thehuman personality. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 13
  14. 14. PRIMARY GROUPPrimary group are characterized byintimate face-to-face associationand interaction and, there,members develop a sense of “we-ness.” “We,” the natural and mutualexpression among the members,involves reciprocal identificationand shared feelings. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 14
  15. 15. SECONDARY GROUPA secondary group is agroup whose membersinteract in a business-likemanner; relationship isimpersonal; and emotionalties are loose. Generally,members come together forspecific objectives. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 15
  16. 16. Comparison of Primary and Secondary Groups Primary Group Secondary Group• Generally small • Usually large• Relatively long period • Relatively short duration of interaction often temporary• Intimate, face-to-face • Little social intimacy or association mutual understanding• Some emotional depth • Relationships generally in relationships superficial• Cooperative, friendly • More formal and impersonalSource: Free Powerpoint TemplatesSchaefer Richard T.,: Sociology Ninth Edition McGraw-Hill International Edition 16 Page
  17. 17. Primary and secondary groups areimperatives both to individuals and tosociety. Erich Fromm (1965) and LewisMumford (1962) contend that the strengthand vitality of primary groups are the basisof the health of a society. In spite of thefact that primary groups are important tothe health of both individuals and thesociety, secondary groups are likewiseimportant for they tend to meet specificgoals. Both help society to functioneffectively and allow people who do notknow one another intimately to performtheir job effectively. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 17
  18. 18. GEMEINSCHAFT AND GESSELSCHAFTGenerally, Filipinos are sentimental andsympathetic. These qualities greatly affecttheir social relationship. That is why theFilipino family is a closely knit one. Becauseof modernization, the family ties, to a greatextent, are slowly loosening. For aFilipino, loyalty is almost synonymous tointerdependence. To remain an acceptedmember of the group, one may have tocompromise his principles, even if the grouphamperscreativity, resourcefulness, interdependence,and ingenuity necessaryPowerpoint Templates Free for development. Page 18
  19. 19. Different groups exert tremendouspressures on the activities of theirmembers. This usually happens amongyoung and idealistic students in theuniversities who form themselves intofraternities which oftentimes end up ingang wars and rumbles.Primary and Secondary groups aresomewhat similar to the concept ofGemeinschaft and Gesselschaftdeveloped by Ferdinand Tonnie, a Germansociologist. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 19
  20. 20. GEMEINSCHAFTGemeinschaft is a social community in whichmost relationships are suggestive of mutualcooperation and helpfulness, and are eitherpersonal or traditional, or both.The activities and interests center around thefamilies and immediate neighbors. The highdegree of comformity with the norms, values,customs, traditions, language and moral ideasbecomes the unifying thread of the group. Theconcept of Gemeinschaft is commonlyunderstood in the Filipino Language as“BAYANIHAN.” Free Powerpoint Templates Page 20
  21. 21. GESSELSCHAFTGesselschaft is a social community in whichmost relationships are characterized byimpersonal and rationalized relationships. Itveers away from personal to impersonal, frominformal to formal, and from dependence toindependence.It is based on realism rather than onsentimentalism and gives impetus tospecialization. The trend towards aGesselschaft is apparently manifested inchanging and dynamic society exemplified bythe rapid growth and development of urban-industrial communities. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 21
  22. 22. IN-GROUP AND OUT-GROUPThe sense of belongingnessmatters much to anindividual and this is one ofthe key characteristics of agroup Free Powerpoint Templates Page 22
  23. 23. IN-GROUPIn-group is a social categorywhere people feel they belongand share a commonorientation, come from commonroots and background andadhere to a common ideology. Itis characterized by individualswhose loyalty to one anotherbrings out the feeling oftogetherness. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 23
  24. 24. OUT-GROUPOut-group, the opposite of the in-group, is a group inwhich people feel they are strangers. It is made up ofindividuals who do not share awareness of kind or ofthe same class.The out-group attitude leads to dislike for, avoidanceof, antagonism or even hatred toward people becauseof one’s predisposition to perceive his own in-groupas superior to others.Sociologically, it is important to know the differencebetween in-groups and out-groups. There is atendency of the in-group to think that people in theout-group are stereotyped a standardized conceptionor image vested with special meaning and held incommon be members of a group. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 24
  25. 25. REFERENCE GROUPSA reference group is a group with whichpeople identify psychologically and towhich they refer in evaluatingthemeselves and their behavior. Thereference group becomes the individual’sframe of reference in relation to hismotivations, experiences, attitudes andsocial affinity.Psychologically, we tend to identify withpersons and groups who are important tous, and we look these reference groupsfor direction on how Free think and behave. to Powerpoint Templates Page 25
  26. 26. INFORMAL AND FORMAL GROUPSSociologists view the study of socialorganization as the key tounderstand society, groups, andpersonal behavior that will explainand give useful information. Groupsare classified according to theirform, nature and objectives andhow members relate to one another.These are the informal groups andformal groups. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 26
  27. 27. INFORMAL GROUPSInformal Group comes into being out of theinteractions of two or more persons on anissue affecting welfare. At the outset, itarises from the spur of the moment andeventually draws persons to be involvedbecause they manifest the same emotionsand sentiments.The members share a feeling of confidencea sense of belongingness. Basically, themembers voluntarily join themeselvestogether to insure cooperation of a commonaction and to promote and safeguard theirinterests and welfare.Free Powerpoint Templates Page 27
  28. 28. FORMAL GROUPSA formal organization is a form of socialorganization and is deliberately planned,constructed and organized to achieve a certainspecific goal and objectives. It is a special-purpose group designed and structured in theinterests of maximum efficiency ( Schaeffer,Richard T. And Robert P. Lamm, 1992).In society, formal organizations fulfill anenormous variety of personal and societalneeds that shape the lives of every individual.Every formal organization, whether civil,military, political, economic or ecclesiastical,has a philosophy defining its vision and mission. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 28
  29. 29. References: Macionis, John J.,: Sociology Second Edition Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersy 07632 Schaefer Richard T.,: Sociology Ninth Edition McGraw-Hill International Edition study_guide/Social-Groups.topicArticleId-26957,articleId-26868.html Zulueta, Francisco M.,: General Sociology Revised Edition Academic Publishing Corporation Free Powerpoint Templates Page 29
  30. 30. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 30
  31. 31. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 31