Chapter 5:
Groups and Networks
 Dyad , Triad and Network Complexity
Social Groups
 Social groups form the building blocks
for society and for most social
interaction.
 The sociologist Geor...
George Simmel argued that without knowing aboutGeorge Simmel argued that without knowing about
individuals as personalitie...
Social Groups
 Simmel emphasized, in particular, the differences
between social relations in a dyaddyad (group of two) an...
Properties of Dyads
• Most intimate
• Continued existence depends of the willingness to
participate
• Membership is volunt...
Properties of triads
 The group itself hold the power – it will go on even
without you.
 Secrets can exist
 Politics ex...
The Politics of Social Groups
 When a third person joins a dyad, that person can
fill the role of:
 mediatormediator – t...
Social Groups
What problems might you expect?
 As group size increases, the number of
possible relationships increase — i...
Groups
 Small groups:
 Face-to-face interactions
 Unifocal – there is one center of attention at a time
 Lack of forma...
Group types
 Primary GroupsPrimary Groups – socialization groups with limited
member and face to face interactions.
 Sec...
Social Groups and
Conformity
 The Asch Test is an experiment developed in the 1940s that shows
how much people are influe...
From Groups to Networks
 A social networkA social network is a set of relations — a set of dyads — held
together by ties ...
What networks are you a
part of on campus?
Explain your ties?
From Groups to Networks
 Embeddedness refers to the degree to
which ties are reinforced through indirect
paths within a s...
The more embedded a tie is, the stronger it is.
In other words, the more indirect paths you
make to another person, the st...
Mark Granovetter developed the concept of the
strength of weak tiesstrength of weak ties to explain that relatively
weak t...
Organizations
 An organization is any social network that is defined by a common
purpose and has a boundary between its m...
Organizations
 Organizational culture refers to the shared beliefs and behaviors
within a social group.
 Organizational ...
Organizations
 Institutional isomorphismInstitutional isomorphism refers to a constraining process that forces
one organi...
Organizational Structure and Culture
“A Power Elite”
http://theyrule.net/
Interlocking Directorates
http://www.youtube.com...
Interview, Duncan Watts
21
Duncan Watts describes his research
on the small world phenomenon.
From Groups to
Networkshttps...
Six Degrees of Separation
http://www.npr.org/player/v2/mediaPlayer.html?
action=1&t=1&islist=false&id=18417083&m=18417060
Small World Exercise
Write down five friends or acquaintances who are
also students at the college.
Share lists with two p...
From Groups to Networks
 A structural hole is a gap between network clusters (or even
between two people) that would bene...
Facebook: The Entire Web Will Be Social
By Liz Gannes Apr. 21, 2010 
 Social plugins are little
widgets that bring Facebo...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ppLFce5uZ3I
Social Capital
Strength of Weak Ties
Social capital is a sociological concept which refers to the value of
social relation...
Structural Holes on the Net
diminishing the power of the middle man
A Personal Account
Social Media and Employment
Digital Communications Can Get You A Job!
Research is showing that the majority of recruiters ...
~The Conversation ~  
blogging, commenting or contributing - the currency of social networking.
And can cost you a job!
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ddZWkhItPuI&feature=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qyFaWoiL6Cc
Organizations
 An organization is any social network that is defined by a common
purpose and has a boundary between its m...
Organizations
 Organizational culture refers to the shared beliefs and behaviors
within a social group.
 Organizational ...
Organizations
 Institutional isomorphismInstitutional isomorphism refers to a constraining process that forces
one organi...
Organizational Structure and Culture
“A Power Elite”
http://theyrule.net/
Interlocking Directorates
http://www.youtube.com...
In the past….
With Web2.0…
The Pitfalls of the Digital World
Communication gone wrong.*
*Although the following is a comedic exaggeration, employers ...
Great Opportunities to Further Your CareerGreat Opportunities to Further Your Career
Through Social ConnectednessThrough S...
PRIVACY CONCERNSPRIVACY CONCERNS
From embarrassing photos to drunken texts,
Facebook users are notorious for sharing too muchFacebook users are notorious f...
“The reality is that nothing on Facebook is really confidential.
Facebook is founded on a radical social premise -- that a...
The Machine is US/ing UsThe Machine is US/ing Us
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6gmP4nk0EOE
dana boyd - Researcher at Microsoft Research New
England and a Fellow at the Harvard Berkman Center
for Internet and Socie...
Where and how you give up yourWhere and how you give up your
privacyprivacy
(anyone can badmouth you with the world and yo...
Chapter 5  groups & networks r3
Chapter 5  groups & networks r3
Chapter 5  groups & networks r3
Chapter 5  groups & networks r3
Chapter 5  groups & networks r3
Chapter 5  groups & networks r3
Chapter 5  groups & networks r3
Chapter 5  groups & networks r3
Chapter 5  groups & networks r3
Chapter 5  groups & networks r3
Chapter 5  groups & networks r3
Chapter 5  groups & networks r3
Chapter 5  groups & networks r3
Chapter 5  groups & networks r3
Chapter 5  groups & networks r3
Chapter 5  groups & networks r3
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  • Image: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lego-duplo.jpg
  • As groups grow, they become more stable at the cost of intimacy.
  • The more relationships there are in a group, the more likely it is that the group may be troubled by conflict or jealousy.
  • With his famous line study, Asch showed that if a majority of people agree on something, the minority will often go along, even if they don’t agree.
  • New technologies that offer social networking (like MySpace or Facebook) have made traditional social networks even more complex. One advantage of these technologies is that it is relatively easy to see some social networks. One disadvantage is that it is difficult to see the importance of the ties.
  • The more embedded a tie is, the stronger it is. In other words, the more indirect paths you make to another person, the stronger the relationship will be. Mark Granovetter developed the concept of the strength of weak ties to explain that relatively weak ties can actually be quite valuable because they are more likely to provide new opportunities than a strongly embedded tie.
  • Formal organizations have a set of governing structures and rules for their internal set-up while informal organizations do not.
  • Paul DiMaggio and Walter Powell are part of a school of thought called new institutionalism , which tries to develop a sociological view of institutions. They coined the phrase, institutional isomorphism . For example, if you wanted to create a new college, you might decide that in your institution, you don ’t want to give students grades. Instead, you want them to learn for the shear joy of obtaining knowledge. Unfortunately, though, if your students want to transfer to another college or continue on to graduate school, they need their transcripts with their grades. Because the environment is already firmly established, you’ll have to conform if you want students to keep coming to your college.
  • Watts talks about the "small world" phenomenon. Ask the class to summarize what he means by this and how it relates to networks. Suggest that each student write down five friends or acquaintances who are also students at the college. Ask the students to share lists with two people sitting next to them. Are there any common names on the three lists? Ask your students if it really is a “small world, after all”? Discuss how technology has changed the size of their social networks.
  • An example of this could be, suppose your friend needs a job and your mom is the manager of the local supermarket. There is a structural hole between them, but because you know them both, you can bridge that gap by mediating between the two parties. Photo Courtesy of AP Photo. Credit: Lauren Greenfield/VII
  • Formal organizations have a set of governing structures and rules for their internal set-up while informal organizations do not.
  • Paul DiMaggio and Walter Powell are part of a school of thought called new institutionalism , which tries to develop a sociological view of institutions. They coined the phrase, institutional isomorphism . For example, if you wanted to create a new college, you might decide that in your institution, you don ’t want to give students grades. Instead, you want them to learn for the shear joy of obtaining knowledge. Unfortunately, though, if your students want to transfer to another college or continue on to graduate school, they need their transcripts with their grades. Because the environment is already firmly established, you’ll have to conform if you want students to keep coming to your college.
  • Chapter 5 groups & networks r3

    1. 1. Chapter 5: Groups and Networks  Dyad , Triad and Network Complexity
    2. 2. Social Groups  Social groups form the building blocks for society and for most social interaction.  The sociologist Georg Simmel argued that the key element in determining the form of social relations in a group is the size of the groupthe size of the group.. 2
    3. 3. George Simmel argued that without knowing aboutGeorge Simmel argued that without knowing about individuals as personalities,individuals as personalities, we can makewe can make predictions about the way people are going topredictions about the way people are going to behave solely on the number of people in that group.behave solely on the number of people in that group.
    4. 4. Social Groups  Simmel emphasized, in particular, the differences between social relations in a dyaddyad (group of two) and a triadtriad (group of three or more).  DyadDyad is the most intimate form of social life because the two members are mutually dependent on each other – if one member leaves the group, the group ceases to exist. 4
    5. 5. Properties of Dyads • Most intimate • Continued existence depends of the willingness to participate • Membership is voluntary • Doesn’t need to be concerned about a third party • Symmetry must be maintained • Even if power is unequal • Servant master relationship is an example
    6. 6. Properties of triads  The group itself hold the power – it will go on even without you.  Secrets can exist  Politics exists – influencing people on a group level.
    7. 7. The Politics of Social Groups  When a third person joins a dyad, that person can fill the role of:  mediatormediator – the conflict resolver.  tertius gaudenstertius gaudens — “the third that rejoices” the person who profits from disagreement from the others.  divide et imperadivide et impera (“divide and conquer”) — the individual who purposefully breaks up the other two. 7
    8. 8. Social Groups What problems might you expect?  As group size increases, the number of possible relationships increase — in a group of three, three possible relationships exist, but in a group of four, six possible relationships exist. 8
    9. 9. Groups  Small groups:  Face-to-face interactions  Unifocal – there is one center of attention at a time  Lack of formal roles  Party  Face to face but multifocal  Potential for some formality  Large Group  Formal structure and status differentiation  Besides size, Physical space, pre-existing social relationships, context
    10. 10. Group types  Primary GroupsPrimary Groups – socialization groups with limited member and face to face interactions.  Secondary GroupSecondary Group – impersonal, affiliation is conditional and instrumental as often a means to an end.  In- group versus out-groupIn- group versus out-group – relative power helps define normal versus abnormal thoughts or behaviors  Reference groupsReference groups: relative concept for comparison e.g. sports facilities for athletic teams of neighboring universities.
    11. 11. Social Groups and Conformity  The Asch Test is an experiment developed in the 1940s that shows how much people are influenced by the actions or norms of a group. 11
    12. 12. From Groups to Networks  A social networkA social network is a set of relations — a set of dyads — held together by ties between individuals.  A tieA tie is a set of stories that explains our relationship to the other members of our network, while a narrative is the sum of the stories contained in a series of ties. 12
    13. 13. What networks are you a part of on campus? Explain your ties?
    14. 14. From Groups to Networks  Embeddedness refers to the degree to which ties are reinforced through indirect paths within a social network. 14
    15. 15. The more embedded a tie is, the stronger it is. In other words, the more indirect paths you make to another person, the stronger the relationship will be.
    16. 16. Mark Granovetter developed the concept of the strength of weak tiesstrength of weak ties to explain that relatively weak ties can actually be quite valuable because they are more likely to provide new opportunities than a strongly embedded tie.
    17. 17. Organizations  An organization is any social network that is defined by a common purpose and has a boundary between its membership and the rest of the social world. 17
    18. 18. Organizations  Organizational culture refers to the shared beliefs and behaviors within a social group.  Organizational structure refers to the ways in which power and authority are distributed within an organization. 18
    19. 19. Organizations  Institutional isomorphismInstitutional isomorphism refers to a constraining process that forces one organization to resemble other organizations that face the same set of environmental conditions. 19
    20. 20. Organizational Structure and Culture “A Power Elite” http://theyrule.net/ Interlocking Directorates http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xorqPUYu_SE&feature=related Feminist Perspective
    21. 21. Interview, Duncan Watts 21 Duncan Watts describes his research on the small world phenomenon. From Groups to Networkshttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pFK1bpQwHF4
    22. 22. Six Degrees of Separation http://www.npr.org/player/v2/mediaPlayer.html? action=1&t=1&islist=false&id=18417083&m=18417060
    23. 23. Small World Exercise Write down five friends or acquaintances who are also students at the college. Share lists with two people sitting next to them. Are there any common names on the three lists? Is it a “small world, after all”? How technology has changed the size of your social networks?
    24. 24. From Groups to Networks  A structural hole is a gap between network clusters (or even between two people) that would benefit from having the gap closed. 24
    25. 25. Facebook: The Entire Web Will Be Social By Liz Gannes Apr. 21, 2010   Social plugins are little widgets that bring Facebook to the rest of the web. They offer “instant personalization”  Creates a persistent relationship with you around that content. Sites give Facebook semantic information around the thing you liked — for instance, the title, type, genre and city for a band you like on Pandora.  
    26. 26. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ppLFce5uZ3I
    27. 27. Social Capital Strength of Weak Ties Social capital is a sociological concept which refers to the value of social relations and the role of cooperation and confidence to achieve positive outcomes. The term refers to the value one can get from their social ties. Weak ties may produce the most opportunity!
    28. 28. Structural Holes on the Net diminishing the power of the middle man A Personal Account
    29. 29. Social Media and Employment Digital Communications Can Get You A Job! Research is showing that the majority of recruiters are using social media to source candidates.
    30. 30. ~The Conversation ~   blogging, commenting or contributing - the currency of social networking.
    31. 31. And can cost you a job! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ddZWkhItPuI&feature=related
    32. 32. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qyFaWoiL6Cc
    33. 33. Organizations  An organization is any social network that is defined by a common purpose and has a boundary between its membership and the rest of the social world. 41
    34. 34. Organizations  Organizational culture refers to the shared beliefs and behaviors within a social group.  Organizational structure refers to the ways in which power and authority are distributed within an organization. 42
    35. 35. Organizations  Institutional isomorphismInstitutional isomorphism refers to a constraining process that forces one organization to resemble other organizations that face the same set of environmental conditions. 43
    36. 36. Organizational Structure and Culture “A Power Elite” http://theyrule.net/ Interlocking Directorates http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xorqPUYu_SE&feature=related Feminist Perspective
    37. 37. In the past….
    38. 38. With Web2.0…
    39. 39. The Pitfalls of the Digital World Communication gone wrong.* *Although the following is a comedic exaggeration, employers and recruiters are recruiters are using technology to make hiring decisions. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d0H5sn1CkAc&feature=related
    40. 40. Great Opportunities to Further Your CareerGreat Opportunities to Further Your Career Through Social ConnectednessThrough Social Connectedness Now WEB 2.0 offers the ability toNow WEB 2.0 offers the ability to talk outside the usual channelstalk outside the usual channels 1. Personal Publishing (blogs) 2. Easy to create and edit websites (wikis) 3. Publish and share photos, video (Flickr, YouTube) 4. Lots of ways to share and collaborate
    41. 41. PRIVACY CONCERNSPRIVACY CONCERNS
    42. 42. From embarrassing photos to drunken texts, Facebook users are notorious for sharing too muchFacebook users are notorious for sharing too much information.information. Will that off-hand comment or picture affect your job chances? Source: http://www.nbcchicago.com/news/tech/Facebook-on-Location-with-McDonalds-93255279.html#ixzz0nWsYglsj
    43. 43. “The reality is that nothing on Facebook is really confidential. Facebook is founded on a radical social premise -- that an inevitable enveloping transparency will overtake modern life."
    44. 44. The Machine is US/ing UsThe Machine is US/ing Us http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6gmP4nk0EOE
    45. 45. dana boyd - Researcher at Microsoft Research New England and a Fellow at the Harvard Berkman Center for Internet and Society. BoydBoyd’s Law:’s Law: “Adding more users to a social network (site) increases the provability that it will put you in a awkward circumstance.”
    46. 46. Where and how you give up yourWhere and how you give up your privacyprivacy (anyone can badmouth you with the world and you may be helpless to stop it) 1. Messaging and online communication 2. Photo and video sharing sites 3. Giving reviews and opinions 4. Social bookmarking and tagging 5. Communities and groups 6. Virtual worlds and gaming 7. Collaboration and sharing

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