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Sociology - Groups

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Sociology - Groups

  1. 1. SOCIOLOGY AND YOU CHAPTER 6 GROUPS AND FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS 1
  2. 2. Activity 1: Draw a Social Map Directions: Draw a social map of this class period. Include yourself.  Do not include your teacher.  Include all classmates.  Draw lines connecting you to those classmates that are your friends.  Draw lines connecting those classmates that you think are friends.  Use large lettering and clear lines. 
  3. 3. SEC 1: PRIMARY & SECONDARY GROUPS Main Idea Groups are classified by how they develop and function. Primary groups meet emotional and support needs, while secondary groups are task focused. Primary group Secondary group
  4. 4. SEC 1: PRIMARY & SECONDARY GROUPS Group: at least two people who have one or more goals in common and share common ways of thinking and behaving • In regular contact with one another • Take one another’s behavior into account • Tend to draw lines around themselves, creating insiders and outsiders. These lines are known as boundaries.
  5. 5. SEC 1: PRIMARY & SECONDARY GROUPS • Social Category: people who share a social characteristic • Examples: women, fathers, students, artists • Social Aggregate: People temporarily in the same place at the same time • Examples: students in the lunch line, people at a concert, contestants in a talent competition
  6. 6. SEC 1: PRIMARY & SECONDARY GROUPS Primary Group: People who are emotionally close, know one another well, and seek one another’s company • Characterized by primary relationships (interactions that are intimate, personal, and fulfilling) • Conditions that favor development of primary groups/relationships • Small size • Face-to-face contact • Continuous contact • Proper social environment
  7. 7. SEC 1: PRIMARY & SECONDARY GROUPS Primary Group (continued) • Functions of primary group 1. Emotional support 2. Socialization 3. Encourages conformity
  8. 8. SEC 1: PRIMARY & SECONDARY GROUPS Secondary Group: People who only share a part of their lives while focusing on a goal or task Secondary relationships: impersonal interactions involving only limited parts of our personalities -Secondary groups are about accomplishing a task NOT about establishing friendship but they can include some primary relationships.
  9. 9. Activity 2: Draw another Social Map Directions: Draw a social map of your life.        Include yourself. You may but are not required to include your teachers. Include at least 19 other people. Include at least one primary group. [label it!] Include at least one secondary group. [label it!] Draw lines connecting you to those people. Use large lettering and clear lines.
  10. 10. SEC 1: PRIMARY & SECONDARY GROUPS Choose one primary and one secondary group from your Social Map. For each group: Describe the group and the boundaries of the group as you see them. Are the boundaries tight or loose? Are other allowed in? If so, how does one become a part of the group?
  11. 11. SEC 2: OTHER GROUPS & NETWORKS Main Idea Reference groups help us evaluate ourselves and form identities. In-groups and out-groups divide people into “we” and “they.” Social networks extend our contacts and let us form links to many other people.
  12. 12. SEC 2: OTHER GROUPS & NETWORKS Reference Group: group used for self-evaluation and the formation of attitudes, values, beliefs and norms ◦ Examples: families, teachers, classmates, political groups, sports teams, bands ◦ A person can consider a group to be a reference group without being a member. ◦ Reference groups are not necessarily positive (i.e. gangs).
  13. 13. SEC 2: OTHER GROUPS & NETWORKS In-group: exclusive group which demands intense loyalty  Norms compel members to exclude others. Out-group: a group targeted by an in-group for opposition, antagonism, or competition  People get divided into “we” and “they”
  14. 14. SEC 2: OTHER GROUPS & NETWORKS Group boundaries: allow the ingroup to tell who is “in” and who is not “in” • In-groups and out-groups can form in schools, athletics, neighborhoods, or even countries at war. ◦ This is often a symbol like clothes or slang or can be an action like a handshake. • New members may be taught the boundaries in an initiation ceremony • Boundaries are maintained by demanding intense loyalty from group members
  15. 15. In-Group/Out-Group Clarification In-group is NOT the same as “popular group.”  In group is the group that a person has an affinity or closeness for (example: Mrs. Downs and The Ohio State Buckeyes)  Out-group is NOT the same as “unpopular group.”  Out-group is the group that a person has a disconnect with, often a negative bias (example: Mrs. Downs and Michigan Wolverines) 
  16. 16. SEC 2: OTHER GROUPS & NETWORKS Social Networks: a web of social relationships that join a person to other people and groups • It includes groups, but is not a group in and of itself • Functions: • Provide a sense of purpose and belonging • Provide support in the form of advice or help • Useful for entering the job market FRIEND’S MOM BRO’S BABYSITTER & YOUR FRIEND’S FRIEND MOM’S FRIEND & FUTURE BOSS BABY BRO MOM YOU DAD’S FRIEND’S FRIEND & YOUR FRIEND’S DAD FRIEND DAD’S FRIEND DAD DAD’S FRIEND & FUTURE IN-LAW
  17. 17. SEC 3: (5) Types of Social Interaction Main Idea Five types of social interaction are basic to group life: 1.Cooperation 2. Conflict 3. Social exchange 4. Coercion 5. Conformity.
  18. 18. SEC 3: (5) Types of Social Interaction Cooperation • Interaction in which individuals or groups combine their efforts to reach a goal • Most likely to occur when reaching the goals requires the best use of limited resources (like in emergency situations) • The goal, may or may not, even benefit those who are cooperating
  19. 19. SEC 3: (5) Types of Social Interaction Conflict • Interaction aimed at defeating an opponent • Usually considered disruptive, but it can also be socially beneficial • It may promote cooperation and unity within opposing groups • It may draw attention to social inequalities and cause a change in values, beliefs and norms
  20. 20. SEC 3: (5) Types of Social Interaction Social Exchange • A voluntary action is performed in the expectation of getting a reward in return • The exchange relationship is based on reciprocity
  21. 21. SEC 3: (5) Types of Social Interaction Coercion • Interaction in which individuals or groups are forced to behave in a particular way • Central element of coercion is DOMINATION • Physical – imprisonment, torture • Social – ridicule, rejection, ostracize
  22. 22. SEC 3: (5) Types of Social Interaction Conformity • Behavior that matches group expectations • Most people do conform to group pressure (Asch, 1955) {Asch Experiment Video} – (see: handout) • Groupthink: self-deceptive thinking that is based on conformity to group beliefs and created by group pressure to conform • Milgrim Experiment (see: handout) • ABC Primetime – Basic Instincts –Milgrim Revisited (see: handout) • Stanford Prison Experiment (see: handout)
  23. 23. SEC 4: Formal Organizations A formal organization is a group created to achieve one or more long-term goals A bureaucracy is a formal organization based on rationality and efficiency. Characteristics include: • • • • • • Division of labor based on specialization Hierarchy of power System of rules and procedures Written records and activities Promotions are based on merit and qualifications Often seen as impersonal, but designed to protect individuals from abuses
  24. 24. SEC 4: Formal Organizations Primary relationships do form within formal organizations Informal organization: group within formal organization in which relationships are guided by norms, rituals or sentiments that are not part of the formal organization
  25. 25. SEC 4: Formal Organizations Iron Law of Oligarchy (Robert Michels, 1911) • Power increasingly becomes more concentrated in the hands of fewer individuals within the organization

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