Chapter 4 Social Structure & Social Interaction


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Chapter 4 Social Structure & Social Interaction

  1. 1. Chapter 4:
  2. 2. <ul><li>Social Interaction – the ways that people interact with one another </li></ul><ul><li>Macrosociology – Analysis of social life that focuses on broad features of society, such as social class and the relationships of groups to one another; usually used by functionalists and conflict theorists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large-Scale Features of Social Life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Microsociology – Analysis of social life that focuses on social interaction; typically used by symbolic integrationists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on Social Interaction </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Sociological Significance of Social Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Structure – the framework that surrounds us, consisting of the relationships of people and groups, which gives direction to and sets limits on behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guides Our Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Decided by Location in Social Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Class – according to Weber, a large group of people who rank close to one another in wealth, prestige, and power; according to Marx, one of two groups: capitalists who own the means of production or workers who sell their labor. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Social Class Divides People by… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupational Prestige </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Status – the position that someone occupies in society or in a social group </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>Status Set – all the statuses or positions that an individual can occupy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ascribed statuses – positions an individual either inherits at birth or receives involuntarily later in life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sex </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Race-ethnicity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><ul><li>Achieved Statuses – positions that are earned, accomplished, or involve at least some effort or activity on the individual’s part </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Status Symbols – items used to identify a status </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><ul><li>Master Status – a status that cuts across all other statuses that an individual occupies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Status inconsistency - ranking high on some dimensions of social class and low on others, also called Status Discrepancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: a 14 year old college student…..or a 40 year old married woman who is dating a 19 year old college sophomore </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Role – the behaviors, obligations, and privileges attached to a status </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The difference between a role and a status.. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occupy Status </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Play Role </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Group – people who have something in common and who believe that what they have in common is significant; also called a Social Group </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sociological Significance of Social Institutions <ul><li>Social Institutions – the organized, usual, or standard ways by which society meets its basic needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ten Social Institutions in Industrialized Societies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See page 105 </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Mass Media as an Emerging Social Institution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Media is starting to shape public opinion </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>Functionalist Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional Requisites – the major tasks that a society must fulfill if it is to survive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replacing members, Socializing new members, producing and distributing goods and services, Preserving order, providing a sense of purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conflict Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Powerful Groups Control Institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small Groups Garner Lion’s Share of Wealth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Institutions Affect Gender Relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main Purpose is to Preserve Social Order </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>What Holds Society Together? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Integration : the degree to which members of a group or a society feel united by shared values and other social bonds; also known as social cohesion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mechanical and Organic Solidarity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical Solidarity : Durkheim’s term for the unity (a shared consciousness) that people feel as a result of performing the same or similar tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic Solidarity : Durkheim’s term for the interdependence that results from the division of labor; people depending on others to fulfill their jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Division of labor : the splitting of a group’s or a society’s tasks into specialties </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>Gemeinschaft : a type of society in which life is intimate; a community in which everyone knows everyone else and people share a sense of togetherness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Amish Communities (see page 109) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gesellschaft : a type of society that is dominated by impersonal relationships, individual accomplishments, and self-interest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. United States </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>Stereotypes : assumptions of what people are like, whether true or false </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classify Others By Visible Characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideas About Characteristics Guide Our Behavior </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>Page 111 </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>Personal Space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intimate Distance, Personal Distance, Social Distance, Public Distance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Touching </li></ul><ul><li>Eye Contact </li></ul><ul><li>Applied Body Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TSA using this to fight terrorism (reading facial expressions, looking for nervousness, ect.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Body Language : The ways in which people use their bodies to give messages to others, much of which is done subconsciously </li></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>Dramaturgy : an approach pioneered by Erving Goffman, in which social life is analyzed in terms of drama or the stage; also called dramaturgical analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Impression Management : people’s efforts to control the impressions that others receive of them </li></ul><ul><li>Front stage : where performances are given </li></ul><ul><li>Back stage : where people rest from their performances, discuss their presentations, and plan future performances </li></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><li>Role Performance : The ways in which someone performs a role, showing a particular “style” or “personality” </li></ul><ul><li>Role Conflict : conflicts that someone else feels between roles because the expectations attached to one role are incompatible with the expectations of another role </li></ul><ul><li>Role Strain : Conflicts that someone feels within a role </li></ul>
  19. 22. <ul><li>Sign Vehicles : the term used by Goffman to refer to how people use social setting, appearance, and manner to communicate information about the self </li></ul><ul><li>Teamwork : the collaboration of two or more people to manage impressions jointly </li></ul><ul><li>Face saving behavior : techniques used to salvage a performance that is going sour </li></ul><ul><li>We become the roles we play. </li></ul>
  20. 23. <ul><li>Ethnomethodology : The study of how people use background assumptions to make sense out of life </li></ul><ul><li>Background Assumptions : deeply embedded common understandings of how the world operates and how people ought to act </li></ul><ul><li>Harold Garfinkle experiments page 118 </li></ul>
  21. 24. <ul><li>Thomas Theorem : William I. and Dorothy S. Thomas’ classic formulation of the definition of the situation: “If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences” </li></ul><ul><li>Social Construct of Reality : the use of background assumptions and life experiences to define what is real </li></ul>