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THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY
CHAPTER 3
Social Structure
Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure
Section 2: Types of Social Interaction
Section 3: Types of Societies
Section 4: Groups Within Society
Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations
THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY
Objectives:
Identify and describe the two major
components of social structure.
Analyze how these two components
of social structure affect human
interaction.
Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure
THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY
Major Components of Social Structure
 Social Structure -the network of interrelated
statuses and roles that guide human interaction,
give society its enduring characteristics and make
patterns of human interaction predictable
 Status – a socially defined position in a group or
in a society and has attached to it one or more
roles
 Role – the behavior expected of someone
occupying a particular status
Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure
THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY
Roles, Status, and Human Interaction
 People’s particular roles and statuses affect how they
relate to one another.
 Statuses are ways of defining where individuals fit in
society and how they relate to others
 ascribed status – assigned according to qualities beyond a
person’s control
 achieved status – acquired through individuals own direct
efforts
 master status – one status tends to out-rank others, plays
the greatest role in one’s life and determining social
identity
Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure
THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY
Roles, Status, and Human Interaction
 Roles are the components of social structure
that bring statuses to life.
 reciprocal roles – corresponding roles that
define the patterns of interaction between
related statuses
 role expectations – socially determined
behaviors expected of a person performing a
role
Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure
THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY
Roles, Status, and Human Interaction
 role performance – actual role behavior, does not
always match expectations
 role set – the different roles attached to a single
status
 role strain – occurs when a person has difficulty
meeting the role expectations of a single status
 role conflict – occurs between two statuses when
trying to fulfill expectations
Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure
THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY
Roles, Status, and Human Interaction
Role exit:
Statuses and their related roles
determine the structure of groups in
society.
social institution – statuses and roles
are organized to satisfy one or more
of the basic needs of society
Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure
THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY
THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY
THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY
THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY
Objectives:
Identify the most common types of
social interaction.
Distinguish between types of
interactions that stabilize social
structure and those that can disrupt it.
Section 2: Types of Social Interaction
THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY
Common Types of Social Interaction
 When playing a role, must interact with others
 Interactions either change or stabilize society
 1. exchange – interacting in an effort to receive a
reward or a return for one’s actions
reciprocity – you do something for someone
else, they owe you something in return
exchange theory – people are motivated by self-
interest in their interactions
Section 2: Types of Social Interaction
THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY
Common Types of Social Interaction
 2.Competition – two or more people or groups in opposition to
achieve a goal that only one can attain
 positive means of motivating people to perform roles society
asks
 can also lead to psychological stress, lack of cooperation in
social relationships, inequality, and conflict
 3. Conflict – the deliberate attempt to control a person by force,
to oppose someone else, or to harm another person
 sources of conflict: war, within group, legal disputes, clashes
over ideology
 positive effects: reinforces group boundaries, strengthens
group loyalty, draw attention away from internal problems, lead
to social change
Section 2: Types of Social Interaction
THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY
Common Types of Social Interaction
4. Cooperation – two or more people or
groups working together to achieve a goal
that will benefit more than one of them
5. Accommodation – a state of balance
between cooperation and conflict, a
compromise, truce
Section 2: Types of Social Interaction
THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY
Interactions That Stabilize and Disrupt
Competition and Conflict – disrupt social
stability
Accommodation, Exchange, and
Cooperation stabilize social stability
Section 2: Types of Social Interaction
THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY
Objectives:
Identify and describe the types of
societies that exist in the world today.
Explain the roles individuals play in
these models of group systems.
Section 3: Types of Societies
THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY
Types of Societies
 role behavior takes place in groups
 group – set of people who interact on the basis of
shared expectations and who possess some
degree of common identity
largest and most complex groups are societies
 Sociologists classify societies according to
subsistence strategies.
subsistence strategies – way a society uses
technology to provide for the needs of members
Section 3: Types of Societies
THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY
Types of Societies
 Preindustrial – food production is the main economic
activity and can be subdivided according to the level
of technology and the method of producing food
 hunting and gathering, pastoral societies, horticultural
society, agricultural society
 Industrial – emphasis shifts from the production of
food to the production of manufactured goods made
possible by changes in production methods
 leads to urbanization
 Postindustrial – much of the economy is involved in
providing information and services
 73% of Americans
 SmartNotebook Activity
Section 3: Types of Societies
THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY
Objectives:
Summarize the major features of
primary and secondary groups.
Identify the purposes that groups
fulfill.
Section 4: Groups Within Society
THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY
What is a group?
 A group has 4 major features:
 two or more people, interaction among members,
shared expectations, common identity
 These distinguish a group from an aggregate or social
category
 aggregate – people gathered in the same place at the
same time, but lack organization or patterns
 social category – classifying people according to a
shared trait or common status
Section 4: Groups Within Society
THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY
Types of Groups
Features of Primary Groups:
Interact over a long period of time on a
direct and personal basis
Entire self of the individual is taken into
account
Relationships are intimate and face-to-
face
Section 4: Groups Within Society
THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY
Types of Groups
Features of Secondary Groups:
Interaction is impersonal and temporary
in nature
Involve a reaction to only a part of the
individual’s self
Casual and limited in personal
involvement
Section 4: Groups Within Society
THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY
Types of Groups
 Features of Reference Groups:
 group with whom individuals identify and whose
attitudes and values they adopt
 Features of In-Groups and Out-Groups
 in-group – group that a person belongs to and
identifies with
 out-group – any group that the person does not
belong to or identify with
Section 4: Groups Within Society
THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY
Types of Groups
 Features of E-communities
e-community – people interact with one
another regularly on the Internet
 Features of Social Networks
social network – web of relationships that is
formed by the sum total of a person’s
interactions with other people
Section 4: Groups Within Society
THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY
Purposes of Groups
 Select leaders – people that influence the attitudes
and opinions of others
 instrumental leaders – task oriented
 expressive leaders – emotion oriented
 Define their boundaries – so that members can tell
who belongs and who does not
 Set goals, assign tasks, and make decisions
 Control their members’ behavior – if members violate
groups norms, the group cannot survive long
Section 4: Groups Within Society
THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY
Objectives:
Explain how bureaucracies are
structured.
Evaluate the effectiveness of
bureaucracies.
Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations
THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY
What are Formal Organizations?
 Sociologists use the term formal organization to
describe a large, complex secondary group that has
been established to achieve specific goals.
 Most organizations are structured in the form of a
bureaucracy.
 bureaucracy – a ranked authority structure that operates
according to specific rules and procedures
 Bureaucracies were created to rationally organize
groups to complete a set of goals
Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations
THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY
Weber’s Model
 Division of Labor
 work is divided among specialists in various positions,
expected to complete specific task
 Ranking of Authority
 clear-cut lines of authority, each is responsible to a
supervisor at a higher level
 Employment based on formal qualifications
 individuals are hired based on tests, education, or
previous experience
 Rules and regulations
 identify the responsibilities of each person
 Specific lines of promotion and advancement
 job security and seniority
Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations
THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY
Effectiveness of Bureaucracies
Efficient at coordinating large numbers of
people, defining tasks and rewards
Provides stability
Can lose sight of goals, create red tape,
and result in oligarchies
In some instances, rewards incompetence
and expands uncontrollably
Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations

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Notes soc chapter 3

  • 1. THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY CHAPTER 3 Social Structure Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure Section 2: Types of Social Interaction Section 3: Types of Societies Section 4: Groups Within Society Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations
  • 2. THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY Objectives: Identify and describe the two major components of social structure. Analyze how these two components of social structure affect human interaction. Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure
  • 3. THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY Major Components of Social Structure  Social Structure -the network of interrelated statuses and roles that guide human interaction, give society its enduring characteristics and make patterns of human interaction predictable  Status – a socially defined position in a group or in a society and has attached to it one or more roles  Role – the behavior expected of someone occupying a particular status Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure
  • 4. THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY Roles, Status, and Human Interaction  People’s particular roles and statuses affect how they relate to one another.  Statuses are ways of defining where individuals fit in society and how they relate to others  ascribed status – assigned according to qualities beyond a person’s control  achieved status – acquired through individuals own direct efforts  master status – one status tends to out-rank others, plays the greatest role in one’s life and determining social identity Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure
  • 5. THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY Roles, Status, and Human Interaction  Roles are the components of social structure that bring statuses to life.  reciprocal roles – corresponding roles that define the patterns of interaction between related statuses  role expectations – socially determined behaviors expected of a person performing a role Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure
  • 6. THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY Roles, Status, and Human Interaction  role performance – actual role behavior, does not always match expectations  role set – the different roles attached to a single status  role strain – occurs when a person has difficulty meeting the role expectations of a single status  role conflict – occurs between two statuses when trying to fulfill expectations Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure
  • 7. THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY Roles, Status, and Human Interaction Role exit: Statuses and their related roles determine the structure of groups in society. social institution – statuses and roles are organized to satisfy one or more of the basic needs of society Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure
  • 8. THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY
  • 9. THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY
  • 10. THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY
  • 11. THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY Objectives: Identify the most common types of social interaction. Distinguish between types of interactions that stabilize social structure and those that can disrupt it. Section 2: Types of Social Interaction
  • 12. THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY Common Types of Social Interaction  When playing a role, must interact with others  Interactions either change or stabilize society  1. exchange – interacting in an effort to receive a reward or a return for one’s actions reciprocity – you do something for someone else, they owe you something in return exchange theory – people are motivated by self- interest in their interactions Section 2: Types of Social Interaction
  • 13. THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY Common Types of Social Interaction  2.Competition – two or more people or groups in opposition to achieve a goal that only one can attain  positive means of motivating people to perform roles society asks  can also lead to psychological stress, lack of cooperation in social relationships, inequality, and conflict  3. Conflict – the deliberate attempt to control a person by force, to oppose someone else, or to harm another person  sources of conflict: war, within group, legal disputes, clashes over ideology  positive effects: reinforces group boundaries, strengthens group loyalty, draw attention away from internal problems, lead to social change Section 2: Types of Social Interaction
  • 14. THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY Common Types of Social Interaction 4. Cooperation – two or more people or groups working together to achieve a goal that will benefit more than one of them 5. Accommodation – a state of balance between cooperation and conflict, a compromise, truce Section 2: Types of Social Interaction
  • 15. THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY Interactions That Stabilize and Disrupt Competition and Conflict – disrupt social stability Accommodation, Exchange, and Cooperation stabilize social stability Section 2: Types of Social Interaction
  • 16. THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY Objectives: Identify and describe the types of societies that exist in the world today. Explain the roles individuals play in these models of group systems. Section 3: Types of Societies
  • 17. THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY Types of Societies  role behavior takes place in groups  group – set of people who interact on the basis of shared expectations and who possess some degree of common identity largest and most complex groups are societies  Sociologists classify societies according to subsistence strategies. subsistence strategies – way a society uses technology to provide for the needs of members Section 3: Types of Societies
  • 18. THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY Types of Societies  Preindustrial – food production is the main economic activity and can be subdivided according to the level of technology and the method of producing food  hunting and gathering, pastoral societies, horticultural society, agricultural society  Industrial – emphasis shifts from the production of food to the production of manufactured goods made possible by changes in production methods  leads to urbanization  Postindustrial – much of the economy is involved in providing information and services  73% of Americans  SmartNotebook Activity Section 3: Types of Societies
  • 19. THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY Objectives: Summarize the major features of primary and secondary groups. Identify the purposes that groups fulfill. Section 4: Groups Within Society
  • 20. THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY What is a group?  A group has 4 major features:  two or more people, interaction among members, shared expectations, common identity  These distinguish a group from an aggregate or social category  aggregate – people gathered in the same place at the same time, but lack organization or patterns  social category – classifying people according to a shared trait or common status Section 4: Groups Within Society
  • 21. THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY Types of Groups Features of Primary Groups: Interact over a long period of time on a direct and personal basis Entire self of the individual is taken into account Relationships are intimate and face-to- face Section 4: Groups Within Society
  • 22. THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY Types of Groups Features of Secondary Groups: Interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature Involve a reaction to only a part of the individual’s self Casual and limited in personal involvement Section 4: Groups Within Society
  • 23. THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY Types of Groups  Features of Reference Groups:  group with whom individuals identify and whose attitudes and values they adopt  Features of In-Groups and Out-Groups  in-group – group that a person belongs to and identifies with  out-group – any group that the person does not belong to or identify with Section 4: Groups Within Society
  • 24. THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY Types of Groups  Features of E-communities e-community – people interact with one another regularly on the Internet  Features of Social Networks social network – web of relationships that is formed by the sum total of a person’s interactions with other people Section 4: Groups Within Society
  • 25. THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY Purposes of Groups  Select leaders – people that influence the attitudes and opinions of others  instrumental leaders – task oriented  expressive leaders – emotion oriented  Define their boundaries – so that members can tell who belongs and who does not  Set goals, assign tasks, and make decisions  Control their members’ behavior – if members violate groups norms, the group cannot survive long Section 4: Groups Within Society
  • 26. THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY Objectives: Explain how bureaucracies are structured. Evaluate the effectiveness of bureaucracies. Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations
  • 27. THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY What are Formal Organizations?  Sociologists use the term formal organization to describe a large, complex secondary group that has been established to achieve specific goals.  Most organizations are structured in the form of a bureaucracy.  bureaucracy – a ranked authority structure that operates according to specific rules and procedures  Bureaucracies were created to rationally organize groups to complete a set of goals Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations
  • 28. THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY Weber’s Model  Division of Labor  work is divided among specialists in various positions, expected to complete specific task  Ranking of Authority  clear-cut lines of authority, each is responsible to a supervisor at a higher level  Employment based on formal qualifications  individuals are hired based on tests, education, or previous experience  Rules and regulations  identify the responsibilities of each person  Specific lines of promotion and advancement  job security and seniority Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations
  • 29. THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPSSOCIOLOGY Effectiveness of Bureaucracies Efficient at coordinating large numbers of people, defining tasks and rewards Provides stability Can lose sight of goals, create red tape, and result in oligarchies In some instances, rewards incompetence and expands uncontrollably Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations

Editor's Notes

  1. 11/25/2020