Chapter 5:Groups, Networks and Organizations Social groups form the building blocks for  society and for most social inte...
Social Groups Dyad is the most intimate form of social life because  the two members are mutually dependent on each  othe...
Social Groups ~ The Triad When a third person joins a dyad, that person can  fill the role of:  mediator – the conflict ...
Social Groups As group size increases, the number of possible  relationships increase — in a group of three,  three possi...
Social Groups    Georg Simmel             C. H. Cooley    Small Groups             Primary Groups    Parties              ...
Poll: What is the total number of contacts you...
The Power of Social Groups The Asch Test is an experiment developed in the 1940s that shows  how much people are influenc...
From Groups to NetworksA social network is a set of relations — a set of dyads — held togetherby ties between individuals....
From Groups toNetworks       Interview, Duncan WattsDuncan Watts describes his research  on the small world phenomenon.   ...
From Groups to NetworksEmbeddedness refers to the degree to which ties are reinforced through indirect paths           wit...
Social Capital ‘Whereas physical capital refers to physical objects and humancapital refers to the properties of individua...
From Groups to Networks                         Social Capital The information, knowledge of people or ideas, and connect...
From Groups to Networks      The Strength of Weak Ties A structural hole is a gap between network clusters (or even  betw...
Structural Holes on the Netdiminishing the power of the middle man             A Personal Account
Six Degrees of Separation                Urban legend?Microsoft proves you ARE just six degrees of separation from anyone ...
Social Capital
Organizations An organization is any social network that is defined by a common purposeand has a boundary between its memb...
Three Sociological Perspectives     Groups and Social Structure      Conflict                Functionalist            Symb...
Chapter5 groupsnetworks-120925135248-phpapp01
Chapter5 groupsnetworks-120925135248-phpapp01
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Chapter5 groupsnetworks-120925135248-phpapp01

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Chapter5 groupsnetworks-120925135248-phpapp01

  1. 1. Chapter 5:Groups, Networks and Organizations Social groups form the building blocks for society and for most social interaction. The sociologist Georg Simmel argued that the key element in determining the form of social relations in a group is the size of the group. 1
  2. 2. Social Groups Dyad is the most intimate form of social life because the two members are mutually dependent on each other – if one member leaves the group, the group ceases to exist.
  3. 3. Social Groups ~ The Triad When a third person joins a dyad, that person can fill the role of:  mediator – the conflict resolver.  tertius gaudens — the person who profits from disagreement from the others.  divide et impera (“divide and conquer”) — the individual who purposefully breaks up the other two. 3
  4. 4. Social Groups As group size increases, the number of possible relationships increase — in a group of three, three possible relationships exist, but in a group of four, six possible relationships exist. 4
  5. 5. Social Groups Georg Simmel C. H. Cooley Small Groups Primary Groups Parties Secondary Groups Large Groups Other Group Types — in-groups, out-groups, reference groupsSociologists call any group that individuals use as a standard forevaluating themselves and their own behavior a reference group.
  6. 6. Poll: What is the total number of contacts you...
  7. 7. The Power of Social Groups The Asch Test is an experiment developed in the 1940s that shows how much people are influenced by the actions or norms of a group.
  8. 8. From Groups to NetworksA social network is a set of relations — a set of dyads — held togetherby ties between individuals. A tie is a set of stories that explains our relationship to the other members of our network, while a narrative is the sum of the stories contained in a series of ties. 10
  9. 9. From Groups toNetworks Interview, Duncan WattsDuncan Watts describes his research on the small world phenomenon. 11
  10. 10. From Groups to NetworksEmbeddedness refers to the degree to which ties are reinforced through indirect paths within a social network. 12
  11. 11. Social Capital ‘Whereas physical capital refers to physical objects and humancapital refers to the properties of individuals, social capital refers to connections among individuals – social networks and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from them.” ~ Robert Putnam
  12. 12. From Groups to Networks Social Capital The information, knowledge of people or ideas, and connections that help individuals enter preexisting networks or gain power in them. High amounts of social capital in a community generally means that the community is tightly knit and can come together to face challenges and make improvements. 14
  13. 13. From Groups to Networks The Strength of Weak Ties A structural hole is a gap between network clusters (or even between two people) that would benefit from having the gap closed. Six Degrees of Separation Class Exercise on Social Networks
  14. 14. Structural Holes on the Netdiminishing the power of the middle man A Personal Account
  15. 15. Six Degrees of Separation Urban legend?Microsoft proves you ARE just six degrees of separation from anyone in the world
  16. 16. Social Capital
  17. 17. Organizations An organization is any social network that is defined by a common purposeand has a boundary between its membership and the rest of the social world. Organizational culture refers to the shared beliefs and behaviors within a social group. Organizational structure refers to the ways in which power and authority are distributed within an organization. Informal Formal 19
  18. 18. Three Sociological Perspectives Groups and Social Structure Conflict Functionalist Symbolic InteractionSocial structure are Social structures are •Social interactions existsexploitive. legitimate and acceptable. only in the minds of individuals and small groups. It is subjective,Groups and The structure itself voluntary and constantlyinstitutions exists for creates consensus. recreated.the protection of theelite. Social structures are •Social structure is based on stable and often small groups and individualsThere is conflict over bureaucratic. to create consensus.wealth, power andstatus.

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