Hfa book nepali

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Hfa book nepali

  1. 1. xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn n]vg ÷ ;Dkfbg bLks cfrfo{ efis/ cof{n 8f]n/fh Gof}kfg] PS;g P8 g]kfnsf] cfly{s ;xof]udf sf]–PS;g g]kfnåf/f k|sflzt
  2. 2. k|sfzs M sf]–PS;g g]kfn ;jf{lwsf/ ;'/lIft © M k|sfzsdf o; k':tsdf k|oQm ;fdu|Lx? d'gfkmf gsdfpg] p2]Zon] k|sfzssf] gfd ' ;fef/ u/L cf+lzs?kdf k'gM k|sfzg ug{ ;lsg]5 . To:tf] k|sfzgsf] Psk|lt hfgsf/Lsf] nflu pknAw x'g] ck]Iff /fVb5f}+ . k|yd ;+:s/0f M ;fpg @)^^ k|sfzg k|lt M %)) k|lt cfj/0f t:jL/ M sf]zL 8'afg @)^%, sf]PS;g g]kfn sDko'6/÷cfj/0f l8hfOg M lgz]if clwsf/L÷j]nsd l8hfOg;{ gf/fo0fu9, )%^^($!%%, (*$%@#*&& d'b|s M lszf]/ ckm;]6 k|; -k|f_= ln=, sf7df8f}+ ] kmf]g M $#%!)$$ ISBN :
  3. 3. k| sfzsLo=== ;g @)!% ;Dddf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf pNn]Vo k|ult ul/5f8g] k|lta4tf;lxt ;g @))% df ljZjAofkL?kdf c+lusf/ ul/Psf] xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] af/]df o; k':ts k|sfzg ug{ kfpFbf xfdLnfO{ v'zL nfu]sf] 5 . sf]–PS;g g]kfn ljkbs} If]qdf sfo{ ug]{ ;+:yf xf] . ;f]xL qmddf ;d'bfo:t/df dfq geO{ ljkbs} If]qdf sfo{ ug]{ ;+3;+:yf / ;/sf/L tx dfemdf klg xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] af/]df ckof{Kt hfgsf/L ePsf] xfdLnfO{ cg'ej eof] . pxfFx?s} ;Nnfx ;'emfj / cfjZostf adf]lhd g]kfnL efiffdf ‘xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn’ zLif{ssf] o; k':ts tof/ ePsf] xf] . o; k':tsnfO{ ljleGg cWofox?df afFl8Psf] 5 . t/, ljz]if hf]8 eg] xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf k|fyldstfsf lqmofsnfkx?df lbOPsf] 5 . c+uhL efiffdf k|sflzt ljleGg k':tsx?, j]a;fO6x?sf] ]| ;xof]udf xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf d"ne"t tTjx?nfO{ a'emg;lsg] u/L ;d]6g] k|of; o; k':tsdf ul/Psf] 5 . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] af/]df ;}4flGts 1fg k|bfg ug]{ / o;nfO{ Aojxf/df ptfg{ ;xof]u k'Ug]vfnsf ;fdu|Lx? k':tsdf /flvPsf 5g . g]kfnn] klg xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf sfof{Gjog ug]{ k|lta4tfcg'?k xfn;Dd ePsf sfo{x?nfO{ klg o; k':tsdf ;+nUg ul/Psf] 5 . g]kfnsf] kl/k|Iodf ljkb / xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf sfof{GjognfO{ ] a'emg o; k':tsn] ;xhtf Nofpg] xfd|f] ck]Iff 5 . ‘xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn’nfO{ k|sfzgdf k|ToIf / ck|ToIf?kdf ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] ;a}nfO{ wGojfb lbg rfxG5f}+ . k':ts k|sfzgsf nflu pTk|l/t / ;xof]u ug]{ PS;g P8 g]kfnk|lt ljz]if cfef/ ] k|s6 ug{ rfxG5f}+ . ldlt M @)^^ ;fpg !% ut]
  4. 4. d"n ljifo;"rL k[ i 7 cWofo ! M k[i7e"ld !–!^ s_ kl/ro # v_ ljkb hf]lvd / g]kfn % u_ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf s] xf] < & 3_ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf /0fg}lts nIox? !! ª_ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf k|fyldstfsf sfo{x? !! r_ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf dfu{–lgb]zs l;4fGtx? { !@ 5_ of]sf]xfdf /0fgLlt !(($ !% cWofo @ M x o f] u f] sfo{ ;+ / rgf k| f yldstfk| f Kt lqmofsnfkx? !&–() s_ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk ! @) xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk !=! @! xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk !=@ @$ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk !=# @& xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk !=$ #) k/LIf0f ;"lr #@ v_ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk @ ## xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk @=! #$ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk @=@ #& xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk @=# $) xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk @=$ $# k/LIf0f ;"lr $^ u_ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk # $& xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk #=! $* xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk #=@ %) xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk #=# %$ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk #=$ %^ k/LIf0f ;"lr %*
  5. 5. 3_ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $ %( xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $=! ^) xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $=@ ^# xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $=# ^% xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $=$ ^& xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $=% &) xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $=^ &@ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $=& &^ k/LIf0f ;"lr &* ª_ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk % *) xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk %=! *! xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk %=@ *$ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk %=# *^ k/LIf0f ;"lr () cWofo # M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn (!–!@& s_ /0fg}lts nIo k|flKtdf /fli6«o k|ult (# v_ xof]uf] k|fyldstf sfo{ ! sfof{Gjogdf /fli6«o k|ult (^ u_ xof]uf] k|fyldstf sfo{ @ sfof{Gjogdf /fli6«o k|ult !)@ 3_ xof]uf] k|fyldstf sfo{ # sfof{Gjogdf /fli6«o k|ult !)& ª_ xof]uf] k|fyldstf sfo{ $ sfof{Gjogdf /fli6«o k|ult !!$ r_ xof]uf] k|fyldstf sfo{ % sfof{Gjogdf /fli6«o k|ult !@) cWofo $ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf pNn]Vo kIfx? !@*–!$@ s_ cGt/;DalGwt ;jfnx? !#) v_ e"ldsf / pQ/bfloTj !#@ u_ /fli6«o / cGt/f{li6«o d~r !#% cu|gfd zAbx? (Acronyms) !$# kl/eflifs zAbx? (Terminology) !$% ;Gbe{uGy (References) | !%)
  6. 6. cWofo ! k[i7e"ld ! xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  7. 7. ljifo;"rL k[ i 7 cWofo ! M k[i7e"ld !–!^ s_ kl/ro # v_ ljkb hf]lvd / g]kfn % u_ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf s] xf] < & 3_ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf /0fg}lts nIox? !! ª_ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf k|fyldstfsf sfo{x? !! r_ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf dfu{–lgb]zs l;4fGtx? { !@ 5_ of]sf]xfdf /0fgLlt !(($ !% xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn @
  8. 8. cWofo ! M k[i7e"ld kl/ro ljZjdf a9b} uO/x]sf] ljkbsf 36gfx? / o;af6 j[l4 x'b} uPsf] dfgjLo, “ cfly{s / c? k|sf/sf Ifltx?af6 ljZj g} k|tfl8t alg/x]sf] 5 . tYof+sx? s]nfpg] xf] eGg] kl5Nnf] jif{ @))* g]kfn / ljZjs} ;Gbe{df klg k|sf]ksf] Ifltsf] b[li6sf]0fn] b'vbfoL /xof] . CRED / UNISDR n] ;g @))( hgj/Ldf ;fj{hlgs u/]sf] ljj/0f cg';f/ ;g @))) b]lv ;g @))& sf] aLrdf ljkbsf 36gfx?af6 ePsf] cf};t jflif{s Iflt -dfgjLo / cfly{s_ eGbf ;g @))* df ePsf] Iflt pNn]Vo?kdf j[l4 ePsf] 5 . ;g @))* df kl5Nnf] ;ft jif{sf] t'ngfdf dfgjLo Iflt tLg u'0ffn] / cfly{s Iflt b'O{ u'0ffn] j[l4 ePsf] 5 . ;g @))* df ljZjel/ hDdf #@! j6f ljkbsf 36gfx? eP h;df @,#%,*!^ hgfsf] d[To' eof] eg] @! s/f]8 dflg; k|efljt x'gk'u] . hals ;g @)))–@))& sf] aLrdf cf};tdf jflif{s ^^,*!@ hgfsf] d[To' ePsf] lyof] . DofGdf/sf] glu{; ;fOSnf]g -rqmjft_ / rLgsf] l;r'cfg k|fGtdf ePsf] e"sDkaf6 a9L dfgjLo Iflt x'gk'Uof] . DofGdf/df !,#*,#^^ hgfsf] / rLgdf *&,$&^ hgfsf] lgwg ePsf] lyof] . ljkbaf6 ePsf] cfly{s Ifltsf] s'/f ug]{ xf] eg] ;g @)))–@))& sf] aLrsf] cf};t jflif{s Iflt *! lalnog ca{ 8n/ ePsf] cg'dfg ul/Psf] lyof] t/ ;g @))* df o;sf] bf]Aa/eGbf klg a9L !*! lalnog 8n/sf] Iflt x'guof] . rLgsf] l;r'cfg k|fGtdf uPsf] e"sDkaf6 *% lalnog 8n/ / cd]l/sfdf cfPsf] ;fOSnf]g -rqmjft_ af6 #) lalnog 8n/sf] Iflt ePsf] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . # xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  9. 9. cWofo ! M k[i7e"ld ;g @))* df Pl;ofnL dxfb]z ljkbsf 36gfx?af6 a9L k|efljt /xof] . ;f] jif{ ljZjdf ePsf d'Vo !) j6f ljkbsf 36gfx?dWo] gf}j6f Pl;ofnL /fi6«x?df ePsf] lyof] . ;g @))) b]lv ;g @))* ;Ddsf] k|sf]k ?k/]vf jif{ 36gf ;+Vof @))) $!# @))! #&( @))@ $@@ @))# #^) ldlnog cd]l/sL 8n/df DffgjLo Ifltsf cfwf/df ;g @))* df k| f s[ l ts k| s f] k k|sf/ glu{; rqmjft e""sDk Aff9L ljifd hf8f] xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn $
  10. 10. cWofo ! M k[i7e"ld k| s f] k ;+ V ofsf cfwf/df b] z x? -@))*_ rLg lkmlnlkG; ;+o'Qm /fHo cd]l/sf OG8f]g]l;of leotgfd k|lt Psnfv hg;+Vofdf d[To' ePsf / k|efljt hg;+Vof -@))*_ Tffhls:tfg lhafp6L (Djibouti) ;f]dflnof Ol/l6«of PlG6u'cf / ad"[{8f >f]t M CRED / UNISDR ljkb hf]lvd / g]kfn g]kfndf x/]s jif{ ljkbdf kl/ Psxhf/eGbf a9L dflg;sf] d[To' x'g] u/]sf] 5 . cf};tdf x/]s lbg b'O{ g]kfnL ljkb jf o;sf sf/0f l;lh{t kl/l:yltn] % xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  11. 11. cWofo ! M k[i7e"ld ubf{ d[To'j/0f ul//x]sf 5g . ljut #% jif{sf] tYof+scg';f/ ljkbsf 36gfaf6 jflif{s Psnfv #% xhf/ dflg; k|efljt x'g] u/]sf 5g . ljleGg If]qaf6 k|fKt tYof+scg';f/ x/]s jif{ !^ xhf/ kl/jf/ ljkbsf sf/0f cfkmgf 3/af; u'dfP/ lj:yflkt x'gu/]sf 5g . kl5Nnf] ;dodf ljkbsf] cfj[lQ / Ifltsf] of] ] qmd / dfqfdf lg/Gt/ j[l4 x'b} uO/x]sf] 5 . g]kfn ;/sf/ u[x dGqfnosf “ cg';f/ ljkbsf sf/0f jflif{s cf};t ? ! ca{ @) s/f]8 *) nfv ?k}of“ a/fa/sf] cfly{s Iflt eO/x]sf] 5 . lj1x?sf cg';f/ g]kfn ljZjsf !(* d'nsdWo] e"sDkLo hf]lvdsf] lx;fan] ' !! cf}+ / kfgLhGo k|sf]kaf6 x'g] Ifltsf lx;fan] #) cf}+ :yfgdf 5 . ljZjsf k|dv zx/x?dWo] sf7df8f}+ pkTosf e"sDkLo ljgfzsf] b[li6n] ;a}eGbf a9L ' hf]lvddf /x]sf] atfOPsf] 5 . ;g !(() ;fndf uPsf] *=$ /]S6/ :s]n a/fa/sf] e"sDk hfg] xf] eg] sf7df8f}+ pkTosfdf $) xhf/sf] d[To' x'g, (% ] xhf/ 3fOt] x'g] / ^) k|ltzteGbf a9L 3/x? 9Ng] cg'dfg lj1x?sf] 5 . ;g !()) b]lv ;g @))* ;Dddf ljkb jf ljkbn] lgDTofPsf kl/l:yltn] ubf{ @! xhf/ *@* g]kfnLsf] d[To' eO;s]sf] 5 . -;|ft M BM-DAT_ . o;dWo] ] e"sDksf sf/0f ((@( hgfsf], af9Lsf] sf/0f %^(& hgfsf], dxfdf/Lsf] sf/0f $!*! hgfsf] / klx/f]sf] sf/0f !&@* hgfsf] d[To' ePsf] kfOPsf] 5 . ;f]xL cjlwdf ljkbn] ubf{ ** nfv ## xhf/ @^$ g]kfnL k|efljt x'gsf] ;fy} ' sl/a ? @&=@$ va{sf] cfly{s Iflt ePsf] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . ljkb;DaGwL lgDg tYox?n] klg g]kfndf hf]lvdsf] cj:yfnfO{ k|i6 kfb{5 M – x/]s jif{ $@) eGbf a9L ljkbsf 36gfx? x'g] ub{5g . – x/]s jif{ ljkbsf sf/0fn] !))) eGbf a9Lsf] Hofg hfg] ub{5 . – x/]s jif{ ljkbsf sf/0f *) eGbf a9L ge]l6g] u/L x/fO/x]sf x'G5g . – x/]s jif{ !^,))) eGbf a9L kl/jf/ ljkbsf sf/0f lj:yflkt x'G5g . – x/]s jif{ !,#%,))) eGbf a9L g]kfnx? ljkbaf6 k|efljt aG5g . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn ^
  12. 12. cWofo ! M k[i7e"ld – x/]s jif{ ljkbsf sf/0f ? !,@)*,))),))) eGbf a9Lsf] cfly{s Iflt x'g] ub{5 . – x/]s jif{ ljkbsf sf/0f s'n ufx{:Yo pTkfbgsf] cf};t $ k|ltzt Iflt x'gub{5 . ] -;|ft M u[x dGqfno, Pg;]6÷o"Pgl8kL, PS;gP8 @))&_ ] ljkb;DaGwL g]kfnsf k|dv ;jfn / ;'wf/ ug'kg]{ If]qx? lgDg /x]sf 5g M ' { – ljkb;DaGwL cNk1fgsf] lgjf/0f – /fxtd'vL ljkb Aoj:yfkgdf ;'wf/ – k|efjsf/L ;dGjo / ;xeflutf – ljsf; / ljkbsf] ;DaGw hf]8g] gLlt – k'/ftg sfg"gL Aoj:yfdf kl/jt{g – k|efjsf/L ;+:yfut ;+/rgf – ljkb Aoj:yfkg of]hgf – /fhgLlts r]tgf / k|lta4tf xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf s] xf] < ljZjAofkL ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] nflu ;+oQm /fi6«;3sf ;b:o /fi6«x?n] ' + cg'df]bg u/]sf] ;femf /0fgLlt g} æxof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfÆ (Hyogo Framework of Action) xf] . ;g @))%sf] !*–@@ hgj/Ldf hfkfgsf] sf]a] zx/df cfof]lht bf]>f] ;+oQm /fi6«;3Lo ljkb Go"gLs/0f ljZj ;Dd]ngdf ljZjsf ' + !^* /fi6«x?n] ;j{;Ddt?kdf xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfnfO{ cg'df]bg ub}{ cjnDag ug]{ k|lta4tf hgfPsf lyP . ;f] ;Dd]ngdf tL /fi6«x?sf rf/xhf/eGbf a9L k|ltlglwx?sf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] . x/]s b]zsf ;/sf/L, u}/;/sf/L, k|fl1s Pjd lghL ;+:yfsf k|ltlglwx?sf] ;f] ;Dd]ngdf ;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] . & xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  13. 13. cWofo ! M k[i7e"ld bzjif{sf] cjlwdf -;g @)!% ;Dddf_ ljkbsf] sf/0fn] x'g] dfgjLo, ;fdflhs, cfly{s / jftfj/0fLo IfltnfO{ pNn]Vo?kdf sd u/fO x/]s /fi6« / ;d'bfox?nfO{ k|sf]klj?4 pTyfgzLntf -resilience)sf] ljsf; u/fpg] dxTjk"0f{ kl/0ffdsf] o;n] ck]Iff /fv]sf] 5 . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfn] kf“rj6f k|fyldstfsf sfo{x?nfO{ lglb{i6 u/]sf] 5 . o;sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf] nflu dfu{–lgb]zs l;4fGtx? to ul/g'sf] ;fy} { ljkbsf] hf]lvddf /x]sf ;d'bfonfO{ lbuf] ljsf;sf] k[i7e"lddf pTyfgzLntfsf] ljsf; u/fpg Aojxfl/s tl/sfx? ;d]t o;n] l;kmfl/z u/]sf] 5 . ljsf;sf of]hgf / /0fgLltsf] s]Gb|ljGb'sf]?kdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f x'gkg]{ cjwf/0ffnfO{ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfn] hf]8 lbPsf] 5 . k|sf]kn] ljsf;sf] ' pknAwLnfO{ r'gf}tL lbg] / ul/aL a9fpg] x'gfn] a]ndf uDeL/ sbd grflnP } ;x;|fAbL ljsf; nIosf] k|dv tuf/f] g} k|sf]kLo Iflt x'g;Sg]tkm{ xof]uf] sfo{ ' ;+/rgfn] ;r]t u/fPsf] 5 . ;f] ;Dd]ngn] tLgj6f k|:tfjx?nfO{ cg'df]bg u/]sf] lyof] . klxnf] k|:tfj cf7 a'b] xof]uf] 3f]if0ffkq (Hyogo Declaration), bf]>f] k|:tfj xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf " @))%–@)!% M ljkblj?4 /fi6« / ;d'bfox?df pTyfgzLntfsf] lgdf{0f (Hyogo Framework of Action 2005-2015 : Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters) /x]sf] lyof] . o:t} t]>f] k|:tfj qm]8lG6on sld6L (credential committee)sf] k|ltj]bg /x]sf] lyof] . ] xof]uf] 3f]if0ffkqdf lgDg cf7 a'bfx? pNn]v ul/Psf 5g M “ !_ PSsfO{;f}+ ztfAbLdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf ultljlwx?nfO{ cem ;zQm kfg{ ;fGble{s cGt/f{li6«o k|lta4tf / ;+/rgfx? xfdL lgdf{0f ug]5f}+ . { ;fy} ;x;|fAbL 3f]if0ffkqdf pNn]v ePsf;lxt cGt/f{li6«o?kdf ;xdlt hgfOPsf ljsf;sf nIox? k"/f ug]{ k|lta4tf ;d]t xfdL hgfp“b5f}+ . ljZjAofkL?kdf xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn *
  14. 14. cWofo ! M k[i7e"ld ul/aL x6fpg] k|of;x?df ljkbsf 36gfx?n] ult/f]w k'¥ofO/x]sf] 5 . lbuf] ljsf;sf] nflu ljkbsf] c;/ uDeL/ r'gf}tLsf] ?kdf v8f ePsf] 5 . @_ lbuf] ljsf;, ul/aL lgjf/0f / c? tTjx?sf] ljkb Go"gLs/0f;“u /x]sf] cGof]Gofl>t ;DaGwnfO{ xfdLn] klxNofPsf 5f}+ . ;/sf/L, If]qLo / cGt/f{li6«o ;+u7gx?, ljlQo ;+:yfx?, u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf / :jod;js;lxtsf] gful/s ] ;dfh, lghL If]q, j}1flgs ;d'bfonufotsf] ;xeflutfsf] dxTjnfO{ xfdLn] cfTd;ft u/]sf 5f}+ . of] ;Dd]ngsf] bf}/fg Pjd k"jtof/Lsf] k|lqmofdf ePsf { ;a} ;fGble{s sfo{x?nfO{ xfdL :jfut ub{5f}+ . #_ ljkb /f]syfd / pTyfgzLntfsf] ;+:s[lt / o;;“u hf]l8Psf k"j–ljkb { /0fgLltx? :j:y nufgLx? x'g / o;nfO{ AolQmb]lv cGt/f{li6«o;Ddsf ;Dk"0f{ txx?df ;Da4{g ug'kb{5 eGg] xfdLn] a'em]sf 5f}+ . k|slthGo k|sf]ksf] hf]lvddf { [ dfgj ;dfh af“Rg kl//x]sf] 5 . o;f] ePtfklg xfdL tL zlQmxLg dflg;x?sf ;fd' k'Ug ;ls/x]sf 5}gf}+ hf] k|sf]k k"jtof/L / c;/nfO{ cNkLs/0f ug{ cIfd { 5g . h;sf nflu ljkb Go"gLs/0f rqmsf] k[i7e"lddf gful/s–s]lGb|t k"j– { r]tfjgL k|0ffnL, hf]lvd d"Nof+sg, lzIff Pjd c? k"jlqmofd'vL, PsLs[t, { ax'–k|sf]kLo, ax'–If]qut kxn / ultljlwx?nfO{ dfWod agfpg ;lsG5 . ljkb hf]lvd, k|sf]k / o;sf] c;/ uDeL/ vt/fsf]?kdf plePklg k|ltsfo{nfO{ hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ug]{ / eljiodf ;+s6f;Ggtf sd ug]{ sfo{x?tkm{ pGd'v u/fpg ;Sg'kb{5 / ug}kb{5 . { $_ xfd|f] of] b[9tf 5 ls s'g} klg b]zsf gful/ssf] hLpwgsf] ;'/Iff ug]{ k|dv' bfloTj /fHosf] xf] . t;y{ /fHosf] Ifdtf / ;|ftcg'?k ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ] /fli6«o gLltdf k|fyldstf lbg' clt g} dxTjk"0f{ 5 . xfdL s] s'/fdf ;xdt 5f}+ eg] :yfgLotxdf ljkb hf]lvdnfO{ Go"gLs/0f ug{ ;d'bfotxsf] Ifdtf clej[l4 ug'{ cTofjZos 5 . gful/s / ;d'bfodf ljkbsf 36gfx? hLjg, hLljsf, cfTd;Ddfg / ;'/Iffsf] k|dv r'gf}tLx? x'g . cem ljz]iftM ul/ax?sf] nflu . ' t;y{ ljkbsf] vt/fdf /x]sf ljsf;f]Gd'v / sdljsl;t /fi6«x? Pjd ljsl;t ( xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  15. 15. cWofo ! M k[i7e"ld /fi6«sf ;–;fgf 6fk'x?df ljkbsf] hf]lvd sd ug'{ tTsfnsf] cfjZostf xf] . o;sf] nflu ;'b9 /fli6«o k|of;x? / ljsl;t låkIfLo, If]qLo / cGt/f{li6«o [ ;xsfo{sf] ;xfotf lnOg'kb{5 . %_ xfdL, t;y{, ‘xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf @))%–@)!% M ljkblj?4 /fi6« / ;d'bfox?sf] pTyfgzLntfsf] lgdf{0f’ nfO{ :jLsf/ ub{5f}+ . o;sf /0fg}lts nIox?, cfzf ul/Psf pknAwLx?, k|fyldstfsf sfo{x?, sfof{Gjog /0fgLltx? / cg'udg ultljlwx? csf]{ bzs;Dd ljkb Go"gLs/0f ug]{ dfu{–lgb]zsLo ;+/rgf x'g5g . { ] ^_ xfdL ljZjf; ub{5f}+} ls xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf ;a} txdf d"t?kdf cg'jflbt { ug{ o;sf pknAwLx?nfO{ ljkb Go" g Ls/0fsf] cGt/f{ l i6« o /0fgLlt (International Strategy For Disaster Reduction) dfkm{t cg'udg ul/g'kb{5 . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf cfzf ul/Psf pknAwL / /0fg}lts nIox?nfO{ xfl;n ug{ lglZrt kl/l:yltx? / Ifdtfx?sf] cfwf/df pko'Qm ;"rs (indicator)sf] ljsf; ul/g'kb{5 eGg] xfdLn] a'em]sf 5f}+ . ljleGg ;/f]sf/jfnfx?aLr ;xof]ufTds efjgf / ;fd"lxszlQmsf] k[i7kf]if0f ug]{ lsl;dsf cGtlqm{ofx? Pjd :jod;jL u7aGwgnfO{ ;Da4{g ug]{ ultljlwx?n] ljkb ] Go"gLs/0fdf k'¥ofpg] ;xof]usf] xfdLn] dgg u/]sf 5f}+ . ;"rgf cfbfgk|bfgsf] ;+oGqnfO{ cem ljsf; u/]/ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf sfo{qmdx?, k|of;x?, /fd|f cEof;x?, l;sfOx?, k|ljlwx?, kl/0ffdx? / kmfObfx?nfO{ cGt/f{li6«o ;d'bfoaLr af“8g xfdL sl6a4 5f}+ . &_ xfdL ca ;a} txsf ;/f]sf/jfnfx?l;t ‘sfo{’ (action)sf] nflu cfxjfg ub}{ ;fGble{s / ljlzi6 cg'ej ePsfx?;“u of]ubfgsf] ck]Iff ub{5f}+ . xfdL of] s'/fk|lt ;r]t 5f}+ ls of] ljZj ;Dd]ngsf] pknAwLnfO{ d"t?k lbg] sfo{ xfd|f] { lg/Gt/ / cys ;fd"lxs k|of;, alnof] /fhg}lts OR5fzlQm Pjd ;femf lhDd]jf/L / nufgLdf lge{/ /x]sf] 5 . xfd|f] jt{dfg / efjL lk9L+sf] lxtsf] lglDt csf]{ bzsleq ljkbsf] hf]lvdaf6 ljZjnfO{ ;'/lIft kfg{ h?/L 5 . *_ of] ljZj ;Dd]ngsf] cfltYotf k|bfg ug]{ hfkfgsf] ;/sf/ / hfkfgL hgtf, ljz]ifu/L xof]uf] If]qsf hgtfx?sf] xfdL cToGt k|z;f ub{5f}+ . + xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !)
  16. 16. cWofo ! M k[i7e"ld xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf /0fg}lts nIox? M s_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ lbuf] ljsf;sf] /0fgLlt, of]hgf / sfo{qmdx?df cem k|efjsf/L?kdf / ;a} txdf ;dflxt ug]{ . ;fy} ljkb /f]syfd (prevention), cNkLs/0f (mitigation), k"j{tof/L (preparedness_ / ;+s6f;Ggtf (vulnerability) Go"gLs/0fdf ljz]if hf]8 lbg] . v_ ljz]iftM ;d'bfosf] txdf k|0ffnLut of]ubfg lbg;Sg] u/L ljkblj?4 pTyfgzLntf (resilience) sf] lgdf{0f / ;'b9Ls/0f ug{ ;+:yf, ;+oGq / [ Ifdtfx?sf] ljsf; ug]{ . u_ cfkTsfnLg k"jtof/L, k|ltsfo{ / k'gnf{esf of]hgf agfp“bf / sfo{qmd { sfof{Gjog ubf{ hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf cjwf/0ffx?nfO{ k|0ffnLut ;dfof]hg ug]{ . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] k|fyldstfsf sfo{x? M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfn] kf“rj6f k|fyldstfsf sfo{x? klxrfg u/]sf] 5 . o;nfO{ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] d'Vo efu klg dfGg ;lsG5 . k|To]s k|fyldstf cGtu{tsf ;Defljt sfo{x?nfO{ o; ;+/rgfn] lj:t[t?kdf AofVof u/]sf] 5 . k|fyldstfsf] sfo{ ! M alnof] ;+:yfut cfwf/;lxt ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o / :yfgLo k|fyldstf x'g5 eGg] ;'lglZrttf ug]{ . ] k|fyldstfsf] sfo{ @ M ljkbsf hf]lvdx?sf] klxrfg, lgwf{/0f / cg'udg ug]{ tyf k"jrtfjgL lbg] { ] Aoj:yfsf] clej[l4 ug]{ . !! xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  17. 17. cWofo ! M k[i7e"ld k|fyldstfsf] sfo{ # M ;a} txdf ljkb ;'/Iff / pTyfgzLntfsf] lgdf{0f ug{ lzIff, 1fg / gjLgtd tf}/tl/sfsf] k|of]u ug]{ . k|fyldstfsf] sfo{ $ M hf]lvdsf cGtlglx{t tTjx?nfO{ Go"gLs/0f ug]{ . k|fyldstfsf] sfo{ % M ;a} txdf k|efjsf/L k|ltsfo{sf] nflu ljkb k"jtof/LnfO{ ;zQm kfg]{ . { xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf dfu{–lgb]{zs l;4fGtx? M !_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] sfof{Gjogdf /fHosf] k|dv pQ/bfloTj /xG5 . ' lbuf] ljsf;sf] nflu /fHo nufgLsf] dxTjk"0f{ lx:;fsf] ?kdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /xg'kb{5 . k|sf]kaf6 cfkmgf gful/ssf] ;'/Iff ug{ / ;DklQ hf]ufpg /fHo;“u zlQm /x]sf] x'G5 . t/ /fHo PSn}n] dfq of] sfd ug{ ;Sb}g . ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] k|efjsfl/tf w]/} ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] e"ldsfdf lge{/ /x]sf] x'G5 . h:t} M If]qLo / cGt/f{li6«o ;+u7gx?, :jod;js;lxtsf] gful/s ] ;dfh, lghL If]q, ;+rf/dfWod, j}1flgs ;d'bfo cflb OToflb . @_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ljsf;sf ultljlwx?;“u PsLs[t ul/g'kb{5 . ljkbn] hLjg, hLljsfnfO{ w/fzfoL kfl//x]sf] 5 / w]/} dflg;nfO{ ul/aLsf] s'rqmaf6 p7g lbO/x]sf] 5}g . sl7g ;+3if{ / 7"nf] nufgLaf6 k|fKt ljsf;sf pknAwLx?nfO{ ;d]t ljkbn] lg:t]h ul//x]sf] 5 . o:tf] Ifltaf6 hf]ufpg /fHon] ljsf;sf /0fgLltx?df ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf sfo{qmdnfO{ ;dflxt ug'kb{5, ljsf; of]hgfsf] dxTjk"0f{ kf6f]sf]?kdf ljkbsf] ;Defljt vt/f { xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !@
  18. 18. cWofo ! M k[i7e"ld klxNofpg'kb{5, cfjZos ;|ft ljlgof]hg ug'kb{5 / If]qut of]hgfx?df klg of] ] { nfu" ul/g'kb{5 . ljkbn] ljZjel/ k'¥ofO/x]sf] IfltnfO{ dWogh/ ub}{ cGt/f{li6«o ljsf; a}sx?, cGt/f{li6«o ;xfotf ;+:yfx?n] ljsf; of]hgf / cEof;x?df + ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ a9bf] dxTjsf] ;fy ;+nUg u/fO/x]sf 5g . dfgjLo ;xfotf sfo{df ;+nUg ;+:yfx?n] klg ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ cfkmgf gLlt / sfo{qmdx?sf] cfwf/e"ttTjsf] ?kdf dfGb} cfPsf 5g . h;n] ubf{ dfgjLo k|ltsfo{ / ;xfotfsf] cfjZostf / dfqf 36b} hfg] ljZjf; pgLx?sf] 5 . #_ ;fdfGotof Pp6f ;d'bfo w]/} k|sf/sf k|sf]kx?sf] vt/fdf /x]sf] x'G5 . rfx] Tof] k|fs[lts (natural) xf];, dfgjhGo (human-induced) xf]; jf jftfj/0fLo (environmental), k|fBf]lusLo (technological), ef}ule{sLo } (geological), h}ljsLo (biological) cflb g} lsg gxf]; . t;y{ ax'ksf]kLo | kxnsbdLn] g} ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] k|efjsfl/tf a9fpg ;Sb5 . lglZrt k|sf/sf] k|sf]knfO{ 5gf}6 u/L sfof{Gjog ul/Psf sfo{qmdx?n] ljkb hf]lvdnfO{ k|efjsf/L?kdf ;fdgf ug{ ;Sb}g . ax'ksf]kLo kxn eGgfn] ;a} | k|sf/sf k|sf]kx?sf] 1fgnfO{ Pscsf{;u hf]8b} ljkb hf]lvd Aoj:yfkg, “ /fhg}lts /0fgLltx?, Aoj;flos d"Nof+sgx?, k|fljlws ljZn]if0fx?,;+rfng Ifdtfx? Pjd hgdfg;sf] a'emfOx?df ptfb}{ n}hfg] eGg] a'emgkb{5 h;af6 ' vr{–nfesf] b[li6 / sfo{ k|efjsfl/tfsf] lx;fadf 7"nf] pknAwL xft nfUg ;sf]; . $_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] s]Gb|ljGb'df /x]sf] /0fgLlt g} Ifdtf ljsf; xf] . gful/s, ;+u7g / ;d'bfon] ljkbsf] hf]lvdnfO{ cfkm}n] Aoj:yfkg ug{ ;Sg] + agfpg Ifdtf ljsf; ckl/xfo{ 5 . Ifdtf ljsf; eGgfn] tflnd / ljlzi6 k|fljlws ;xfotf dfq xf]Og, cfkmgf] ;d'bfosf] ljkb hf]lvd klxrfg ug]{ / hf]lvd sd ub}{ n}hfg] IfdtfnfO{ cem ;'b9 t'Nofpg' klg xf] . o; cGtu{t lbuf] [ k|ljlw x:tfGt/0f, ;"rgfsf] cfbfgk|bfg, ;+oGq ljsf;, Aoj:yfksLo ;Lk, Aoj;flos ;Da4tfx?, ;|ft kl/rfng cflb klg kb{5g . Ifdtf ljsf;sf ] !# xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  19. 19. cWofo ! M k[i7e"ld sfo{qmdx? tL ;+:yfx?af6 dfq} lbuf] x'g;S5 h;n] o;}nfO{ cfkmgf] :yfoL p2]Zo agfPsf] xf]; . %_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] nflu ljs]Gb|Ls[t pQ/bfloTj csf]{ dxTjk"0f{ s'/f xf] . ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf w]/} ultljlwx? If]qLo txdf, gu/kflnsf txdf jf ufp“ txdf ;+rfng ug{ cfjZos x'G5 . ljkbsf] s]xL k|dv hf]lvd ' tTjx? h:t} e"–pkof]usf] lgwf{/0f, ejg lgdf{0f :jLs[lt h:tf s'/fx? :yfgLo txsf] k|zf;sLo pQ/bfloTjleq kb{5g . t;y{ :yfgLo txsf ljlzi6 tTjx?sf] klxrfg u/L k|efjsf/L k|ltsfo{ hgfpg pQ/bfloTj / ;|ft b'jsf] ljs]Gb|Ls/0f ] } ul/g}kb{5 . ljs]Gb|Ls/0fn] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf :yfgLo ;xeflutf j[l4 ug{ pTk|/0ff hufpg'sf] ;fy} sfo{ r':ttfdf ;'wf/ Nofp“b5 . ] ^_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] k|efjsfl/tfsf]nflu hg;xeflutf geO{ x'bg .“} ;d'bfo ;lDdlnt eP/ lqmofsnfkx? th'df ul/P dfq tL cfjZostfdf { cfwfl/t 5g / jf:tljs ;+s6f;Ggtflj?4 pGd'v 5 eGg ;lsG5 . hgtfsf] ;"lrt–;xeflutfn] k|sf]ksf] a]nfdf b]lvg] ;d:ofnfO{ sd ug{ lgs} 7"nf] 6]jf k'¥ofp“b5 . ;xeflutfd"ns kxnsbdLn] k|sf]klj?4 k':tf}blv k|of]u x'b} cfPsf] +] “ ;gftg 1fg (indigenous knowledge) nfO{ cem k|efjsf/L agfp“b5 . :yfgLo cjwf/0ffx?nfO{ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf lqmofsnfk / lg0f{ox?df ;dfof]hg ug{ ;lsof] eg] ljkbsf] hf]lvd / ;+s6f;GgtfnfO{ ;d'bfon] klxrfg u/]sf] 5 eGg] ;'lglZrttf x'G5 . hg;xeflutfn] ;+:yfut k|lqmofx?df, hf]lvd n]vfhf]vf sfo{df / gLlt sfo{qmd th'df ubf{ klg k|ToIfk/f]If?kdf ;kmntfsf] { nflu ;xof]u k'¥ofO/x]sf] x'G5 . &_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf lghL–;fj{hlgs ;fem]bf/L (Private–Public Partnership) klg dxTjk"0f{ ljlw xf] . k|fs[lts k|sf]kn] lghL / ;fj{hlgs b'j} If]qnfO{ k|efljt kfb{5 . t;y{ oL b'O{ If]qsf] ;fem]bf/Ln] b'jsf] cfcfkmgf } ;|ft / lj1tfnfO{ ;+oQm?kdf kl/rfng u/L ;Defljt Ifltaf6 hf]ufpg / ] ' ;d'bfosf] pTyfgzLntfsf] ljsf; ug{ dxTjk"0f{ ;3fp k'¥ofpg ;Sb5 . o;df ;fj{hlgs If]q eGgfn] ;/sf/L lgsfo, Aoj;flos ;+3;+:yfx?, k|fl1s ;+:yfx?, xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !$
  20. 20. cWofo ! M k[i7e"ld u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx? cflb a'emgkb{5 eg] lghL If]q eGgfn] cf}Bf]lus, Aofkfl/s ' ;+:yfx?, tL ;Da4 ;+3;+u7gx?, lghL k|lti7fgx? cflbnfO{ a'emfp“b5 . *_ ljkbsf] hf]lvd / ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f sfof{Gjogdf n}lus ;jfn + klg plQs} dxTjk"0f{ x'g cfp“5 . ljutdf ePsf ljkbsf 36gfx?n] s] hgfPsf] 5 eg] sd cfh{g ug]{ / ljljw sf/0fn] ;LdfGts[t ePsf -h:t} M j}jflxs cj:yf, zf/Ll/s b'antf, ;fdflhs / hftLo e]befj cflb_ dlxnfx?n] a9L { ;f:tL v]Kg' kl//x]sf] 5 . ;d'bfosf] txdf dlxnfx? ljkb hf]lvd Aoj:yfkg ug{;Sg] alnof] l:yltdf /x]sf x'G5g lsgeg] pgLx? cfkm}+ k|fs[lts ;|ftsf] ] pkef]Qmf / Aoj:yfks x'gu/]sf 5g . t;y{ n}lus b[li6n] klg ljlzi6Ls[t ] + ;"rgfsf] klxrfg u/L k|of]u ul/g'kb{5 . ;fy} hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf /0fgLltx? k'?if / dlxnf b'jsf] e"ldsfnfO{ Vofn ub}{ cjnDag ul/b+5 eGg] s'/fsf] } } ;'lglZrttf x'gkb{5 . ' (_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf lqmofsnfkx? /fHosf] lglZrt ;+/rgf cg'sn " x'g] u/L ul/g'kb{5 . ljleGg /fi6«x?sf] km/s–km/s /fhg}lts, ;fdflhs, cfly{s, ;f+:s[lts, jftfj/0fLo / k|sf]ksf kl/l:yltx?df tL lqmofsnfkx? lge{/ /xG5 . kl/df0ftM Ps 7fp“df ;kmn ePsf] sfo{qmd x'ax' p:t} ug{ vf]Hbf csf]{ 7fp“df klg ;kmn g} x'G5 eGg ;lsb+g . t;y{ c? 7fp“sf l;sfO cg'ej } / kf7x?, cEof;x?nfO{ n]vfhf]vf u/L :yfgLo ;Gbe{df To;sf] pko'Qmtf lgSof}n u/]/ dfq lqmofsnfkx? to ul/g'kb{5 . o;f] ubf{ ;f+:s[lts / eflifs { ljljwtf, wd{, hftLotf, /fhg}lts k|0ffnL, k|slt;“usf] P]ltxfl;s ;DaGw, [ ;d'bfo / kfl/jfl/s ;~hfn Pjd g]tTj k|0ffnL, k/Dk/fut clwsf/x? cflb [ OToflbaf/] Psbd} ;r]t /xg'kb{5 . oL tTjx?nfO{ ;'?jftd} x[boªud u/]/ dfq gLlt tyf sfo{qmdx?sf] th'df ul/g'kb{5 . { of]sf]xfdf /0fgLlt !(($ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] lgdf{0fsf] nflu of]sf]xfdf /0fgLltn] alnof] cfwf/ k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . ;g !(($ df cjnDag ul/Psf] o; /0fgLltn] ljkb hf]lvd !% xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  21. 21. cWofo ! M k[i7e"ld Go"gLs/0f / k|sf]ksf] c;/ sd ug{ dxTjk"0f{ dfu{lgb]zg tof/ u¥of] . { of]sf]xfdf /0fgLltsf] sfo{ ;dLIffsf] qmddf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf k|dv ' r'gf}tLx?sf] klxrfg ul/Psf] lyof] . tL r'gf}tL / b]lvPsf l/Qmttfx?nfO{ lgDgfg';f/ kf“r If]qdf pNn]v ul/Psf] lyof] M s_ ;'zf;g M ;+u7gfTds, sfg"gL / gLltut ;+/rgfx? . v_ hf]lvd klxrfg, d"Nof+sg, cg'udg / k"jrtfjgL . { ] u_ 1fg Aoj:yfkg / lzIff . 3_ ljBdfg hf]lvdsf tTjx?sf] Go"gLs/0f . ª_ k|efjsf/L k|ltsfo{ / k'gnf{esf] k"jtof/L . { of]sf]xfdf /0fgLltn] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] ;a} kIfx?df k"jlqmofzLn { cjwf/0ff (proactive approach) cg';f/ gful/snfO{ :yfgLo ;d'bfox?df g} ;';lrt ug], pTk|l/t ug]{ / ;+nUg u/fpg'kg]{ s'/fdf hf]8 lbPsf] lyof] . o;n] " { ] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf p2]Zox?nfO{ xfl;n ug{ ljsf; ah]6af6 5'§ofOPsf] ;|ft lgs} g} ck'u /x]sf] eGb} /fli6«o, If]qLo / cGt/f{li6«o txdf cfly{s ;+oGq ] / ;xsfo{ j[l4 ug{ ;'emfj lbPsf] lyof] . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !^
  22. 22. xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  23. 23. cWofo @ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfkx? xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !&
  24. 24. ljifo;"rL k[i7 cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfkx? s_ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk ! @)–#@ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk !=! @! xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk !=@ @$ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk !=# @& xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk !=$ #) k/LIf0f ;"lr #@ v_ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk @ ##–$^ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk @=! #$ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk @=@ #& xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk @=# $) xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk @=$ $# k/LIf0f ;"lr $^ u_ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk # $&–#$ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk #=! $* xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk #=@ %) xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk #=# %$ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk #=$ %^ k/LIf0f ;"lr %* !* xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  25. 25. 3_ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $ %(–&( xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $=! ^) xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $=@ ^# xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $=# ^% xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $=$ ^& xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $=% &) xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $=^ &@ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk $=& &^ k/LIf0f ;"lr &* ª_ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk % *)–%^ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk %=! *! xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk %=@ *$ xof]uf] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk %=# *^ k/LIf0f ;"lr () xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn !(
  26. 26. k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk ! ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o / :yfgLo k|fyldstfdf /xg] s'/f ;'lglZrt ug]{ . o;sf] sfof{Gjogsf] nflu ;zQm ;+:yfut cfwf/x? tof/ ug]{ . k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk ! sfof{Gjogsf] nflu Psflt/ /fhg}lts k|lta4tf / ;d'bfosf] ;xeflutf cfjZos /xG5 eg] csf]lt/ ;+:yfut, sfg"gL / { sfo{;rfng ;+oGqx?nfO{ ljsf; ug{ jf ;'b9 ug{ h?/L 5 . of] k|fyldstfk|fKt + [ lqmofsnfkn] ljsf;sf of]hgfx?df ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ;dflxt ug{ Pjd cfjZostfcg';f/ lhDd]jf/LnfO{ ljs]Gb|Ls/0f ug'kg]df hf]8 lbPsf] 5 . { { xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfn] k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk ! sfof{Gjog ug{ /fHon] lgDg sfo{x? ug'kg]{ ;'emfj lbPsf] 5 M { !=! ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] cfwf/x? tof/ ug{ ax'–;/f]sf/jfnf (multi- stakeholders) ;+nUg ;+jfb ;+rfng ug]{ . !=@ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf k|0ffnLut ;dGjosf nflu ;+oGq lgdf{0f ug]{ jf ;'b9 t'Nofpg] . [ !=# ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ;+:yfut cfwf/sf] d"Nof+sg / ljsf; ug]{ . !=$ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ k|fyldstfdf /fVg], cfjZos ;|ftsf] ljlgof]hg ] ug]{ . k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk ! sf k|ult ;"rsx? M – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] lglDt sfg"gL ;+/rgfsf] lgdf{0f . ;/f]sf/jfnf ;a} txdf :ki6 lhDd]jf/Lx?sf] af“8kmf“8 . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ax'–If]qut (multi-sectoral) /fli6«o d~rsf] k|efjsf/L ;+rfng . @) xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  27. 27. cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – ! – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] /fli6«o gLlt ;+/rgf tof/ . o;df /fli6«ob]lv :yfgLo;Dd ;a} k|zf;lgs txx?sf of]hgf / lqmofsnfkx? ;dfj]z . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f sfof{Gjogsf] nflu ;a} k|zf;lgs txx?df kof{Kt ;|ftx?sf] pknAwtf . ] !=! ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf cfwf/x? tof/ ug{ ax';/f]sf/jfnf ;+nUg ;+jfb ;+rfng ug]{ . p2]Zo M of] lqmofsnfkn] /fi6«sf ;DalGwt ;/f]sf/jfnfx?nfO{ Ps} 7fp“df NofO{ ;+/rgfTds 5nkmnx? (structured discussions) åf/f ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf k|of;x?nfO{ ;zQm kfg]{ p2]Zo /fv]sf] 5 . dxTj M ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf ckm7of/fx? / ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] rf;f]nfO{ ;Daf]wg ug]{ pko'Qm ljlw g} ;+/rgfTds 5nkmn xf] . o;n] km/s km/s ;d"xx?aLr ;femf ;f]rfOsf] ljsf; ug{ ;xof]u ub{5 eg] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu /fli6«o ;xdlt lgdf{0f ug{ klg 6]jf k'¥ofp“b5 . ;/f]sf/jfnf ;+:yfx? / If]qx?dWo] s;sf] s] e"ldsf /xg] eGg] s'/f :ki6 ug]{ s'/fdf ;d]t o;n] 7"nf] ;xof]u ub{5 . sfo{ ljlw M != k|dv ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] klxrfg ug]{ / ltgLx?aLr lqmofzLn ;xsfo{sf] ' ;'lglZrttf ug]{ . k|dv ;/f]sf/jfnfx? tL x'g h;n] of]hgf th'df ug{, ' { hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /0fgLlt / sfo{qmdx? sfof{Gjog ug{ jf k|j4{g ug{ e"ldsf v]Nb5g . @= cl:tTjdf /x]sf ;fGble{s ;/sf/L jf gful/s ;dfh ;+u7gx?sf] klxrfg ug]{ . oL ;+oGqx?sf] k|of]un] 5nkmnnfO{ slt ;xof]u k'¥ofpg ;Sb5 egL n]vfhf]vf ug]{ . #= ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ;xof]u ug{ ;Sg] Ps jf a9L h'emf? cu'jf (champion) sf] klxrfg ug]{ . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn @!
  28. 28. cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – ! $= ljkbaf6 k|efljt ;d"x jf OR5's ;d"xx?sf] e]nf cfof]hgf ug]{ . %= ;femf nIo, If]q, Ph]08f, w/ftnLo lgod / sfo{ljlwaf/] ;xdlt tof/ ug]{ . ^= ljz]if ;jfnx?df sfd ug{ ;Dej eP;Dd ax'If]qut (multisectoral) sfo{ ;d"x jf ;ldltx?sf] :yfkgf ug]{ . &= ;Dk"0f{ sfo{x?sf] ;dGjosf] nflu ;+oGqsf] :yfkgf ug]{ . ;dGjoleq k|ult lgSof}n / cg'udg Pjd kl/0ffdx?nfO{ PsLs[t ug]{ sfo{df hf]8 lbg] . { *= 7f]; kl/kf6Lsf] ljsf; u/]/ 5nkmnnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg] . (= 5nkmnsf kl/0ffdx? k|jflxt ug]{ Pjd afxo ;'emfjx?nfO{ k|fKt ug]{ / cjnDag ug]{ k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; ug]{ . 5nkmnsf kl/0ffdx? ;DalGwt ;/sf/L clwsf/Lx?, ;xefuL ;+3;+:yfx? / gful/s tx;Dd k'¥ofpg] . pQ/bfloTj / ;|f]tx? M – cy{, jftfj/0f, /fli6«o of]hgf / gLlt lgdf{0f x]g{] lgsfox? . – lzIff, :jf:Yo, s[lif dGqfno / c? ;fGble{s If]qx? . – /fli6«o ljkb Aoj:yfkg / gful/s clwsf/ ;+/If0f ;DaGwL sfo{ ug]{ ;+3;+u7gx? . ltgLx?sf] sfo{;rfng ;fem]bf/x? h:t} k|x/L, /]8qm; cflb . + – gful/s hLjgsf] nflu dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]Ng] cfly{s / ;fdflhs k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f sfo{df ;+nUgx? . – ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtfsf] lgu/fgL, lgodg / cg'df]bgsf nflu lhDd]jf/ gful/s c+ux? . jftfj/0fLo Aoj:yfksx?, l/of] ;Dd]ngsf /fli6«o kmf]sn KjfOG6, dlxnf cfof]u, k|dv dfgjLo / ;fdflhs ;]jf ;Da4 ' ;+u7gx? . – e"–pkof]u;DaGwL of]hgfsf/x?, cfls{6]S6x?, OlGhlgo/x?, lgdf{0f 7]sbf/x?, e"uf]nljbx?, k|sf]klj1x?, jlsnx?, lzIfsx?, tflnd ;|ft ] ] AolQmx?, cg';Gwfgstf{x?, Aoj;flos ;+u7gx? . – hf]lvd klxrfg, k|sf]k cg'udg, k"j–r]tfjgL / k"jtof/L ;DaGwL sfo{ { { ug]{ k|fljlws / j}1flgs ;+:yfx? . – lghL If]q M ljlQo ;+:yfx? -a}s, aLdf_ / ;+rf/ k|ljlw ;DaGwL sDkgLx? . + – ;+rf/ ;+:yfx? . @@ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  29. 29. cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – ! – u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx?, dlxnf / o'jf ;d"x, jftfj/0fLo pRr hf]lvddf /x]sf If]qdf jsfnt ug]{ ;fd'bflos ;d"xx? . cg's"n cj:yf M – ;/sf/L / ;/f]sf/jfnf ;+u7gx? Pjd ;d'bfosf g]tfx?sf] ;xof]u . – gful/snfO{ pTk|/0ff / ?lr hufpg ;Sg], ;d'bfo / ;/sf/aLr k'nsf] ] sfd ug{;Sg] cu'jf AolQm jf AolQmx? (champion or champions) . – a[xt ;xeflutfsf] nflu ;fjwfgLk"0f{ 9+un] agfOPsf] of]hgf . -5nkmnsf] nflu pko'Qm ;do, 7fp“, cj:yfsf] 5gf}6 cflb_ . – 5nkmnsf qmddf k|bfg ug'kg]{ cfjZos hfgsf/Lx? . -h:t} ljkb hf]lvdsf] { cj:yf d"Nof+sg, ;+s6f;Ggtf, k|sf]k 36gfx?sf] cWoog lgrf]8, ;/sf/sf of]hgf, /0fgLlt, P]g, sfg"gx? cflb ._ ;kmn pbfx/0f M df]/Ssf]df klxnf]k6s ;g @))$ df ljkbsf] hf]lvdsf] af/]df /fli6«o sfo{zfnfsf] cfof]hgf ul/Psf] lyof] . ;f] sfo{zfnfn] df]/Ssf]sf] ljkbsf] hf]lvd / o;nfO{ Go"g ug{ rflnPsf sbdx?sf] ;dLIff ug'sf] ;fy} ;+:yfut, { sfg"gL / ;+u7gfTds k|0ffnLdf b]lvPsf sdhf]/Lx?sf] klxrfg u/]sf] lyof] . of] sfo{zfnfkl5 df]/Ssf]df ljkbsf] af/]df ax; ug]{ ljljw d+rx? u7g ul/of] / /fli6«o ;dGjo ;ldlt klg agfOof] . ljkbsf af/]df ;/f]sf/jfnfx?l;t 5nkmn ug]{ nx/ g} rfNof] . ljkbsf] ljlzi6 ;jfnx?nfO{ lnP/ k|z:t k|ltj]bgx? tof/ ul/P . oL k|To]s sfo{zfnf / 5nkmnsf k|ltj]bgnfO{ k|sflzt ug]{ / ;/f]sf/jfnfx?aLr ljt/0f ug]{ ul/of] . /fhg}lts bnsf g]tfx?n] ljsf; of]hgf / ah]6 af“8kmf“8df ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ljz]if hf]8 lbg ;DalGwt dGqfno / ;/sf/L lgsfox?nfO{ cfxjfg u/] . cGttM ljkb hf]lvd Aoj:yfkgsf] /fli6«o k|ltj]bg tof/ ul/of], /fli6«o /0fgLlt agfOof] / cfkTsfnLg k|ltsfo{sf] nflu /fli6«o of]hgf tof/ ul/of] . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn @#
  30. 30. cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – ! !=@ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf k|0ffnLut ;dGjosf] nflu ;+oGq lgdf{0f ug]{ jf ;'b[9 t'Nofpg] . p2]Zo M of] lqmofsnfkn] ;/f]sf/jfnfx?nfO{ ;dGjofTds / k|efjsf/L sfo{sf] nflu ‘/fli6«o d~r’sf] u7g jf ;'b9Ls/0fsf] nflu k|fT;fxg ub{5 . /fli6«o d~rn] [ ] lgDg sfo{x? ug]{ p2]Zo lnPsf] 5 M – xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] sfof{Gjogsf] nflu /fli6«o of]hgfsf] g]tTj ug]{ . [ – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf ;/f]sf/jfnfx?aLr ;dGjo / ;xsfo{ j[l4 ug]{ . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f k|To]s gful/ssf] bfloTj xf] eGg] a'emfP/ ;'/Iff / pTyfgzLntfsf] ;+:s[lt ljsf; ug{ ;xof]u ug]{ . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ljsf; gLlt, /0fgLlt, lqmofsnfk / ax'kIfLo jftfj/0fLo ;Demf}tfx?df ;dflxt ug{ jsfnt ug]{ . dxTj M ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f hl6n sfo{ ePsfn] o;sf nflu /fhg}lts k|lta4tf, cfdr]tgf, j}1flgs 1fg, pQ/bfoL ljsf; of]hgfsf ;fy} gful/s– s]Gb|Lt k"j;rgf k|0ffnL / ljkb k|ltsfo{ ;+oGqsf] cfjZostf kb{5 . /fli6«o { " d+rn] ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfx?nfO{ Ps} 7fp“df NofO{ ltgLx?sf] 1fg, Ifdtf / ;|ftx?nfO{ ;+of]hg ub{5 . /fli6«o d+rn] ;fwf/0ftof lgDg sfo{x?df ;3fpg ] k'¥ofp“b5 M – /fli6«o ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f lqmofsnfkx?sf] sfof{Gjogdf ;'wf/ Nofp“b5 / lbzflgb]z ub{5 . { – gful/s ;dfh, ljz]iftM u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx?nfO{ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf ;jfndf /fli6«o / ;d'bfo:t/df ax; / ;fem]bf/Lsf] nflu cj;/ k|bfg ub{5 . – /fli6«o d+rsf ;b:ox?aLr k|ljlw, 1fg / ;"rgfsf] cfbfgk|bfgdf ;3fp k'¥ofp“b5 . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf If]qdf sfd ug]{ AolQmx?sf] cGo ;fGble{s /fli6«o, If]qLo / ljZjAofkL lgsfox?;“u ;DaGw lj:tf/ u/fp“b5 . @$ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  31. 31. cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – ! sfo{ ljlw M /fli6«o d+rnfO{ ;dGjo ug]{ ;+:yf :yfoL k|sltsf] x'gkb{5 . ;f] ;+:yf;“u [ ' k|efjzfnL g]tTj lbg;Sg], /fhg}lts k|lta4tfsf] nflu kxn ug{;Sg] / ;|ft [ ] kl/rfng u/fpg;Sg] Ifdtf x'gkb{5 . ' /fli6«o d~rn] o;/L sfo{ ug'kb{5 M { – k|sf]k ljj/0f, /fli6«o gLltx?, /0fgLltx?, Ifdtf cflb ;d]l6Psf] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f cfwf//]vf tof/ kfg]{ . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf k|fyldstfsf If]qx?sf] lgSof}n u/L To;df { /x]sf b'/L, rf;f], k|jlQ / r'gf}tLx?sf ;fy} clt;+s6f;Gg hg;+Vofsf] [ klxrfg ug]{ . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf ePsf k|ultx? Pjd ljsf; of]hgf / cEof;x?df o;sf] ;dfof]hgsf] d"Nof+sg ug]{ . – xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] sfof{Gjog ;dGjo ubf{ glthfd'vL sfo{of]hgfsf] ljsf; ug]{ . – t'ngfTds?kdf pRrhf]lvddf /x]sf gful/ssf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu /fli6«o d+rsf ;b:ox?aLr ;+oQm sfo{sf] nflu ;dGjo ug]{ . ' – ;femf pknAwL, pTs[i6 k|of;x? / k|fKt 1fgsf] ljj/0f cBfjlws /fVg] . ;b:ox?aLr hfgsf/L, 1fg / k|ljlwsf] cfbfgk|bfg ug{ ;xof]u ug]{ . – ;d'bfo / /fli6«o:t/df xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] sfof{Gjogsf] cg'udg / n]vfhf]vf u/L k|ltj]bg tof/ ug]{ . – pRrtxsf gLlt lgdf{tfx?nfO{ k|efljt ug{ ;DalGwt gLlt, lgodsf] af/]df jsfnt ug]{ . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ hnjfo' kl/jt{g, h}ljs ljljwtf, d?e"lds/0fh:tf ax'cfoflds jftfj/0fLo ;Demf}tf Pjd dfgjLo ;xfotf, ljsf; sfo{qmd / cjwf/0ff;“u ;dfof]hg ug{ sfo{ yfNg] . – c? /fli6«o d+rx?;“u ;dGjo ug]{ . ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf sfo{ ug]{ c? If]qLo ;+u7gx?;“u ;dGjo ug]{ / ;|ft ;+of]hgsf] cj;/ vf]Hg] . ] – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;“u ;DalGwt ;jfnx?nfO{ ;Daf]wg ug]{ cGo ;dGjosf/L ;+oGqx?;“u ;xsfo{ ug]{ . – cg';Gwfgsf ;jfnx?sf] ljsf; ug{ ;xhLs/0f ug]{ . cjwf/0ffut xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn @%
  32. 32. cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – ! sfo{;/rgf (Conceptual Framework) / ljlwut ;+/rgf (Methodological + Structure) df /xL cg';Gwfg ug{ lbzflgb]z / k|fT;fxg ug]{ . { ] – ljsf; sfo{stf{ tyf of]hgfsf/x?nfO{ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ lbuf] ljsf;;DaGwL cjwf/0ff h:t} ;x;|fAbL ljsf; nIo, ul/aL lgjf/0f /0fgLltkq cflb;“u hf]8g pTk|l/t ug]{ . ] – ax';/f]sf/jfnf cjwf/0ff / ax;nfO{ ;xof]u ug]{ . gful/s ;dfh ;+u7gx? ljz]iftM u};;x?nfO{ ljleGg:t/sf ax; / sfo{ ug{ ;xof]u ug]{ . cGt/f{li6«o ;d'bfo, ;+oQm /fi6«;3Lo k|0ffnL / /fli6«o clwsf/jfnfx?aLr ' + 5nkmn / ;fem]bf/Lsf] ljsf;df ;xof]u ug]{ . pQ/bfloTj / ;|f]tx?M – ;/sf/L k|ltlglwx? M /fli6«o, If]qLo / :yfgLo:t/sf . o;df ljz]iftM cy{, of]hgf, jftfj/0f, u[x, gful/s ;'/Iff, lzIff, :jf:Yo, ;dfhsNof0f, cfjf; tyf ef}lts, s[lif cflb x]g{] dGqfno cGtu{tsf kb{5g . – gful/s ;dfhsf k|ltlglw / ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf e"ldsf /xg] ;+u7gx? . ;fGble{s ;d"xx? h:t} ljsf; / jftfj/0fLo ;'/Iff;DaGwL, dfgj a;f]af;;DaGwL sfd ug]{ ;+u7gx? . pBdL / Aofkf/Lsf 5ftf ;+u7gx?, a}s tyf aLdf, dlxnf ;+3, wfld{s / o'jf kl/rfng ;+:yfx?, + ;/sf/L sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ tflnd lbg] ;+:yfx? cflb . – ;+rf/hut . – j}1flgs / z}lIfs ;+:yfx? . – k"jtof/L, k"j;rgf, k|sf]k cWoog / cg'udg, hf]lvd klxrfg h:tf { { " ;]jfx?sf] ljifodf sfd ug]{ k|fljlws tyf j}1flgs ;+:yfx? . cg's"n cj:yf M – pRrtxsf g]tfx?af6 /fhg}lts k|lta4tf . :ki6 sfo{qmd . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf cfwfl/t 1fg clej[l4 ug]{ k|fljlws lqmofsnfkx? . – ljkb Go"gLs/0fsf ;"rsx? ;d]t ;+nUg u/fOPsf] /fli6«o d+rsf] sfo{ljlw ;+/rgfsf] ljsf; . – /fli6«o d+rsf] ljsf; ug{ / o;sf] of]hgfnfO{ d"t?k lbg cfjZos ;|ftx? . { ] @^ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  33. 33. cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – ! ;kmn pbfx/0f M pRr e"sDkLo hf]lvdsf] If]q, hnjfo' kl/jt{g / jftfj/0fLo Iflt;“u} a9bf] hg3gTjn] ubf{ blIf0f Pl;ofsf /fi6«x? k|fs[lts k|sf]ksf] b[li6n] hf]lvdk"0f{ cj:yfdf 5g . blIf0f Pl;ofsf s]xL /fi6«x?n] ul//x]sf k|of;x? k|z;gLo + ePklg ;du| ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu w]/} 7"nf k|of; ug{ cem} af“sL 5. ;g @))^ cui6df ef/t, kfls:tfg, ckmuflg:tfg, a+unfb]z, g]kfn, e'6fg, dflNbE; / >Ln+sfn] If]qLo?kdf dxTjk"0f{ km8sf] df/]sf 5g . ef/tn] /fli6«o ljkb Aoj:yfkg ;+:yf / ‘b'of]u lgjf/0f’ eGg] u};;;“u ldn]/ blIf0f { Pl;ofnL gLltsf af/]df ax;sf] cfof]hgf u¥of] . o"g8LkL / k|flS6sn PS;gsf] ;xof]udf gof“lbNnLdf ePsf] pQm sfo{qmddf ;ftj6f blIf0f Pl;ofnL /fi6«sf ;DalGwt pRr:t/sf ;/sf/L sd{rf/L, j}1flgs, ;+rf/sdL{ / ;d'bfosf g]tfx? u/L !%) eGbf a9Lsf] k|ltlglwTj /x]sf] lyof] . ;xefuLx?n] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf If]qLo ;dGjosf] nflu lgisif{ lgsfn]/ lbNnL 3f]if0ffkq hf/L u/] . !=# ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ;+:yfut cfwf/ d"Nof+sg / ljsf; ug]{ . p2]Zo M o; lqmofsnfkn] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu /fli6«o gLlt, j}wflgs / ;+:yfut sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] d"Nof+sg / ljsf; ug]{ k|of; ub{5 . cGttf]uTjf o;af6 ljkbaf6 ;'/lIft / lbuf] ;d'bfo lgdf{0f ug{ cf}krfl/s cfwf/ tof/ x'G5 . vf;ul/ o;n] gLltut l/Qmtfx? / Ifdtf klxNofpg d2t ug'sf] ;fy} { k|ult cg'udg / dfkg ug{sf nflu cfwf//]vfsf] ljsf;df ;3fp k'¥ofp“b5 . dxTj M s'g} klg /fi6«sf] Aoj:yflksf / ;/sf/L k|0ffnLn] g} ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf ;a} If]qdf of]hgf / ;+u7gsf] nflu cfwf/ k|bfg ub{5 . To;}n] t c;n zf;g / kof{Kt ;+:yfut cfwf/x? ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn @&
  34. 34. cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – ! dxTjk"0f{ cfjZostf xf] . ljBdfg sfg"gL / k|zf;lgs cj:yfsf] d"Nof+sgn] g} xfnsf] Ifdtf, alnof] / sdhf]/Lx? kQf nufO{ gLltut, sfg"gL / ;+:yfut sfo{ ;+/rgfx?df ul/g'kg]{ ;'wf/x?sf] cfwf/ k|bfg ub{5 . ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] ;'b9 gLltn] ;'zf;g sfod u/fpg ;d]t ;3fp k'¥ofp“b5 . h:t} M [ ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtf jf e"–pkof]u of]hgf nfu" ul/Pdf ljkb hf]lvd / k|zf;sLo Aoj:yfkgsf] k|ult a'emg ;+:yfut d"Nof+sg klg ul/g'kb{5 h;n] ubf{ ;'zf;g sfod u/fpg ;3fp k'¥ofp“b5 . sfo{ ljlw M != efjL of]hgf / ;+:yfut 5nkmnsf] nflu ;/f]sf/jfnfx?aLr e]nfsf] cfof]hgf ug]{ . @= lnlvt ;fdu|Lx? ;+sng ug]{ . ljkbsf k"jcg'ejx?, k"j36gfx? / l;sfOx?sf] { { cWoog ug]{ . ;/sf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfsf clwsf/Lx?;“u o;af/] yk a'emg] . #= ljBdfg k|0ffnLdf /x]sf ;an / lga{n kIfx?nfO{ s]nfP/ ;'wf/sf] cj;/ klxrfg ug]{ . ljz]iftM ;+:yfut Aoj:yfkg / ;|ftsf] ljZn]if0f ug]{ ] Pjd ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ s;/L /fli6«o ljsf; of]hgfsf] k|lqmofleq kfg]{ eg]/ af6f] kQf nufpg] . $= ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ s;/L ljsf; of]hgfx?;“u hf]8g ;lsG5 eGg]af/] /fli6«o, If]qLo / :yfgLo ;/f]sf/jfnf tyf ;/sf/L lgsfonfO{ ;'emfj lbg] . ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnf;“u ldn]/ sfd ug]{ . %= ;'emfj / d"Nof+sgsf] kl/0ffdsf] af/]df cGtlqm{of ug{ 5nkmnsf] cfof]hgf ug]{ . ^= ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] gLltsf] af/]df Aojl:yt9+un] k'g/fjnf]sg ug]{ / k|fyldstfsf sfo{x? klxrfg ug]{ . gLlt, /0fgLlt tyf cg'udg of]hgfx?nfO{ sfof{Gjog ug{ tf]lsPsf sfo{qmdsf] ljlzi6 p2]Zox? ljsf; ug]{ . cfwf//]vfsf] dfWodaf6 k|ult d"Nof+sg ug]{ . &= gLlt / cEof;x?sf] ;'wf/sf] nflu lbOPsf] ;'emfj sfof{Gjog ug{ of]hgfsf] lgdf{0f ug]{ . o;df k|:tfljt ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f sfo{qmdsf] AofVof ug]{ . @* xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  35. 35. cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – ! *= /fli6«o sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] cjwf/0ff, gLlt, /0fgLlt / sfof{Gjog of]hgfsf] nflu ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfx?;“u ldn]/ ;+oQm vfsf tof/ ug]{ / ;DalGwt ' 7fp“x?df ;Dk|i] f0f ug]{ . pQ/bfloTj / ;|f]tx? M ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfnfO{ ;“w} ;+nUg u/fpg ;Dej x'bg / pkof]uL gx'g klg ;S5 . “} d"Nof+sg / gLltut ljsf;sf] nflu lgDg kIfx?nfO{ ;+nUg u/fpg' pko'Qm x'G5 . – /fli6«o, If]qLo / :yfgLo:t/sf ;/sf/L k|ltlglwx? . cy{, of]hgf, jftfj/0f, u[x, gful/s ;'/Iff, lzIff, :jf:Yo, ;dfh sNof0f, cfjf;, s[lif If]q x]g{] dGqfnosf k|ltlglwx? . ax'kIfLo ;Demf}tf sfof{Gjogsf nflu pQ/bfoL lgsfox? . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf e"ldsf;lxtsf ;+:yfx? M h:t} ljsf; / jftfj/0f ;+/If0f ;d"x, pBf]u jfl0fHo dxf;+3, a}s tyf aLdf, ;/sf/L + sd{rf/LnfO{ tflnd lbg] ;+:yf, ;d'bfo / dlxnf ;d"x cflb . – ;fdflhs / k|fs[lts lj1fgsf 1ftf, e"uf]n tyf ljkb hf]lvd Aoj:yfkg ;+sfo ePsf ljZjljBfnox?, hgk|zf;g, OlGhlgo/ tyf cfly{s ljsf; tflnd s]Gb|x? . – /fli6«o sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] d"Nof+sg / ljsf;df ;3fp k'¥ofpg;Sg] sfg"gL / ;fj{hlgs gLltsf lj1x? . cg's"n cj:yf M – /fhg}lts / gful/s ;xof]u . – d"Nof+sg sfo{sf] nflu ;+u7gfTds / ;+u7g k|dvsf] ;xof]u . cGt/ljwfut ' / cGt/;+:yfut ;d"xk|lt k|lta4tf . – sfo{ ;+/rgf ljsf; / d"Nof+sgsf] nflu cffly{s / dfgjLo ;|ft . ] – ;fGble{s lnlvt ;fdu|Lx?;Ddsf] kx"r . -h:t} sfg"g, sfg"gL cfb]z, “" gLlt, of]hgf, ljkbsf k"j36gfx?sf] cg'ej cWoog cflb ._ { ;kmn pbfx/0f M ;g @))$ sf] ;'gfdLkl5 ef/t ;/sf/n] ljkb Aoj:yfkgsf] nflu a[xt xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn @(
  36. 36. cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – ! kxnsbdL ub}{ ljkb Aoj:yfkg P]g @))% tof/ u¥of] . h;cg';f/ /fli6«o, If]qLo / lhNnf:t/df ljkb Aoj:yfkg k|flws/0f u7g ul/Psf] 5 . oL lgsfox?sf] :ki6 sfo{ / lhDd]jf/L tf]lsPsf 5g . o:t} tflnd / Ifdtf clej[l4sf sfo{qmdx? ;+rfng ug{ ljkb Aoj:yfkg /fli6«o ;+:yfsf] u7g ul/Psf] 5 . To;}u/L ljkbsf 36gfnfO{ tTsfn} ;Daf]wg ug{ /fli6«o ljkb k|ltsfo{ an klg u7g ePsf] 5 . o;sf] cnfjf ;/sf/sf] tLg} txdf ljkb k|ltsfo{ sf]if ljkb cNkLs/0f sf]if v8f ul/Psf] 5 . !=$ ljkb hf] l vd Go" g Ls/0fnfO{ k| f yldstfdf /fVg] , cfjZos ;|f]tsf] ljlgof]hg ug]{ . p2]Zo M of] lqmofsnfkn] tf]lsPsf] lhDd]jf/L / pQ/bfloTj k"/f x'G5g egL ;'lglZrttf u/L gLltut, sfg"gL / ;+:yfut sfo{ ;+/rgf v8f ug]{ jf k|efjsf/L agfpg], ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ;/sf/L Pjd u}/;/sf/L If]qsf] P]gsfg"g, of]hgf / sfo{qmddf ;dflxt ug]{ / o;sf] nflu kof{Kt ;|ftsf] ljlgof]hg ug]{ ] p2]Zo /fv]sf] 5 . dxTj M ;'b9 jf gjul7t /fli6«o sfo{ ;+/rgfn] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ [ b}lgs sfo{ tyf ljleGg ;DalGwt ;+3;+:yf -h:t}M cfly{s ljsf;, ul/aL lgjf/0f, k"jf{wf/ ljsf;, jftfj/0fLo Aoj:yfkg, lzIff cflb If]qdf sfd ug]_sf] gLlt tyf lqmofsnfkx?df hf]8b5 . oL ;+:yfx? cfcfkmgf] If]qsf] of]hgf { agfpg / lqmofsnfk sfof{Gjog ug{ hlt ;Ifd x'G5g plt g} ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fn] k|fyldstf kfp“b5 . sfo{ ljlw M != ljkb hf]lvd cNkLs/0f sfo{sf] nflu ;|ft ;'lglZrttf ug{ pRrhf]lvd ] If]qsf] :yfgLo / /fli6«o cfly{s of]hgfdf ljkb hf]lvd k|efj d"Nof+sg ug]{ k|0ffnLnfO{ ;+:yfut ug]{ . #) xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  37. 37. cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – ! @= ;+u7gx?nfO{ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f lqmofsnfkx? ug{ cf}krfl/s?kdf lhDd]jf/L tf]lslbg] . #= kmf]snKjfOG6 ;+u7g :yfkgf ug]{ jf ;'b9 ug]{ . o;sf nflu Tof] ;+u7gsf] [ clwsf/ / lhDd]jf/L tf]lslbg], dfgjLo ;|ft, tflnd tyf cGo cfjZos ] s'/fdf ;xof]u ug]{ . $= ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf lqmofsnfkx?sf] af/]df ;dGjo ug]{ cGt/;+u7gfTds ;ldltx?sf] ljsf; ug]{ jf ;'b9Ls/0f ug]{ . [ %= ;+u7gsf] bIftf / Ifdtf clej[l4 ug{ ;+u7gx?nfO{ tflndsf] cj;/ k|bfg ug]{ h;n] ubf{ tf]lsPsf sfo{x? ;kmn x'g;s"g . ^= sfo{;rfng / k"hLut ah]6df ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] nflu ;|ft + “ ] ljlgof]hg ug]{ . &= :yfgLo zf;g k|0ffnLdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f :ki6?kdf kl/eflift ul/Psf] 5 / o;sf] nflu ;|ft ljlgof]hg ul/Psf] 5 eGg] ;'lglZrttf ug]{ . ] *= ljkbsf IF]qdf sfd ug]{ cu'jf AolQmx?sf] klxrfg ug]{ / k'/:s[t ug]{ . (= ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f sfof{Gjog p2]Zok/s 5, lgolGqt 5 / o;sf] lnlvt 8s'd06];g -k|nv_ ul/Psf] 5 eGgsf nflu gLlt / sfg"gåf/f ] ] lglb{i6 ;+oGqsf] ;'lglZrttf ug]{ . !)= pRrhf]lvddf /x]sf] hg;+Vofsf] nflu aLdf of]hgfsf] ljsf; / k|of]u k|j4{g ug]{ . !!= ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ljlgof]lht ah]6 dlxnf k'?if b'jsf] } a/fa/L kx"rdf 5 egL ;'lglZrttf ug]{ . “" pQ/bfloTj / ;|f]tx? M != :yfgLo / /fli6«o txdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf gLlt jf sfo{qmdx? tof/ ug]{ jf cjnDag ug]{ ;/sf/L clwsf/Lx? / gful/s ;d"xx? . @= ;/sf/L gLlt tyf sfo{qmdx? sfof{Gjog ug{ lhDd]jf/ lgsfox? . #= cGo ;+u7gx?nfO{ sfo{ ug{sf] nflu k|fT;flxt ug]{ jf lgb]l{ zt ug]{ ;+u7gx? . ] $= ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f sfof{Gjog ug{;Sg] jf /fhg}lts ultzlQm k|bfg ug{;Sg] ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t ;+u7gx? jf gful/s rf;f]df jsfnt ug]{ AolQm÷;+u7gx? . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn #!
  38. 38. cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – ! ;kmn pbfx/0f M ljz]iftM af9Lsf] rk]6fdf /x]sf] leotgfdn] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{ s]Gb|blv :yfgLo tx;Dd km}lnPsf] ;DalGwt ;+u7gx?sf] ;~hfn ] tof/ u/]sf] 5 . lgjf{rg k|lqmofaf6 tL ;+u7gx?sf] If]qLo, lhNnf / :yfgLo ;ldltx? u7g ul/G5 . ;fy} dlxnf ;~hfn klg tof/ ul/G5 . ;/sf/sf] s]Gb|Lo txdf /x]sf] ;ldltn] oL ;a} ;ldltx?;“u ;dGjo ub{5 / sfo{qmdx?sf] ljsf; ub{5 . o;/L leotgfdn] k|efjsf/L?kdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ k|fyldstfdf /fVg ;kmn ePsf] 5 . o;}u/L ef/t ;/sf/n] ljkb cNkLs/0f sfo{sf] nflu /fli6«o, k|fGtLo / :yfgLo txdf 5'§f5'§} sf]if v8f u/]sf] 5 . of] Aoj:yfn] ;a} txsf] ;/sf/df ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] nflu kof{Kt ;|ft 5'§ofOPsf] 5 egL ;'lglZrttf ] u/]sf] 5 . k/LIf0f ;"lr (Check-list) M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf ! xfd|f] sfo{qmd÷kl/of]hgfdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ s'g xb;Dd k|fyldstfdf kfl/Psf] 5 < sfo{of]hgf / ;+/rgf M s] xfd|f] ;d'bfodf ljkbsf a]nfdf s] ug]{ eg]/ lg0f{o lng;Sg] ;+ul7t ;+:yf jf ;ldltx? 5g < ;xeflutfsf] clwsf/ M s] xfd|f] ;d'bfosf ;b:ox? cfkmgf] clwsf/x? tyf ljkb hf]lvdaf6 ;'/Iff k|bfg ug'kg]{ ;/sf/sf] sfg"gL bfloTjaf/] ;r]t 5g < { ljlQo ;|ft M ljkbsf] k|efj sd ug{ of ljkbaf6 k'gnf{e k|fKt ug{ :yfgLo ] ;/sf/x?n] pknAw u/fpg] ljlQo tyf ef}lts ;|ftx?;Dd s] xfd|f] ;d'bfosf] ] kx'r 5 < “ dfgjLo ;|ft M s] ;d'bfosf k|ltlglwx?nfO{ ljkb hf]lvd s;/L Go"gLs/0f ] ug]{ tyf ljkbsf a]nf s;/L k|ltsfo{ ug]{ eGg] af/] tflnd lbOPsf] 5 < ljBfno / :jf:Yo ;'ljwf M s] ;d'bfosf] ljBfno / c:ktfnx?df ljkb /f]syfdsf of]hgf agfpg] / sfof{Gjog ug]{ Pjd k|ltsfo{sf nflu tof/ lqmofzLn ;ldltx? 5g < #@ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  39. 39. cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – @ k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk @ ljkbsf hf]lvdx?sf] klxrfg, lgwf{/0f / cg'udg ug]{ tyf k"j{– r]tfjgL lbg] Aoj:yfsf] clej[l4 ug]{ . of] k|fyldstfcGtu{t ljkb hf]lvd;DaGwL tYof+sx? ;+sng / k|of]u; k|sf]k, ;+s6f;Ggtf / ljkbsf] c;/sf] cjnf]sg, ljZn]if0f, k"jf{gdfg ug{;Sg] Ifdtf ' / k"jf{wf/sf] ljsf; / ;Def/ ug]{ sfo{x? kb{5g . o;sf nflu hf]lvd–gS;f (risk map), tYof+sut Iflt hfgsf/L tyf hf]lvd / ;+s6f;Ggtfsf] ;"rgf lbg] k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; cfjZos /xG5g . of] k|fyldstfn] gful/s–s]Gb|Lt k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnLsf] ljsf;, k"jrtfjgLsf] { ] { ] b|t?kdf k|jfx Pjd ;a} r/0fdf :yfgLo hgtfsf] k"0f{ ;+nUgtfdf hf]8 lbPsf] ' 5. xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk @ sfof{Gjogsf nflu /fHon] lgDg sfo{x? ug{;Sb5g M @=! /fli6«o?kdf hf]lvd lgwf{/0fsf] k|of; yfngL ug]{ . @=@ hf]lvd;DaGwL hfgsf/Lsf] pknAwtf Pjd tYof+s ;+sng / k|of]u;DaGwL Ifdtfsf] k'g/fjnf]sg ug]{ . @=# k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnLsfnflu Ifdtf d"Nof+sg ug]{ / c? ;'b9 t'Nofpg] . { ] [ @=$ ljkb hf]lvd hfgsf/L Pjd k"jrtfjgLsf] nflu ;+rf/ / ;"rgf k|jfx { ] ;+oGqsf] ljsf; ug]{ . k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk @ sf] k|ult d"Nof+sgsf] nflu lgDg ;"rsx? tof/ ul/Psf 5g M – k|sf]k tYof+sdf cfwfl/t / ;+s6f;Ggtf hfgsf/L ;dflji6 /fli6«o hf]lvd lgwf{/0f . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn ##
  40. 40. cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – @ – d'Vo k|sf]kx? / ;+s6f;Ggtfsf tYof+sx? cg'udg, ;+ux / k|jfx ug]{ | k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; . – ;a} lsl;dsf k|sf]kx?sf] nflu k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnLsf] ;+rfng . { ] – ;d'bfo txdf k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnLsf] kx"r / ;]jf . { ] " @=! /fli6«o?kdf hf]lvd lgwf{/0fsf] k|of; yfngL ug]{ . p2]Zo M of] lqmofsnfkn] /fi6«sf] ljkb hf]lvdaf/] k"0f{ / lgoldt?kdf cBfjlws t:jL/ ;fd'Gg]df Nofpg]5 . o;n] gLlt lgdf{tfx?nfO{ k[i7kf]if0f k|bfg ug]5 . { ljkbsf] hf]lvd;DaGwL 1fgdf /x]sf l/Qmtfx?nfO{ ;d]t o;n] kl/k"lt{ ug{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpg]5 . dxTj M hf]lvd lgwf{/0f ugf{n] /fi6« s:tf vfn] k|sf]kx?sf] rk]6fdf 5 / ;+s6f;Ggtf s:tf] 5 eGg] yfxf x'g cfp“5 . csf]tkm{ ef}uf]lns / If]qut (sectoral) { lx;fadf ljBdfg ljkb hf]lvdx? :ki6 x'G5 . ljsf;sf] nflu Pjd ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /0fgLltsf] sfof{Gjogsf] nflu hf]lvd lgwf{/0f cTofjZos 5 . hf]lvd lgwf{/0f / ljZn]if0f k|0ffnLut?kdf / ;se/ rf“8f] ul//xg'kb{5 lsgeg] ljkb hf]lvdsf] k|jlQ kl/jt{gzLn x'G5 . hf]lvd lgwf{/0f ug]{ Pjd [ hf]lvd–gS;f tof/ ug]{ sfo{x? ;d'bfodf ;xeflutfd"ns 9+un] ul/Psf] x'G5 . h;n] ubf{ ljkb k"jrtfjgL, k"jtof/L / /f]syfdsf] nflu ;d'bfon] pTk|l/t { ] { ] kfb{5 . sfo{ ljlw M != k|sf]k / ;+s6f;Ggtf lgwf{/0f sfo{df ;+nUg /xg;Sg] k|dv ;/sf/L ' lgsfo, cg';Gwfg s]Gb|, lj1 / (practitioner) x?sf] klxrfg ug]{ / pgLx?sf] e"ldsf / bfloTj lgSof}n ug]{ . { @= lj1x?sf] ;xof]un] k|sf]k klxrfg / ;+s6f;Ggtf ljZn]if0f ul/Psf ljBdfg cWoogx?sf] ;dLIff ug]{ . dxTjk"0f{ l/Qmtfx?sf] klxrfg ug]{ . #$ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  41. 41. cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – @ #= k|sf]k / ;+s6f;Ggtf;DaGwL tYof+sx?sf] k|0ffnLut ;+sng, cfbfgk|bfg / lgwf{/0f ug{ /fli6«o dfkb08 / ljlwsf] ljsf; ug]{ . o;nfO{ ;dsIfL /fi6«x?;“u t'ngf ug]{ . $= :yfgLo k|sf]k / ;+s6f;Ggtf ljZn]if0f sfo{df ;a} If]qnfO{ ;+nUg u/fpg /0fgLltsf] ljsf; ug]{ . %= hf]lvdsf tYof+sx?nfO{ lgoldt?kn] k'g/fjnf]sg / cBfjlws /fVg] k|lqmofsf] z'?jft ug]{ . ^= ef}uf]lns If]q / ;d'bfosf] hf]lvd klxrfg u/L ;di6Lut k|sf]k gS;fsf] ljsf; ug]{ . &= :yfgLo ;d'bfosf] ;+s6f;Ggtf / Ifdtf d"Nof+sg ug]{ . o;f] ubf{ ;fdflhs, cfly{s, ef}lts / jftfj/0fLo ;+s6f;Ggtfx?nfO{ klg Wofgdf /fVg] . *= d'nsnfO{ :yfgLo, If]qLo / /fli6«otxdf k|efj kfg{;Sg] k|fs[lts k|sf]knfO{ ' juL{s/0f ug]{ / tbcg';f/ k|fyldstfdf /fVg] . o:tf] d"Nof+sgdf P]ltxfl;s tYof+sx? klg pNn]v ug]{ . (= hf]lvd lgwf{/0fsf] kl/0ffdnfO{ :yfgLo hf]lvd Aoj:yfkg of]hgf;“u Psfsf/ ug]{ . pko'Qm eP;Dd ef}uf]lns ;"rgf k|0ffnL (GIS) / e"–pkof]u of]hgfsf ;km6j]o/ k|of]u ug]{ . !)= ljleGg If]qx?df /x]sf] ljkb hf]lvd lgSof}n ug{ k|sf]k / ;+s6f;GgtfaLrsf] { cGtlqm{ofnfO{ d"Nof+sg ug]{ . hf]lvdnfO{ a9fpg jf 36fpg;Sg] lqmofsnfkx?, ;fdflhs / /fhg}lts k|lqmofx?sf] klxrfg ug]{ . !!= hf]lvd hfgsf/L a[xt 5 / P]ltxfl;s ;gftg 1fgx? ;dflji6 ul/Psf] 5 eGg] s'/fnfO{ ;'lgZrttf ug{ ;a} If]qsf AolQmx?;“u k/fdz{ ug]{ . !@= hf]lvd klxrfg / lgwf{/0fdf eO/x]sf k|ultx?sf] dfkg ug{ n}luskIf + ;d]t ;+nUg ;"rsx?sf] ljsf; ug]{ . ljleGg Ph]G;L / ;d'bfon] ;d]t hf]lvd cj:yf a'emg ;Sg] / a'emfpg;Sg] u/L o;sf] lgdf{0f ug]{ . !#= hf]lvd d"Nof+sg sfo{qmdx?nfO{ ;'wf/ ug{;Sg] / ;|ft h'6fpg d2t ] k'¥ofpg;Sg] vfnsf] ;'emfj / /0fg}lts of]hgf ;dflji6 gLltut sfuhftx? tof/ ug]{ . o;nfO{ ;/sf/sf] ;a} tx / ;d'bfo;Dd k'¥ofpg] . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn #%
  42. 42. cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – @ pQ/bfloTj / ;|f]t M – ljkbsf] k|sf/ cg';f/ hf]lvd lgwf{/0fsf] nflu w]/} lsl;dsf lj1x?sf] ;xof]u lng ;lsG5 . – j}1flgs tYof+s ;+sng / 1fg clej[l4 Ifdtf ePsf lj1x? . oL lj1x? jf ;+:yfx? ef}ule{s, hn tyf df};d, e"–lj1fg cflb;“u ;DalGwt x'g;S5g . – ;d'bfosf] ;+s6f;Ggtf / Ifdtf lgwf{/0f ug{ ;fdflhs lj1fgsf lj1sf ;fy} ;d'bfosf ;d"x jf ;+u7gx? Pjd jftfj/0f / k"jf{wf/sf] kl/jt{gnfO{ d"Nof+sg ug{;Sg] lj1x?sf] cfjZostf /xG5 . – ljBdfg cEof;sf] sf/0f k/]sf] k|efj d"Nof+sg ug{;Sg] jftfj/0fLo Aoj:yfksx? . cg's"n cj:yf M – v'Nnf jf ;femf kx"rdf /x]sf tfhf tYof+sx? . “ – k|dv ;/f]sf/jfnfsf k|dv AolQm / ;+u7gaf6 ;xof]u . ' ' – ;a} txdf cfly{s ;|ft / dfgj ;+;fwgsf] pknAwtf . ] – k|fljlws hfgsf/Lx?sf] n]vfhf]vf / AofVof ug{;Sg] lj1x?sf] pknAwtf . – ;xof]ufTds 9+un] ljljw Ph]G;Lx?nfO{ ;+nUg u/fpg;Sg] ax'ljwfut (multi-disciplinary) / ax';u7gfTds (multi-organisation) kxn . + – /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«otxsf] hf]lvd lgwf{/0f k|lqmofsf] a'emfO . -h:t} If]qLo cg';Gwfg s]Gb|, cGt/f{li6«o ;+u7gx?_ . ;kmn pbfx/0f M ;g !((* df ;+oQm /fi6«;3sf cg';Gwfgstf{x?n] Olyof]lkof / s]Gofdf ' + Pp6f ;fwf/0f t/ k|0ffnLut ljlwåf/f ljkb hf]lvdsf] k|sf/ / sf/sx? kQf nufP . pgLx?n] u|fdL0f ;d'bfodf b'Or/0fdf ;xeflutfd"ns ljlwåf/f ;j]If0f u/] . { { klxnf] r/0fdf v'Nnf k|ZgfjnL af“l8of] hxf“ ;xefuLx?n] cfk;L 5nkmnåf/f cfkm"n] ef]usf k|sf]ksf lsl;d / ;d:ofx? rfx]hlt pNn]v ug{ ;Sby] . csf]{ ] r/0fdf ;xefuLx?nfO{ lglZrt k|sf]ksf] c;/ cg';f/ >]0fLdf /fVg nufOof] . To;kl5 k|To]s k|sf]ksf] s;/L ;fdgf ul/b}cfOPsf] 5 < lsg ul/Psf] 5}g < + #^ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  43. 43. cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – @ s] ug'k5{ < h:tf ljifodf 5nkmn ug{ nufOof] . o;}u/L If]qut, ;d"xut, { pd]/, ln·, ;DkGgtf / c? ;fdflhs cfly{s rl/qx?sf] cfwf/df klg k|sf]ksf] ;+s6f;Ggtf lgSof}n ul/of] . { of] sfo{qmd ^ dlxgf;Dd rNof] . o;df !@) ;d"x -%( dlxnf ;d"x;lxt_ ;xefuL /x]sf lyP . @=@ hf]lvd ;DaGwL hfgsf/Lsf] pknAwtf Pjd tYof+s ;+sng / k|of]u;DaGwL Ifdtfsf] k'g/fjnf]sg ug]{ . p2]Zo M of] lqmofsnfkn] k|sf]k / ;+s6f;Ggtf;DaGwL tYof+sx?sf] ;+sng, ljZn]if0f / k|jfx sfo{df ljBdfg k|lqmofx?sf] Ifdtf / l/Qmtf klxrfg ug]{ p2]Zo /fv]sf] 5 . o;n] ubf{ hf]lvd lgwf{/0f / k"jrtfjgLsf] cg'udgsf] nflu cfwf//]vf { ] ljsf; ug{ d2t k'¥ofp“b5 . dxTj M ljkb hf]lvd / Ifltsf] ;xL hfgsf/Ln] lg0f{ostf{ / gful/sx?nfO{ /fi6«n] em]Ng'kl//x]sf] ljleGg k|sf]kx? / o;sf] ;fdflhs, cfly{s, jftfj/0fLo / ef}lts ;+s6f;GgtfnfO{ a'emg ;xof]u k'¥ofp“b5 . oL tYof+s / hfgsf/Lx? ;xL ;dodf k|jflxt ug{;s] ljkb hf]lvdlj?4 k"jtof/L ckgfpg ;d'bfonfO{ { k|l/t ub{5 . oL hfgsf/L / tYof+sx?sf] k'g/fjnf]sg ugf{n] tYof+s ;+sng, ] ljZn]if0f / ;Dk|if0fdf /x]sf sdhf]/ / alnof KfIf yfxf x'gsf] ;fy} efjL ] ' /0fgLlt lgdf{0f ug{ ;d]t ;xof]u k'¥ofp“b5 . sfo{ ljlw M != k|sf]k / ;+s6f;Ggtf;DaGwL tYof+sx? ;+sng / ljZn]if0f ug]{ Ph]G;L / ;+u7gx?sf] klxrfg ug]{ . ;Defljt If]qx? oL x'g;S5g M – df};d, ef}ule{s, h}ljs, k|fBf]lus k|sf]kx? / jftfj/0fLo ¥xf; } ;DaGwL tYo / hfgsf/Lx? cjnf]sg, cg'udg, ljZn]if0f / k|jfx ug]{ sfo{df ;+nUg ;+u7gx? . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn #&
  44. 44. cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – @ – hg;+Vof, k"jf{wf/, cfly{s, Aofkfl/s / ;DklQs/ ;DaGwL ljj/0f /fVg] lgsfox? . pbfx/0fsf] nflu hg;f+lVosLo tYof+sn] pd]/, :jf:Yo / hLljsf]kfh{g;DaGwL ;+s6f;Ggtfx? phfu/ ug{;S5 . – ;d'bfo / ;+s6f;Gg ;d"xsf] ;fdflhs / ;f+:s[lts -h:t} ;gftg 1fg_ tYof+s ;+sng ug]{ ;+u7gx? . @= tYof+ssf] k'g/fjnf]sg Pjd Aoj:yfkg, ;+Zn]if0f / k|jfxLs/0f ljlw :yfkgf ug]{ . #= ljBdfg ;"rgf tyf tYof+s k|0ffnLsf] alnof] / sdhf]/ kIf Pjd ;'wf/sf If]qx? klxNofpg] . $= hf]lvd d"Nof+sg ;DalGwt pknAw ;fdu|Lx?sf] cWoog ug]{ . hf]lvdsf] 1fgdf /x]sf] dxTjk"0f{ l/Qmtfx?sf] d"Nof+sg ug]{ . o;f] ubf{ ljkbsf] Iflt ljgf;sf/L aGg;Sg] If]qnfO{ k|fyldstfdf /fVg] . %= k|dv ;/f]sf/jfnfx?;“u a;]/ d"Nof+sgsf] kl/0ffdnfO{ cWoog / ;+Zn]if0f ' ug]{ . ^= ;+s6f;Ggtf;DaGwL cfjZos tYof+sx? klxrfg ug{ Pjd ;fGble{s tYof+sx?sf] ;+sng / ljZn]if0f sfo{df ;xhtf Nofpg cGt/ljefuLo sfo{ ;d"xx?sf] lgdf{0f ug]{ . &= tYof+s ;+sng / k|jfxLs/0fsf] nflu gLlt tyf sfo{qmdx? tof/ ug]{ . hf]lvd hfgsf/L ;DaGwL ljBdfg l/Qmtfx?nfO{ kl/k"lt{ ug{ Pjd ;+sng / k|jfxLs/0f k|lqmofnfO{ ;'wf/ ug{ tL gLlt tyf sfo{qmdx? /fli6«o, If]qLo / :yfgLo tx;Dd ljt/0f ug]{ . k|sf]k / ;+s6f;Ggtfsf] pknAw tYof+sdf /x]sf] l/Qmtfx? klxrfg ug{ lgDg k|Zgx? ug{ ;lsG5 M – s] ;a} lsl;dsf jf ;a}eGbf dxTjk"0f{ k|sf]kx? / ;+s6f;Ggtfsf] e/kbf]{ tYof+s pknAw 5 < s] ;fdflhs tYof+sdf n}lus ljlzi6tf ;+nUg + ul/Psf] 5 < s] :yfgLo / ;gftg 1fgnfO{ pko'Qm 9+un] ;dflji6 ul/Psf] 5 < s] e/kbf]{ ljkbsf P]ltxfl;s /]s8{x? pknAw 5g < s] hfgsf/L / tYof+sx?nfO{ cBfjlws ug]{ pko'Qm k|lqmof ljBdfg 5 < – s] ;DalGwt lgsfox? k"j;rgf k|lqmof a'emg / cfcfkmgf] pQ/bfloTj k"/f { " #* xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  45. 45. cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – @ ug{ ;Ifd 5g < -k"j;rgf k|0ffnL M cjnf]sg, cg'udg, ;+ux, u'0f:t/ { " | lgoGq0f, ljZn]if0f, ;+Zn]if0f / k|jfxLs/0f_ . s] oL lgsfox? kof{Kt ;dGjo u5{g jf ;"rgf Aoj:yfkgsf] cGt/;DaGw sdhf]/ 5 < s] ;DalGwt lgsfox?;“u pks/0f / Ifdtf 5 < – ljljw If]q / ljleGg k|sf]kx?aLrsf] tYof+s ;+Zn]if0f ug{ / ax'kzfut ] rf;f]x?nfO{ ;+nUg u/fpg :ki6?kdf lhDd]jf/L tf]lsPsf] 5 < – s] hfgsf/L cTofjZos /x]sf] ;d"x jf AolQmx?df of] k'usf] 5 < s] nlIft ] ;d'bfo hfgsf/L a'emg ;Ifd 5g < s] o;n] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] nflu lg0f{o k|lqmofdf ;xof]u k'¥ofPsf] 5 < pQ/bfloTj / ;|f]tx? M – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu tf]lsPsf lgsfox? . -h:t} M ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fli6«o cfof]u_ . – hf]lvd tYof+s k|of]u ug]{ ljkb Aoj:yfkgdf ;+nUg ;+u7gx? / ljkb Aoj:yfkgdf g]tTj ug]{ ;+:yfx? . [ – j}1flgs tYof+s ;+sng sfo{df lhDd]jf/ ;+:yfx? -h:t} hn tyf df};dk"jf{gdfg, ef}ule{s, e"–lj1fg cflb_ Pjd hg;+Vof, cfly{s, s/, ' ljsf;;DaGwL tYof+s ;+sng ug]{ lgsfox? . – ;fdflhs / k|fljlws lj1fgsf cg';Gwfgstf{ / cWo]tfx? . cg's"n cj:yf M – k'g/fjnf]sgsf] nflu ;/f]sf/jfnf k|dv AolQmx? jf ;+u7gsf] ;xof]u . ' – d"Nof+sgsf] nflu cfjZos cfly{s ;|ft / tYof+slj1x?;lxtsf] dfgjLo ] ;|ft . ] – k|sf]k / ;+s6f;Ggtfsf] lgwf{/0f ;'lglZrttf ug{ ax'ljwfut, ax';u7gfTds + / n}lus ;Gt'ng ldn]sf] ;a} pko'Qm sfo{;d"x . + ;kmn pbfx/0f M d]lS;sf] ;/sf/n] ljkbsf tYof+sx? ;+sng, Aoj:yfkg / ;+Zn]if0f ug]{ x]tn] ' The Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED) xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn #(
  46. 46. cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – @ eGg] 5'§} lgsfosf] u7g u/]sf] 5 . o;n] k|sf]k;DaGwL tfhf tYof+s / hfgsf/Lx? cBfjlws ug]{ Pjd ljleGg Ph]G;L / gful/s ;d"xdf k|jfx ug]{ sfd ub{5 . d]lS;sf]sf k|dv k|sf]kx? e"sDk / Hjfnfd'vLdf of] ljz]if?kn] ' s]lGb|t 5 . @=# k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnL;DaGwL Ifdtf lgwf{/0f ug]{ / ;'b9 t'Nofpg] . { ] [ p2]Zo M of] lqmofsnfkn] k"jrtfjgL ;DaGwL ljBdfg Ifdtf lgwf{/0f ug]{ / { ] /fi6«sf] k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnLnfO{ ;'b9 ug{ /0fgLltsf] ljsf; ug]{ p2]Zo /fv]sf] { ] [ 5. dxTj M k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnLn] k|sf]ksf] hf]lvddf /x]sf ;d'bfonfO{ pko'Qm 9+un] / { ] ;do5“b} ;Defljt dfgjLo, ef}lts, jftfj/0fLo / hLljsf]kfh{g;DaGwL IfltnfO{ Go"gLs/0f ug{ ;xof]u k'¥ofp“b5 . k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnLsf rf/j6f tTjx? 5g M { ] s_ hf]lvd 1fg (Risk Knowledge) v_ cg'udg / r]tfjgL lbg] ;]jf (Monitoring and Warning Service) u_ ;+rf/ / k|jfxLs/0f (Communication and Dissemination) 3_ k|ltsfo{ Ifdtf (Response Capability) k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnL ;DaGwL Ifdtf lgwf{/0f / ;'b9Ls/0fsf] nflu oL rf/j6} { ] [ tTjx? k|efjsf/L /xg'kb{5 . Pp6fsf] sdhf]/Ln] klg ;d:t k|0ffnLnfO{ g} c;kmn kfg{ ;Sb5 . sfo{{ ljlw M != cGt/ljwfut ;d"x (interdisciplinary team) sf] lgdf{0f u/]/ k"jrtfjgL { ] k|0ffnL;DaGwL oL s'/fx?sf] lgwf{/0f ug]{ M – /fHosf] sfg"g / gLltn] kof{Kt ;xof]u k'¥ofPsf] 5 < – k"j–r]tfjgL k|0ffnL;DaGwL sfo{ ug{;Sg] ;a} pko'Qm ;+u7gx?sf] { $) xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  47. 47. cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – @ e"ldsf / pQ/bfloTj kl/eflift 5 < ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfx?nfO{ o;sf] hfgsf/L 5 < – k"j–r]tfjgL k|0ffnLsf] af/]df /fli6«o lg0f{o ug{;Sg] Pshgf /fhg}lts { g]tf jf ;/sf/L clwsf/L sfg"gL?kd} tf]lsPsf 5g < – sfof{Gjog ul/Psf gLltx? ljs]lGb|t 5g < :yfgLo lg0f{o k|lqmof / ;d'bfosf] ;xeflutf ;zQm 5 < – ;/sf/sf] cfly{s ;xfotf lbg] ;+oGqn] ;xof]u k'¥ofO/x]sf] 5 < @= k"j–r]tfjgL k|lqmofsf] lglZrt dfkb08 agfpg] h;n] ubf{ ;a} ;DalGwt { lgsfox? -h:t} hn tyf df};dk"jf{gdfg dxfzfvf, af?0foGq cflb_n] ' k|efjsf/L9+un] k"j–r]tfjgL lbg ;s"g / tYof+s ;+sng, ljZn]if0fdf { ;lhnf] x'g cfcf]; . #= lgDg s'/fx? ;dflji6 cg'udg k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; ug]{ M – ;a} ;DefAo k|sf]kx?sf] kl/ldlt -kf/fld6/_ dfkg ug]{ . – :yfgLo cj:yf / kl/l:ylt ;'xfp“bf] k|fljlws pks/0fsf] k|of]u ug]{ . oL pks/0f rnfpg / dd{t ug{ k|lzlIft AolQmsf] Aoj:yf ug]{ . – k"j–r]tfjgL s]Gb|x? x/;dodf -lbgsf] @$ 306f, xKtfsf] ;ft} lbg_ { ;+rfng x'G5g eGg] ;'lglZrttf ug]{ . $= lgDg ljz]iftfx? ePsf] k|efjsf/L k"jf{gdfg / r]tfjgL k|0ffnL :yfkgf ug]{ M ' – :jLsfo{ j}1flgs / k|fljlws ljlwdf cfwfl/t tYof+s ljZn]if0f, k"jf{gdfg / r]tfjgL ;Gb]z . ' – cGt/f{li6«o dfkb08sf] tYof+s / r]tfjgL ;Gb]z lgdf{0f, k|jfx . – ;a} ljsNkx?sf] tof/L . h:t} ljB'tLo zlQmsf] ljsNk -h]g/6/, ] ] OGe6{/_, pks/0fx?n] sfd gubf{sf] cj:yf, sd{rf/LnfO{ cfkTsfnL?kdf af]nfpg] k|0ffnL cflb . – ;dod} / lglZrt 9f“rfdf /xL r]tfjgL ;Gb]zsf] lgdf{0f / k|jfx . – k"j–r]tfjgL k|0ffnLsf] ;+rfng k|lqmof, tYof+s u'0f:t/ / r]tfjgL { ;Gb]zsf] :t/sf] lgoldt cg'udg / d"Nof+sg . %= ljkbsf k'/fgf cg'ej, ljutsf k"j–r]tfjgLsf l;sfOx?sf] cWoog, { ljZn]if0f ug]{ . ;d"x;“u a;]/ Ifdtf / sdhf]/Lx? lgSof}n ug], kl/0ffdx?af/] { { 5nkmn ug]{ / ;/sf/sf ;a} txsf nflu ;'emfjx? tof/ ug]{ . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn $!
  48. 48. cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – @ ^= ax'ksf]kLo k"j–r]tfjgL k|0ffnLsf] of]hgf agfpg] . o;f] ubf{ k|fyldstfsf | { sfo{x? / cfly{s kmfObfsf kIfx?nfO{ ljZn]if0f ug]{ . &= /fli6«o cfly{s of]hgf / ljsf;sf gLltx?df k"j–r]tfjgL k|0ffnL ;dflxt { ug{ cj;/sf] vf]hL ug]{ . *= Ifdtf–clej[l4 of]hgf / tflnd sfo{qmdx? ljsf; ug]{ . o;sf nflu kof{Kt ;|ft ljlgof]hg ug]{ / u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfsf] ;xeflutfsf] kIfnfO{ ] ;dflji6 ug]{ . (= If]qLo / cGt/f{li6«o cfly{s ;|ftsf] vf]hL ug]{ . lghL If]q / ;+rf/dfWodx?;“u ] ;fem]bf/L ug]{ . !)= d"Nof+sgsf] kl/0ffd / k|:tfljt of]hgfx? k|jfx ug]{ . cfly{s / ;fdflhs kmfObfx?sf] af/]df ljz]if?kdf k|sfz kfg]{ . pQ/bfloTj / ;|f]t M k"j–r]tfjgL k|0ffnLsf rf/ tTjx? ;d]6g] If]qsf k|fljlws lj1x? M { != hf]lvd 1fg (Risk Knowledge) M j}1flgs tYof+s ;+sng ug]{ / hf]lvd 1fg lgwf{/0f ug]{ Ph]G;Lx? . @= cg'udg / r]tfjgL ;]jf (Monitoring and Warning Service) M hn tyf df};d k"jf{gdfg dxfzfvf, ef}ule{s ;+:yfx? cflb . ' #= ;+rf/ / k|jfxLs/0f (Dissemination and Communication) M ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t ;+u7gx?, ;+rf/k|ljlw ;DaGwL sDkgLx?, ;+rf/dfWodx? . $= k|ltsfo{ Ifdtf (Response Capability)M gful/s ;'/Iff / dfgj ;xfotf k|bfos Ph]G;Lx?, u};;x? cflb . cg's"n cj:yf M – ;+u7g / ;+u7g k|dvsf] ;xof]u . ' – cfly{s / dfgjLo ;|ft .] – k"j{–r]tfjgL;DaGwL hgr]tgf hufpg;Sg] cu'jf / h'emf? AolQmx? (champions) . – cg'udg, r]tfjgL, k|ltsfo{;DaGwL k|fljlws k[i7e"ld / cg'ej ePsfx?;“usf] kx"r . “" $@ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  49. 49. cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – @ – If]qLo / ljZjAofkL ;|ftx?af/] hfgsf/L / kx"r . ] “" – k"j{–r]tfjgLsf rf/ tTjx?df ;+nUg /fli6«o, If]qLo / cGt/f{li6«o ;+u7gx?;“usf] ;xof]u / ;xsfo{ -h:t} UNESCO, WMO, Redcross cflb ._ ;kmn pbfx/0f M ljkbsf] clthf]lvddf /x]sf] a+unfb]zdf a+unfb]z /]8qm];G6 ;f];fO6L / ] a+unfb]z ;/sf/n] ;+rfng u/]sf] ‘rqmjft k"jtof/L sfo{qmd’ cGtu{t t6Lo { If]qx?df k"j–r]tfjgL k|0ffnLnfO{ klg k|fyldstf lbOPsf] 5 . h;cg';f/ { tf//lxt !$# j6f /]l8of] :6]zgaf6 ;Gb]z k|jflxt x'gu/]sf] 5 . o;afx]s ## ] xhf/ :jod;jsx?n] d]ufkmf]g / ;fO/gsf] k|of]u u/]/ clthf]lvd If]qdf k"j– ] { r]tfjgL lbG5g . of] sfo{qmd cGtu{t !! lhNnfsf *) nfv hgtf;dIf k"j– { r]tfjgL ;Gb]zsf] kx"r k'usf] 5 . a+unfb]znfO{ rqmjftn] jif{sf] rf/dlxgf b'v “" ] lbg]u/]sf] 5 . af“sL cjlwdf hgr]tgf, ljBfno lzIff, cEof;sf sfo{qmdx? x'G5g . @=$ ljkb hf] l vd hfgsf/L Pjd k" j { r ] t fjgLsf] nflu ;+ r f/ / ;"rgf k|jfx ;+oGqsf] ljsf; ug]{ . p2]Zo M of] lqmofsnfkn] ljkb hf]lvd hfgsf/L / k"jrtfjgLnfO{ hg;+Vofsf] ;a} { ] lx:;fdf k|efjsf/L9+un] k|jfx ug]{ ;+oGqnfO{ alnof] agfpg] p2]Zo /fv]sf] 5 . dxTj M ljkb hf]lvd / k"jrtfjgLsf] k|efjsf/L ;+rf/n] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ug{ { ] / hLjghLljsfnfO{ ;'/lIft kfg{ ;3fp k'¥ofp“b5 . o:tf hfgsf/Lx? nlIft ;d"xn] ;lhn} a'emg;Sg] x'gkb{5 / ;a}sf] kx“rdf k'Ug;Sg' kb{5 . ljkb hf]lvd ' " ;DaGwL hfgsf/L lbg] jf k"jrtfjgL sfo{n] ;d'bfonfO{ ljkbsf af/]df hfu[t { ] t'Nofp“b5 Pjd hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] nflu lhDd]jf/Ldf klg j[l4 u/fp“b5 . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn $#
  50. 50. cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – @ sfo{ ljlw M != ;'?df ljBdfg Ifdtf d"Nof+sg ug]{ M – ;+rf/ / ;"rgf k|jfxdf ;+nUg ljleGg ;+3;+u7g / ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] klxrfg ug]{ . ltgLx?nfO{ ljkb hf]lvd ;+rf/ / ;"rgf k|jfx k|lqmofdf cfdGq0f ug]{ . – ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] gfdfjnL Aojl:yt ug]{ . ltgLx?sf] e"ldsf, lhDd]jf/L / If]qx? :ki6 ug]{ . – ;"rgf k|jfxLs/0fdf b]lvPsf] ;dGjosf] cefj jf l/QmtfnfO{ klxrfg ug]{ . – ;/sf/L / u}/;/sf/L lgsfox?nfO{ ;+nUg u/fP/ hf]lvd hfgsf/L, k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnLdf ug'kg]{ ;'wf/x?sf] /0fgLlt / sfo{of]hgf tof/ { ] { ug]{ . o:tf] of]hgf ;d'bfosf] d"No, rf;f] / ;dfj]zLs/0f k|ltWjlgt x'gvfnsf] agfpg] . ] – of]hgfsf] af/]df ljleGg ;+u7g / lj1x?;“u AolQmut jf ;+:yfut ;'emfj dfUg] . @= ;+rf/ / k"jrtfjgL k|jfxLs/0f k|lqmofnfO{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] M { ] – ;/sf/sf] gLlt / sfg"gs} dfWodn] ;"rgf k|jfxLs/0fsf] ;Ghfn tof/ ug{ kxn ug]{ . – If]qLo jf cGt/b]zLo k"jrtfjgL s]Gb|x?sf] e"ldsf / lhDd]jf/L { ] kl/eflift ug]{ . – ljz]iftM u|fdL0f If]qdf k|sf]k;DaGwL hfgsf/L k|fKt ug{;Sg] / k|jfx ug{;Sg] :jod;js ;d"xx?sf] klxrfg jf lgdf{0f ug]{ . ] – ;/f]sf/jfnf ;+3;+u7gx?n] agfPsf ;d"xx?;“u ljkb hf]lvd hfgsf/L k|jfxsf] nflu ;xsfo{ ug]{ . #= k|efjsf/L k"jrtfjgL ;+rf/ k|0ffnLsf] :yfkgf ug]{ { ] – ;d'bfosf] cfjZostf cg';f/ k"jrtfjgL ;+rf/k|0ffnLnfO{ 9fNg] . { ] pbfx/0fsf] nflu /]l8of] jf 6]lnlehgsf] cnfjf ;fO/g, vt/f– em08f cflbsf] k|of]u ug]{ . – ;+rf/ k|ljlwsf] kx"r ;Dk"0f{ hg;+Vofdf k'usf] 5 eg]/ ;'lglZrttf “" ] ug]{ . h;df df};dL / ljs6 7fp“sf hg;+VofnfO{ klg ;dflji6 ug]{ . $$ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  51. 51. cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – @ – w]/} lsl;dsf] ;+rf/dfWodx?sf] k|of]u ug]{ . h:t} cfd;+rf/ dfWod, cgf}krfl/s ;+rf/ cflb . $= k"j–r]tfjgL ;Gb]zx? nlIft ;d'bfon] ;lhn} a'emg ;Sb5g eg]/ ;'lglZrttf ug]{ . { k|efjsf/L k"j{–r]tfjgL ;+rf/ M k"jrtfjgLsf ;Gb]zx? 5f]6f], ;fwf/0f / :ki6 x'gkb{5 / ;dod} lbOg'kb{5 . { ] ' o:tf ;Gb]zx?df dfgjLo, ef}lts Ifltaf6 aRg s] ug]{ < k"jrtfjgLnfO{ { ] a]jf:tf ul/Pdf s:tf] b'ikl/0ffd cfOnfUg ;S5 < h:tf ;Gb]zx? pNn]v ul/g'kb{5 . ;a}eGbf dxTjk"0f{ hfgsf/LnfO{ af/Daf/ bf]xf]¥ofpg'kb{5 . pQ/bfloTj / ;|f]t M – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] ;+rf/ / ;"rgf k|jfxsf If]qdf sfd ug]{ Ph]G;L / ;+u7gx? . – ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t ;+u7gx?, ;"rgf k|ljlw sDkgLx?, ;+rf/dfWod, k"jrtfjgL lbg] Ph]G;Lx? cflb . ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t ;+u7gx?nfO{ ;+rf/ { ] /0fgLlt lgdf{0fs} r/0fdf ;+nUg u/fOP hfgsf/Lx? a9L k|efjsf/L /xG5g / p2]Zok/s 5g eGg] ;'lglZrttf x'G5 . – k|fljlws hfgsf/L ;xL 5 / nlIft ;d'bfosf nflu ;fGble{s 5 eGg] ;'lglZrttf ug]{ df};d ljefu, ef}ule{s / e"–lj1fg cflb ;DaGwL If]qdf sfd ug]{ lj1x? . – :yfgLo ;/sf/x? lsgeg] ltgLx?n] k"jrtfjgL k|jfx / ljkb k|ltsfo{sf] { ] g]tTj u/]sf x'G5g . [ cg's"n cj:yf M – ;+rf/;DaGwL lgod sfg"gsf] a'emfO . – j}1flgs tYof+s Aoj:yfkg, hf]lvd cWoog / k"jrtfjgL sfo{df ;+nUg { ] ;/sf/L / u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx?aLrsf] ;dGjo . – j}1flgs sfo{ ug]{ / cfkTsfnLg Aoj:yfkgsf] sfo{sf] lhDd]jf/L kfPsf ;/sf/sf] /fli6«o, If]qLo / :yfgLo txaLrsf] ;dGjo . – ;d'bfo / gful/s ;dfhnfO{ ;+nUg u/fpg;Sg] Ifdtf . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn $%
  52. 52. cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – @ ;kmn pbfx/0f M kk'jf Go"lugL ;'gfdLsf] pRrhf]lvddf /x]sf] /fi6« xf] . af/Daf/ uO/xg] e"sDk / Hjfnfd'vLn] ;'gfdLsf] vt/fnfO{ emg a9fPsf] 5 . ;g !((* df Toxf“ & /]S6/ :s]nsf] e"sDk uof] / nuQ} cfPsf] ;'gfdLn] @@)) hgfsf] Hofg lnof] . kk'jf Go"lugLdf Tof] ;'gfdL klxnf] lyPg t/ k'/fgf l;sfO / cg'ejx? gof“ lk+9LnfO{ k|jflxt ul/Pg . pgLx?nfO{ e"sDk nuQ} ;'gfdL cfpg] ;Defjgf a9L x'G5 eGg] s'/fsf] hfgsf/L lyPg . t;y{ pgLx? ;Defljt ;'gfdLaf6 aRg prfO“sf] :yfgtkm{ uPgg . kk'jf Go"lugL ;/sf/sf] cg'/f]wdf hfkfgsf] sf]al:yt ADRC eGg] ] ;+:yfn] ;'gfdL ;DaGwL hfkfgLh cg'ej af“8g Pp6f sfo{qmd ;+rfng u¥of] . o; cGtu{t lrqx? ePsf kf]i6/, kDkn]6x?sf] lgdf{0f u/L ;d'bfodf Aofks?kdf ljt/0f ul/of] . ;g @))) df kk'jf Go"lugLdf cl3Nnf] eGbf klg 7"nf] * /]S6/ :s]nsf] e"sDk uof] . xhf/f}+ 3/x? Wj:t eP . Tolta]nf;Dd kk'jf Go"lugLsf hgtf ;r]t eO;s]sf lyP . kl/0ffdtM Toqf] 7"nf] e"sDkkl5 cfPsf] ;'gfdLsf] sf/0f Pshgf gful/ssf] klg d[To' x'gkfPg . k/LIf0f ;"lr (Check-list) M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf @ xfd|f] sfo{qmd÷kl/of]hgf If]qdf k|sf]k;DaGwL r]tgf clej[l4 Pjd ;"rgf cfbfgk|bfgdf slt k|ult eof] < ljkb hf]lvd lgwf{/0f M s] ;d'bfosf] ljkb hf]lvd lgwf{/0fsf] nflu dlxnf tyf ;+s6f;Gg ;d"xx?sf] klg ;xeflutfdf ;a} If]qsf k|ltlglwx?sf] e]nf tyf 5nkmn ePsf] 5 < k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnL M ;Defljt ljkb hf]lvdsf] ;r]tgf hufpg s] xfd|f] { ] ;d'bfodf k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnL 5 < { ] $^ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  53. 53. cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – # k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk # M ;a} txdf ljkb ;'/Iff / pTyfgzLntfsf] lgdf{0f ug{ 1fg, gjLgtd tl/sf / lzIffsf] k|of]u ug]{ . k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk g++ # sf] p2]Zo k|fKt ug{ ;"rgf cfbfgk|bfg ug]{ k|0ffnL / ;]jfsf] ljsf; ug{ cfjZos 5 h;n] ;"rgf;Ddsf] kx"r j[l4 ug{ “" Pjd ;"rgfnfO{ Aojxfl/s?kdf k|of]u ug{ ;Ifd agfp“b5 . of] k|fyldstfn] ;~hfnx?nfO{ ;zQm agfP/, 5nkmnnfO{ k|j4{g u/]/ j}1flgs ;d'bfo / ljkbsf If]qdf sfo{/tx?aLr ;xof]u j[l4 u/fpg hf]8 lbPsf] 5 . of] lqmofsnfk cGtu{t ljBfno kf7oqmddf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ;+nUg u/fpg], ;d'bfosf] nflu tflnd sfo{qmdx?sf] ljsf; ug], cfd;+rf/ dfWodsf] cg';Gwfg Ifdtf { jf ;+nUgtf j[l4 ug]{ sfo{x? klg kb{5g . k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfk g+= # sf nflu ;Defljt sfo{x?nfO{ o;/L juL{s/0f ug{;lsG5 . #=! ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] ;r]tgf km}nfpg] sfo{qmdx?sf] ljsf; ug]{ . #=@ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ lzIff k|0ffnL / cg';Gwfg IF]qdf ;dfj]z ug]{ . #=# ;fGble{s k|dv If]qx?df ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] tflnd sfo{qmd ' ljsf; ug]{ . #=$ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ;"rgfsf] ;+sng, k|jfx / k|of]unfO{ clej[l4 ug]{ . k|ult;"rsx? M – ;a} ;d'bfo / ;a} z}lIfs:t/sf hgtf;Dd kx"r ePsf] gful/s ;r]tgf “" /fli6«o /0fgLltsf] lgdf{0f . – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ljBfno kf7oqmdsf] ;a} txdf ;dfj]zLs/0f . /fli6«ob]lv :yfgLotx;Dd k|lzlIft k|lzIfs . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn $&
  54. 54. cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – # #=! ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] ;r]tgf j[l4 ug]{ sfo{qmdsf] ljsf; . p2]Zo M of] lqmofsnfkn] ljkb hf]lvdsf] af/]df ;r]tgf cleofgnfO{ ;zQm kfg{ of]hgf agfpg] / tbcg';f/ sfof{Gjog ug]{ p2]Zo /fv]sf] 5 . ;dfhsf] ;a} txdf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL cfjZos hfgsf/L k|bfg ug]{ nIo of] lqmofsnfksf] /x]sf] 5 . dxTj M ;r]t gful/sn] ljkbsf hf]lvdaf6 cfkm"nfO{ ;'/lIft kfg{;Sb5 . ljkb hf]lvdsf] a'emfOn] k"jrtfjgL / gLlt sfof{Gjogdf ;d]t k|efjsfl/tf Nofp“b5 . { ] Aojxf/ kl/jt{gsf] nflu ;r]tgf cleofg ;r]tgf clej[l4 sfo{qmd Ps cGtlqm{ofTds k|lqmof xf] hxf“ hfgsf/L / 1fg k|bfg u/]/ nlIft ;d"xsf] ljrf/, ;f]rfO / Aojxf/nfO{ kl/jt{g ug]{ k|of; ul/G5 . ;xeflutfd"ns ;r]tgf cleofg a9L k|efjsf/L x'G5 lsgeg] o;f] | ubf{ nlIft ;d'bfosf] ljrf/, ;Lldttf / cj;/x?af/] cem} glhsdf a'emg ;lsG5 . Aojxf/ kl/jt{gsf] k|of; ubf{ s]jn ljifoj:t'nfO{ a'emfpg] sfo{ dfq gu/]/ o;sf] ;DefAotf / sfo{;xhtfdf klg plQs} hf]8 lbOg'kb{5 . s;/L ug]{ < != pko'Qm ljkb ;r]tgf cleofg nfu" ug{ /fi6«nfO{ oL s'/fx?sf] cfjZostf kb{5 . – ;r]tgf cleofgsf] nflu lg/Gt/ ;|ftsf] ;'lglZrttf . ] – s'g ;+rf/dfWodaf6 7"nf] hg;+Vofdf kx"r k'Ug ;Sb5 eGg] lglZrttf . “" – km/s lk+9Lx?df lbuf] a'emfO lgdf{0fsf] nflu ljleGg pd]/ ;d"xsf] ;xeflutf . – ;+rf/, Aofkf/ / dfs]l6ª If]qdf sfo{ ug]{ AolQmx?;“u ;DaGw { lj:tf/ . $* xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  55. 55. cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – # – k|ltli7t :yfgLo clwsf/L, wfld{s / ;d'bfosf g]tf, dlxnf cu'jf nufot ljleGg IF]qsf cu'jfx?sf] ;+nUgtf . o;f] ubf{ ;"rgf k|jfxdf k|efjsfl/tf / ;xeflutfsf] nflu k|fT;fxg ldNb5 . ] @= ;r]tgf cleofgsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf] nflu lgDg tl/sfaf6 ;xof]u k'Ug;Sb5 . – nlIft ;d"xnfO{ cfslif{t ug{;Sg] sfo{qmdsf] 5gf}6 . h:t} M ljBfno z}lIfs cleofg, d]nf, kj{, wfld{s, ;fdflhs ;df/f]xx? cflb . – cleefjsnfO{ k|efljt ug]{ p2]Zon] ljBfno pd]/sf ljBfyL{df nlIft sfo{qmd . – cfkmgf sd{rf/Lx?df ;r]tgf j[l4sf] nflu lghL tyf jfl0fHo If]qnfO{ k|fT;fxg . ] – ;d'bfo:t/df sfo{zfnf / z}lIfs lqmofsnfkx? ;+rfng . #= ;r]tgf sfo{qmdsf] cfwf/e"t l;4fGt M – :yfgLo cjwf/0ff / cfjZostfsf] :ki6tf;lxtsf] sfo{qmdsf] lgdf{0f / sfof{Gjog . :yfgLo cj:yf emlNsg] ;fdu|Lx?sf] k|of]u . – ;dfhsf ;a} txsf nflu nlIft sfo{qmd . -h:t} M lg0f{ostf{x?, lzIfsx?, Aoj;foLx?, hf]lvd ;d'bfosf gful/s cflb ._ – ljleGg vfnsf nlIft ;d"xsf nflu leGg lsl;dsf ;Gb]z, ;fdu|Lx? . – ;kmntfsf] nflu lbuf] k|of;x? . t/ 7"nf] / lgoldt sfo{qmdsf] lx:;fsf] ?kdf Psb'Oj6f sfo{qmdx? klg k|efjsf/L x'g;S5 . h:t} M { cGt/f{li6«o e"sDk lbj;, hnjfo' kl/jt{glj?4sf] cleofg cflb . pQ/bfloTj / ;|f]tx? M – /fli6«o / :yfgLo txsf ;/sf/L clwsf/Lx? . – ;+rf/dfWod, ;+rf/sdL{ / gful/s ;"rgf k|jfxsx? . – lzIfslzlIfsf / lzIf0f;+:yfx? . – ;d'bfosf g]tfx?, ;fj{hlgs sfo{df ;+nUg dlxnf / :yfgLo ;d"xx? . – :yfgLo, IF]qLo, /fli6«o / cGt/f{li6«o u};;x? . xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn $(
  56. 56. cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – # cg's"n cj:yf M – ljkb hf]lvd / nlIft ;d'bfosf] af/]df oyfy{ / kl5Nnf] hfgsf/L . – ;/sf/L clwsf/L / ;d'bfosf g]tfx?sf] ;xeflutf . – :yfgLo ;d'bfox?sf] ;dembf/L, :jLsfo{tf / ;xof]u . – lbuf] sfo{qmdsf] nflu cfly{s / ef}lts ;|ft . ] ;kmn pbfx/0f M l8;]Da/ @))# df O/fgsf] blIf0f–k"jL{ If]qdf cfdljgfzsf/L e"sDk uof] . e"sDkdf $# xhf/sf] d[To' ePsf] lyof] eg] ^) xhf/ 3/af/ljxLg aGg'k¥of] . To;kl5 O/fgL ;/sf/n] a[xb ;r]tgf cleofg ;+rfng ug]{ lg0f{o u¥of] . o;sf nflu ;a} lsl;dsf ;+rf/dfWod, kf]i6/, xf]l8{ªaf]8{ / c? ;"rgfd"ns ;fdu|Lx? k|of]udf NofOof] . ljleGg pd]/;d"xsf nflu pko'Qm x'gvfnsf /+uLg ] z}lIfs ;fdu|Lx? lgdf{0f u/]/ e"sDk / e"sDkLo ;'/Iffsf] af/]df hfgsf/L lbOof] . ;d'bfo / ljBfno:t/df k|bz{gL, ¥ofnLx? cfof]hgf ul/of] . dlxnf ;xeflutfsf] nflu ljz]if hf]8 lbOof] . e"sDkaf6 gful/s 1fgdf slQsf] kl/jt{g cfof] eg]/ hf“Rg ;r]tgf cleofgsf cfof]hsx?åf/f k|ult;"rsx? to u/L k|Zgx? ;f]lwof] . ;r]tgf cleofgkl5 pgLx?df e"sDkaf6 ;r]tgf, rf;f] / k"jtof/Ldf pNn]Vo ;'wf/ { ePsf] kfOof] . #=@ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ lzIff k|0ffnL / cg';Gwfg If]qdf ;dfj]z ug]{ . p2]Zo M of] lqmofsnfkn] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL ;fdu|Lx?nfO{ ljBfnosf k|fyldsb]lv ljZjljBfno tx;Dd ;+nUg u/fpg] Pjd ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f cEof;x?af/] k|fof]lus (applied) / n}lus–;r]t (gender-sensitive) + cg';GwfgnfO{ k|j4{g ug]{ p2]Zo /fv]sf] 5 . %) xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  57. 57. cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – # dxTj M ljkb / k|sf]k;DaGwL ;jfnx?nfO{ ljBdfg z}lIfs kf7oqmddf ;dflxt ugf{n] ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] lg/Gt/ l;sfO / a'emfOnfO{ ;'lglZrttf k|bfg ub{5 . x'sbf]+ lk+9LnfO{ ljkb hf]lvd ;DaGwL lzIff lbOPdf of] efjL +{ k':tfx?;Dd klg k|jflxt eO/xG5 . k|fof]lus cg';Gwfg (Applied Research) ljkb Go"gLs/0f Ifdtf clej[l4 ug]{ Aojxfl/s dfWodsf] ;|ft ePsf]n] o;sf] ] dxTjk"0f{ of]ubfg /xG5 . sfo{ ljlw M s_ z}lIfs k|0ffnLdf ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ ;+nUg u/fpg lgDg sfo{x? pkof]uL /xG5 M != ljBfnosf] k|fyldstxb]lv ljZjljBfnotx;Dd ;d]6gsf] nflu Pp6f sfo{ bn / ljleGg ;ldltx? u7g ug]{ . @= ;a} pd]/ ;d"xdf ljkb / ljkb Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL ljBdfg a'emfO d"Nof+sg ug{ ;j]If0f ug]{ . clxn]sf] kf7oqmddf ljkbsf] ;jfnnfO{ { s;/L / slt;Dd ;Daf]wg ul/Psf] 5 egL ljZn]if0f ug]{ . #= k|foM ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ;DaGwL ;fdu|Lx? lj1fg / e"uf]ndf dfq /flvPsf] 5 . t/ c? ljifox? h:t} Oltxf;, ;fdflhs, jftfj/0f, :jf:Yo cflbdf klg ;+nUg u/fpg] . $= ljkbsf ;jfnx?nfO{ kf7oqmdsf] ;fGble{s If]qdf cem pTs[i6 9+un] ;dflji6 ug{ lzIfs lgb]lzsf hf/L ug]{ . o;sf nflu lzIf0f ;fdu|L { ;+sng / ljZn]if0f ug]{ . %= ljkb hf]lvd lzIffaf/] ljBfnosf sd{rf/L / lzIfsx?nfO{ tflnd lbg] . ^= ljkb Aoj:yfkg / hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL l8u|L sfo{qmdsf] ljsf; ug{ ljZjljBfnox?nfO{ k|fT;flxt ug]{ . ] &= ljB'tLo k|of]u / b"/lzIffsf] dfWodaf6 ;d]t ljkb hf]lvd lzIff k|fKt ug{÷u/fpg k|fT;fxg ug]{ . ] *= ljsf;sf cEof;x?df ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] a'emfO / k|of]unfO{ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn %!
  58. 58. cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – # cem} kl/is[t ug{ k|fof]lus (applied) lsl;dsf] j}1flgs, ;fdflhs– cfly{s / k|fljlws cg';Gwfgx?df hf]8 lbg] . (= cg';Gwfgstf{, gLltlgdf{tf / k|sf]k cEof;stf{x?df cfjZos 5nkmnsf] nflu cj;/ l;h{gf ug]{ . v_ ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ;DaGwL k|fof]lus cg';Gwfg (applied research_nfO{ k|j4{g ug{ /fli6«o cg';Gwfg Ph]08fsf] ljsf; ug{;lsG5 . h;sf] nflu ljifoljåfgx?, ;DalGwt k]zfsdL{x? / lghL If]q ;d]taLr 5nkmn ug{ ;lsG5 . /fli6«o d+rn] applied research nfO{ ;xhLs/0f ug{ dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf lgjf{x ug{;Sb5 . /fli6«o d+rn] ax'ljwfut (mulit-disciplinary) cg';Gwfg Ph]08fsf] ljsf; ug{ ;S5 . o:t} cg';Gwfgdf cjwf/0ffut sfo{;/rgf (conceptual + framework) / ljlwut ;+/rgf÷kxnsbdL lgdf{0fsf] nflu lbzflgb]z ug{;S5 . { z}lIfs kf7oqmd ljsf; ubf{ Wofg lbg'kg]{ s'/fx? M – s] kf7oqmdn] :yfgLo / /fli6«o:t/sf] ljkb / ;+s6f;GgtfnfO{ k|ltWjlgt u5{ < s] kf7oqmddf /flvPsf ;fdu|Lx? :yfgLo?kdf ;fGble{s 5g < -h:t} M ljkbsf] ;fdflhs, cfly{s, jftfj/0fLo cfofdx? ;+nUg 5 jf 5}g <_ – s] k|fylds ljBfnosf] kf7oqmdn] 3tnfUbf] u/L hfgsf/L k|jfx u/]sf] 5 < -h:t} M v]n, lkmN8 cWoog, gf6s cflb ljBfyL{sf ?lrs/ dfWodåf/f ._ – s] aflx/L ;DalGwt lj1 jf jQmfx?nfO{ :yfg lbOPsf] 5 < s] gof“ / k'/fgf k':tfnfO{ Ps} 7fp“df NofO{ 5nkmn ug]{ cj;/ lbOPsf] 5 < – s] pRrlzIff k|bfos z}lIfs;+:yfx?df ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0faf/] cg';Gwfg sfo{qmdx? /flvPsf 5g < – lzIfs, ljåt ;d'bfo, k]zfsdL{nufot c? ;DalGwt ;+sfo / ljwfsf AolQm÷;+:yfaLr ;fem]bf/L clej[l4 ug{ s] ljBdfg ;~hfnnfO{ cem alnof] kfl/g'kb{5 < – z}lIfs ;d'bfo / lzIfsx?sf] nflu cfjZos cfly{s, ef}lts / dfgjLo ;|ftx? pknAw 5g < ] %@ xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn
  59. 59. cWofo @ M xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf k|fyldstf k|fKt lqmofsnfk – # – ljkb hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fnfO{ z}lIfs kf7oqmddf ;dflji6 ug{ s] :yfgLo / /fli6«o:t/sf gLltlgdf{tfx?nfO{ k|fT;fxg ul/Psf] 5 < ] pQ/bfloTj / ;|f]t M – lzIf0f / lzIf0f If]qsf k]zfsdL{x? . – lzIff dGqfnosf k|ltlglw / pRrlzIffsf gLlt lgdf{tfx? . – ljkb hf]lvd Aoj:yfkg lj1x? . – cg';Gwfg ;d'bfosf k|ltlglw / ljåfgx? . – ljBfyL{ / cleefjs ;+3 ;+u7gx? . – o'jf / ljBfyL{ . – lghL / ;fj{hlgs If]qx? . – u};; / ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t ;+u7gx? . cg's"n cj:yf M – ;d'bfosf] ;xof]u / /fhg}lts k|lta4tf . – cfly{s / dfgjLo ;|ftsf] ljlgof]hg . ] – ;fGble{s z}Ifl0fs lgsfox?sf] ;+nUgtf / k|lta4tf . ;kmn pbfx/0f M So'af ljkbsf] b[li6sf]0fn] cfqmfGt d'ns xf] . af9L, rqmjft, t'kmfg k|dv ' ' k|sf]kx? x'g . So'afn] ljljwvfn] ljBfno sfo{qmdx?sf] ;xof]udf ljkb hf]lvd ;DaGwL ;r]tgf clej[l4 ug]{ /0fgLlt agfPsf] 5 . o;sf] nflu cltl/Qm lqmofsnfk, lzIfs–/lxt lqmofsnfk, ;f+:s[lts tflndx?sf] ;xfotf lnOof] . ljBfnos]Gb|Lt oL sfo{qmdx?aLr xf]nu'Og k|fGtdf !$ j6f gu/kflnsfsf gd"gf ljBfnox?df "A Preparonos" -g]kfnLdf– nf} ca tof/ /xf}+ _ gfdsf] kl/of]hgf ;+rfng ul/of] . o; kl/of]hgfdfkm{t ljBfno / ;d'bfoaLr ;DaGw lj:tf/ u/L ljkb;DaGwL ;jfnx?af/] cf}krf/s÷cgf}krfl/s sfo{qmdx? sfof{Gjog ul/of] . :yfgLo jftfj/0f, ljBdfg ;d:of, ;dfwfgsf pkfodf s]Gb|Lt /xL w]/} k|sf/sf tl/sfx? cjnDag ul/of] . oL ;a} sfo{qmdx?df ;d'bfosf] ;xeflutf /x]klg k|dv e"ldsf eg] ljBfyL{x?n] g} lgjf{x u/]sf lyP . ' xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf / g]kfn %#

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