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Malpot

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Malpot

  1. 1. dfnkf] t P] g, @)#$ nfndf]x/ / k| sfzg ldlt @)#$.(.!* ;+ zf] wg ug]{ P]g != dfnkf] t -klxnf] ;+z f] wg_ P]g, @)$) @)$).&.!# @= Gofo k|zf;g ;' wf/ -rf} yf] ;+z f] wg_ P] g, @)$# @)$#.&.@$ #= dfnfkf] t -bf] >f] ;+z f] wg_ P] g, @)$% @)$%.^.@^ $= dfnkf] t -t] >f] ;+z f] wg_ P] g, @)$^ @)$^.&.!! %= cy{ ;DaGwL s]x L g] kfn P]g ;+ zf] wg ug]{ P]g, @)$& @)$&.*.@& ^= Gofo k|zf;g P] g, @)$* @)$*.@.!^ &= dfnkf] t -rf}+ yf] ;+z f] wg_ P]g , @)$( @)$(.(.* *= dfnkf] t -kfF rf} ;+z f] wg_ P]g , @)%$ @)%$.*.@^ @)#$ ;fnsf] P]g g+= @% dfnkf]t;DaGwL Joj:yf ug{ ag]sf] P]g Joj:yf k| :tfjgf M dfnkf] tsf] c;" n tx;Ln;DaGwL Joj:yfdf ;+ zf] wg / PsLs/0f ug{ / hUuf cfafb ug]{ ;DaGwdf s]xL yk Joj:yf ug{ af~5gLo ePsf] n], >L % dxf/fhflw/fh jL/] Gb| jL/ ljqmd zfxb] jaf6 /fli6«o k~rfotsf] ;Nnfx / ;Ddltn] of] P]g agfOaS;]sf] 5 . kl/R5]b–! k|f/lDes != ;+lIfKt gfd, lj:tf/ / k|f/De M -!_ o; P] gsf] gfd ædfnkf] t P]g, @)#$Æ /x] sf]5 . -@_ o; P] gsf] lj:tf/ g] kfne/ x'g]5 .
  2. 2. -#_ of] P]g g] kfn ;/sf/n] g]kfn /fhkqdf ;" rgf k|sflzt u/L tf]s] sf] lhNnfdf tf] s] sf] ldltb]l v k| f/De x' g]5 .w @= kl/efiff kl/efiff M ljifo jf k| ;+un] csf]{ cy{ gnfu]df o; P]g df,– w P] g k| f /De ePsf] ldlt / lhNnfx? M– -!_ b]x fosf @& lhNnfx?df ldlt @)#%.!.! b] lv nfu" x' g] u/L tf] lsPsf] -g] kfn /fhkq – @)#$.!@.!$_ M– Onfd, ´fkf, df] /ª, ;' G;/L, pbok' /, ;Kt/L, l;/fxf, l;Gw' nL, wg' iff, dxf] Q /L, ;nf{x L, /f} t x6, af/f, k;f{ , lrtf} g, eQmk' /, nlntk' /, sf7df8f}+ , gjnk/f;L, ?kGb] xL, slknj:t' , bfª, ;' v]{t , afF s], alb{ of, s}n fnL / s~rgk' / . -@_ b]x fosf % lhNnfx?df ldlt @)#%.$.! b] lv nfu" x' g] u/L tf]lsPsf] -g] kfn /fhkq – @)#%.@.#)_M– kfFry/, wgs' 6f, /fd] 5fk, tgx'F / d':tfª . -#_ b]x fosf ^ lhNnfx?df ldlt @)#^.!.! b] lv nfu" x' g] u/L tf] lsPsf] -g] kfn /fhkqdf – @)#%.!@.^_ M– 88]N w' /f, t]x| y'd, sfe|] knf~rf] s , wflbª, kfNkf / DofUbL . -$_ b]x fosf # lhNnfx?df ldlt @)#^.*.!% b]lv nfu" x' g] u/L tf] lsPsf] -g] kfn /fhkq – @)#^.*.!&_ M– dsjfgk' /, g' j fsf] 6 / sf:sL . -%_ /;'jf lhNnfdf ldlt @)#*.%.! b] lv nfu" x' g]u/L tf] lsPsf] -g] kfn /fhkq – @)#*.%.!_ -^_ b]x fosf # lhNnfx?df ldlt @)$).$.! b] lv nfu" x' g] u/L tf] lsPsf] -g] kfn /fhkq – @)$).$.!_M– ;Nofg, jfUn'ª / ef]hk' / . -&_ b]x fosf # lhNnfx?df ldlt @)$!.$.! b] lv nfu" x' g] u/L tf]lsPsf] -g] kfn /fhkq – @)$!.$.!_M– uf] /vf, u' N dL / :ofªhf . -*_ b]x fosf # lhNnfx?df ldlt @)$#.$.! b] lv nfu" x' g]u /L tf]lsPsf] -g] kfn /fhkq – @)$#.#.(_ M– kj{t, cw{ fvfFr L / bfr'{ nf . -(_ b]x fosf @ lhNnfx?df ldlt @)$$.$.! b]lv nfu" x' g]u /L tf] lsPsf] -g] kfn /fhkq – @)$%.#.@&_ M– -!)_ b]x fosf @ lhNnfx?df ldlt @)%!.$.! b] lv nfu" x' g]u /L tf]lsPsf] -g] kfn /fhkq – @)%!.$.!_ M– jfh' /f / b} n] v . -!!_ b]x fosf lhNnfdf ldlt @)%@.%.! b] lv nfu" x' g]u /L tf] lsPsf] -g] kfn /fhkq – @)%@.%.!_ M– ;+ v'j f–;ef . -!@_ b]x fosf lhNnfdf ldlt @)%#.&.! b] lv nfu" x' g]u /L tf] lsPsf] -g] kfn /fhkq – @)%#.&.!_ M– ;fn' v'Da' . -!#_ b]x fosf * lhNnfx?df ldlt @)%$.%.! b]lv nfu" x' g]u /L tf] lsPsf] -g] kfn /fhkq – @)%$.$.#)_ M– ?s' d, /f]N kf, jemfË, sfnLsf] 6, x'Dnf, d' u', 8f]N kf / bf] nvf . -!$_ b]x fosf lhNnfdf ldlt @)%^.*.!% b] lv nfu" x' g]u /L tf] lsPsf] -g] kfn /fhkq – @)%^.*.!#_ M– h'Dnf
  3. 3. -s_ ædfnkf] t sfof{ noÆ eGgfn] bkmf # adf]lhd :yfkgf ePsf] sfof{ no ;D´g' k5{ . -v_ ædfnkf] tÆ eGgfn] hUufjfnfn] k| rlnt g] kfn sfg" gadf]l hd g] kfn ;/sf/nfO{ ltg'{ kg]{ dfnkf] t tyf ;f] ;/xsf] c? s'g} lt/f] nfO{ ;D´g' k5{ / ;f] zAbn] of] P]gadf]l hdsf] Dofbleq dfnkf] t glt/] jfkt nfUg] z' NsnfO{ ;d] t hgfpF5 . ` -v!_ ædfnkf] t clws[ tÆ eGgfn] g] kfn ;/sf/n] lgo' Qm u/] sf] k|d' v dfnkf] t clws[ t, ϕ=========== dfnkf] t clws[ t jf o; P]gadf]l hd dfnkf] t clws[ tsf] clwsf/ k| o f]u ug{ kfpg] u/L g] kfn ;/sf/n] lgo'Qm u/] sf] cGo s' g} clws[ t jf dfnkf] t sfof{ nosf k|d' vnfO{ ;D´g' k5{ . -v@_ æ;/sf/L hUufÆ eGgfn] ;8s, af6f] , /]N j] tyf ;/sf/L 3/, ejg jf sfof{ no /x] sf] hUuf ;D´g' k5{ / ;f] zAbn] g] kfn ;/sf/sf] cwLgdf /x]s f] ag, a' 6]g , h+ un, gbL, vf] nf gfnf, gbL psf;, tfn, kf] v/L tyf ;f] sf] l8n, gx/, s' nf] , P] nfgL, ktL{ jf cGo hUuf, eL/, kx/f, 8u/ au/ / g]kfn ;/sf/n] ;do ;dodf g] kfn /fhkqdf ; rgf k|s fzg u/L ;/sf/L hUuf egL tf]lslbPsf] hUuf ;d] tnfO{ hgfpF 5 . -v#_ æ;fj{ hlgs hUufÆ eGgfn] s' g} JolQmn] dfq ge} ;fj{ hlgs ?kdf k|o f] u ug{ kfpg] k/fk j{ b]l v k| rngdf /x] sf] af6f] , s' j f, kfgL kF w]/ f], kfgL3f6, Ogf/, kf] v/L tyf ;f]s f] l8n, ufO{ j:t' lgsfNg] lgsf;, uf} r/, d;fg3f6, lrxfg, kf6L, kf}jf, b] j n, wfdL{s pkf;gf ug]{ :yn, :df/s, d7, dGbL/, rf] s, 8jnL, 9n, rf} tf/f] , xf6, d] nf nfUg] 7fpF , ;fj{ hlgs dgf] /~hg ug]{ tyf v] ns' b ug]{ 7fpF / g] kfn ;/sf/n] ;do ;dodf g] kfn /fhkqdf ; rgf k| sfzg u/L ;fj{ hlgs hUuf elg tf]l slbPsf] hUuf ;d]t ;D´g' k5{ . -u_ æjif{ Æ eGgfn] cfly{s jif{ ;D´g' k5{ . ` rf}y f] ;+zf]w gåf/f yk . ϕ kfFrf} ;+zf] wgåf/f l´lsPsf] kfFrf} ;+zf] w gåf/f yk . kfFrf} ;+zf] w gåf/f yk .
  4. 4. -3_ ætf]l sPsf]Æ jf ætf]l sP adf]lhdÆ eGgfn] o; P] g cGtu{ t ag]s f] lgoddf tf]lsPsf] jf tf]lsPadf]l hd ;D´g' k5{ . kl/R5]b –@ dfnkf]t sfof{nosf] :yfkgf #= dfnkf]t sfof{nosf] :yfkgf M v -!_ g]kfn ;/sf/n] k| To]s lhNnfdf cfjZostfg' ;f/ dfnkf] t sfof{ nosf] :yfkgf ug]{ 5 . ` -!s_ dfnkf] t clws[ tn] cfkmgf]] ;a} jf s]x L clwsf/ cfkmgf]] dftxtsf] clws[ t :t/sf sd{ rf/LnfO{ cfkmgf]] ;fdfGo /] vb] v / lgoGq0fdf /xg] u/L k| Tofof] hg ug{ ;Sg]5 . -@_ of] P]g k| f/De x'Fbfsf avt sfod /x]sf dfn c8 8f / sf]i f tyf tx;Ln sfof{ nox? of] P]g k| f/De ePkl5 :jtM dfnkf] t sfof{ nox?df kl/0ft x'g]5g . -#_ of] P]g k| f/De x'Fb fsf avt tTsfn k| rlnt g] kfn sfg gadf]l hd dfn c8 8f jf sf]if tyf tx;Ln sfof{ nox?n] k| f/De u/L k/ f x' g afFsL /x] s f sfd of] P]g k| f/De ePkl5 dfnkf]t sfo{ nox?n] hf/L /fVg]5g . $= eld k|zf;gsf] sfd eld;'wf/ clwsf/L tyf dfnkf]t sfof{nodf ;g]{ M clwsf/L -!_ of] P] g k| f/De x'F bfsf avt sfod /x] sf eld k|zf;g sfof{ nox? of] P] g k| f/De ePkl5 :jtM el d;' wf/ sfof{ nox?df / eld k|z f;sx? el d;' wf/ clwsf/Lx?df kl/0ft x'g]5g / of] P] g k| f/De ePkl5 el d;DaGwL P] g, @)@! cGtu{ tsf] sfd ;f]x L P]gadf]l hd el d;' wf/ sfof{ no jf el d;' wf/ clwsf/Ln] ug]{ 5 . -@_ of] P] g k| f/De x'F bfsf avt el d k| zf;g P] g, @)@$ adf]l hd eld k|zf;g sfof{ no jf el d k|z f;sn] k| f/De u/L k/ f x'g afFsL /x] s f eld;DaGwL P] g, @)@! adf]l hdsf sfd of] P] g k| f/De ePkl5 eld;DaGwL P] g, @)@! adf]l hd eld;' wf/ sfof{ no jf eld;' wf/ clwsf/Ln] hf/L /fVg]5 . v ` rf}+ yf] ;+z f]w gåf/f ;+zf] lwt . rf}y f] ;+zf]w gåf/f yk .
  5. 5. -#_ of] P]g k| f/De x'F bfsf avt el d k|zf;g P]g , @)@$ adf]l hd eldk|zf;g sfof{ no jf el d k|z f;sn] k| f/De u/L k/ f x' g afF sL /x]sf pkbkmf -@_ df n]lvPb]l v afx] s cGo sfd of] P]g k| f/De ePkl5 o; P]gadf]lhd dfnkf] t sfof{ non] hf/L /fVg] 5 . %= cGo g]kfn sfggadf]lhd dfn c88f, sf]if tyf tx;Ln sfof{no jf eld k|zf;g c88f, sfof{non] ug]{ sfd dfnkf]t sfof{non] ug]{ M of] P] g k|f/De x'Fb fsf] avt tTsfn k| rlnt cGo g] kfn sfg gadf]l hd dfn c8 8f, sf]if tyf tx;Ln sfof{ no jf eld k|zf;g sfof{ non] ug]{ sfd of] P]g k| f/De ePkl5 bkmf $ sf] cwLgdf /xL dfnkf] t sfof{ non] ug]{ 5 / dfn c8 8fsf] xflsd, sf]i f tyf tx;Ln sfof{ nosf] k| d'v jf eld k|zf;sn]] ug]{ sfd dfnkf] t sfof{ nosf] k| d' vn] ug]{5 / tL sfgg df To:tf] sfof{ no jf clwsf/Lsf] pNn] v ePsf] 7fpF df dfnkf] t sfof{ no jf dfnkf] t sfof{ nosf] k| d'vsf] pNn] v ePsf] ;lD´g]5 . kl/R5]b–# hUufsf] btf{ / /lhi6«]zg ug]{ sfd ^= hUufsf] btf{ M -!_ dfnkf] t sfof{ non] lhNnfleqsf] k|To]s hUuf tf]l sPadf]l hd btf{ u/L /fVg] 5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ sf] k|o f] hgsf] nflu hUufsf]] btf{ lstfa v8f ubf{ hUuf gfk hfF r ePsf] 7fpF df ;f] gfk hfF raf6 tof/ ePsf] hUufwgL btf{ ;|] : tf adf]l hd / hUufwgLbtf{ ] :tf tof/ gePsf] jf hUuf gfk hfF r gePsf] 7fpF df cfkmgf] sfof{ nodf /x] sf] nut jf el d;' wf/ sfof{ no jf cGo sfof{ noaf6 k| fKt nutadf]l hd v8f ug'{ kg]{ 5 . t/, btf{ jfnf d/L jf lghaf6 xs x:tfGt/0f eO{ c?sf] xs x'g cfPsf] hUufdf To:tf] xs ePsf JolQmsf] gfpF df hUuf btf{ ug{ dfnkf] t sfof{ non] cfjZos ePdf 8f]/ ;d] t v6fO{ cBfjlw nut v8f ug'{ kg]{5 .
  6. 6. w -#_ pkbkmf -@_ adf]l hd hUuf btf{ lstfa v8f ubf{ k| To]] s dfnkf] t sfof{ non] ;DalGwt hUufjfnfx?;+ u tf]l sP adf]lhdsf] ljj/0f dfu ug{ ;Sg]5 / o;/L dfu u/]s f] ljj/0f pknAw u/fpg' k| To] s hUufjfnfsf] st{ Jo x'g]5 . = hUufsf] btf{;DaGwL ljz]if Joj:yf M -!_ bkmf ^ sf] pkbkmf -@_ adf]l hd btf{ lstfa v8f ubf{ hUuf -gfk hfF r_ P]g, @)!( cGtu{t gfkL x'Fb f s' g} hUufsf] gfkL gS;f ug{ 5 6 x'g uPsf] df b dfnkf] t sfof{ non] gfkL ljefusf] ;xdlt lnO{ tf]lsPsf] ;ldltsf] l;kmfl/zdf ;f] hUufsf] gfkL gS;f u/fO{ btf{ ug{ ;Sg]5 . ∑ -!s_ o; P]gsf] cGo bkmfx?df h' g ;' s} s' /f n]l vPsf] eP tfklg g] kfn ;/sf/n] cfjZos b] v]df s'g} JolQm, ju{ jf If]q sf] hUuf btf{ ug]{ k|o f] hgsf] lgldQ p7] s f] ;d:of ;dfwfg u/L hUuf btf{ ;DaGwL lg0f{o ug{s f] nflu g]kfn ;/sf/n] g] kfn /fhkqdf ; rgf k| sflzt u/L Pshgf cWoIf / a9Ldf rf/hgf;Dd ;b:ox? ePsf] cfof] u jf ;ldlt u7g ug{ ;Sg] 5 / ;f] ;ldlt jf cfof] usf] sfd, st{ Jo / clwsf/ ;f] cfof] u jf ;ldltsf] u7g ljlwdf tf] s] adf]lhd x'g] 5 . · -@_ hUuf -gfkhfF r_ P]g , @)!( adf]l hd gfk gS;f ePsf] s' g} hUuf btf{ ug{ ;Dd 5' 6 ePsf] d f pQm hUufsf] ;flas btf{, lt/f] / ef] u ;d] tsf] cfjZos 5fglag u/L tf]lsP adf]l hdsf] ;ldltsf] l;kmfl/;df tf]l sPsf] k|s[ of ckgfO{ dfnkf] t sfof{ non] To:tf] hUuf btf{ ug{ ;Sg] 5 . To:tf] btf{ ;DaGwdf dfnkf]t sfof{ non] lgj]b g k/]s f] ldltn] b'O{ jif{l eq clGtd 6' Ëf] nufO{ ;Sg' kg]{5 . ϕ -@s_ =================== w rf}y f] ;+zf]w gåf/f yk . b rf}yf] ;+zf] wgåf/f ;+ zf]lwt . ∑ rf}y f] ;+zf] w gåf/f yk . · kfFrf} ;+zf] w gåf/f yk . kfF rf} ;+ zf]w gåf/f ;+zf] lwt . ϕ kfFrf} ;+zf] wgåf/f l´lsPsf]
  7. 7. -#_ hUufjfnfsf] gfd, y/, jtg, pd]/ jf lghsf] afa', afh] , klt jf ;;'/ fsf] gfd y/ jf hUufsf] lsQf gDa/, If] qkmn jf lsl;d km/s k/]s f] df jf bf]xf]/ f] btf{ x'g uPsf] df dfnkf] t sfof{ non] cfjZos hfF ra'´ u/L ;f] s' /f ;RofO{ btf{ sfod ug{ ;Sg] 5 . s= Pp6} hUufwgL ;+s]t gDa/ lbg ;Sg M dfnkf] t ljefun] hUufwgLnfO{ g] kfn ;Sg] clw/fHoleq lghsf] gfddf /x] sf] ;a} hUufsf] Pp6} hUuf wgL ;+s]t gDa/ lbg] u/L cfjZos Joj:yf ug{ ;Sg] 5 . · *= /lhi6«]zg, gfd;f/L, bflvn vf/]h / nut s§f ug]{ sfd M -!_ k| rlnt sfg g adf]l hd lnvtsf] /lhi6«]zg, gfd;f/L, bflvn vf/] h / nut s§f ug]{ sfd dfnkf] t sfof{ non] ug]{ 5 . -@_ /lhi6«] zg x'g] lnvtdf y} nL c+ s sfod ug]{ k|of] hgsf] nflu tf]lsPsf] ;ldltn] ;DalGwt If] qsf] hUufsf] Go' g td dNo lgwf{ /0f ug]{ 5 . -#_ k| rlnt sfgg adf]lhd ePsf] ldnfkqsf] cfwf/df dfnkf] t sfof{ non] hUuf btf{ jf bflvn vf/] h ubf{ ;DalGwt hUufsf] ;flas btf{, df]7 jf gDa/L;+ u le8g cfPdf dfq To:tf] hUufsf] btf{ jf bflvn vf/] h ug]{5 . -$_ JolQm ljz]i fsf] hUuf ;fj{ hlgs k|o f] hgsf] nflu btf{ ug{ ;DalGwt JolQmsf] lgj]bg k/] df tf]l sPsf] ;ldltsf] l;kmfl/;df dfnkf] t sfof{ non] To:tf] hUufaf6 ;f] JolQmsf] gfd s§f ug{ ;Sg] 5 . -%_ df]xL nfu] sf] jf xbaGbLdf sf/jfxL ePsf] hUufsf] ] : tfdf x]/ km]/ ePdf ;f] s'/fsf] hfgsf/L dfnkf] t sfof{ non] el d;' wf/ sfof{ nonfO{ lbg' kg]{ 5 . q *s= gfkL gS;f cBfjlws ug]{ M -!_ bkmf / * adf]lhd sfod ePsf] btf{ ;|]: tf cg' ?k gfkL gS;fdf ;+zf] wg ug'{ kg]{ ePdf dfnkf] t sfof{ non] ;DalGwt `d]l G6g] G ; gfkL zfvfdf n] vL kfFrf} ;+zf] w gåf/f yk . · kfFrf} ;+zf] w gåf/f yk . q kfFrf} ;+zf] wgåf/f ;+ zf]lwt . ` t]f] ;+zf] wgåf/f yk . rf}+y f] ;+zf]w gåf/f ;+zf] lwt .
  8. 8. ` k7fpg' kg]{ 5 / To;/L n] vL cfPkl5 d]lG6g]G ; gfkL zfvfn] klg gfkL gS;fdf cfjZos ;+zf] wg ug'{ kg]{ 5 . -@_ hUufsf] jf:tljs l:ylt / gfkL gS;fdf Ps?ktf gePsf] b]l vPdf dfnkf] t sfof{ non] gfkL gS;fdf ;' wf/ ug{ gfkL ljefudf n] vL k7fpg' kg]{5 / To;/L n] vL cfPkl5 gfkL ljefun] gfkL gS;fdf cfjZos ;' wf/ ug'{ u/fpg' kg]{ 5 . *v= 3/ hUuf /f]Ssf jf km's'jf ug{ M ug] -!_ s'g} 3/ hUufdf ljjfb k/L jf c? s' g} sf/0fn] /f]S sf /fVg cfjZos b]l vPdf dfnkf] t sfof{ non] To:tf] 3/ hUuf /f]Ssf /fVg ;Sg] 5 . -@_ k| rlnt sfgg adf]l hd s'g} c8 8f, cbfnt jf ;/sf/L sfof{ noaf6 s' g} 3/ hUuf /f]S sf /fVg jf To:tf] /f]Ssf /flvPsf] 3/ hUuf km's'j f ug{ n] vL cfPdf dfnkf] t sfof{ non] n] vL cfP adf]lhd To:tf] 3/ hUuf /f]S sf jf km's'j f ul/lbg' k5{ . -#_ k| rlnt sfgg adf]l hd :yflkt s'g} a}+ s, ljQLo ;+ : yf jf :yfgLo lgsfon] cfkmgf]] cfly{ s sf/f] jf/sf] l;nl;nfdf s' g} 3/ hUuf /f]Ssf /fVg jf To;/L /f]Ssf /flvPsf] 3/ hUuf km' s'jf ug{ n] vL k7fPdf dfnkf] t sfof{ non] tf]lsP adf]l hd To:tf] 3/ hUuf /f]Ssf /fVg' jf km's' jf ug'{ kg]{5 . To;/L /f]Ssf /fVbf jf km' s'j f ubf{ a}+ s jf ljQLo ;+ : yfsf] xsdf dfnkf] t sfof{ non] tf]lsP adf]l hdsf] b:t'/ lng]5 . kl/R5]b–$ dfnkf]tsf] c;nL;DaGwL Joj:yf (= dfnkf]t c;n ug]{ clwsf/ M -!_ dfnkf] t c; n ug]{ sfd, st{ Jo tyf clwsf/ dfnkf] t sfof{ nosf] x' g]5 . · -@_ pkbkmf -!_ df h'g ;' s} s'/f n]l vPsf] eP tfklg g] kfn ;/sf/n] g] kfn /fhkqdf ; rgf k|s fzg u/L dfnkf]t sfof{non] c;' n ub}{ cfPsf] dfnkf] t ` rf}+y f] ;+zf]w gåf/f ;+zf] lwt . · kfFrf} ;+zf] w gåf/f yk . kfF rf} ;+ zf]w gåf/f ;+zf] lwt .
  9. 9. s'g} ;/sf/L sfof{ no jf :yfgLo lgsfoåf/f c; n ug{ kfpg] u/L clwsf/ ;'Dkg ;Sg] 5 . -#_ pkbkmf -@_ adf]l hd :yfgLo lgsfon] c;' n u/] s f] dfnkf] tsf] /sd cfkmgf]] sf]i fdf hDdf ug'{ kg]{ 5 . !)= dfnkf]t a'´fpg' kg]{ M g]kfn ;/sf/df dfnkf] t a'´ fpg' kg]{ k|To]s hUufsf] hUufjfnfn] ;f] hUufsf] k| rlnt g] kfn sfgg adf]l hd lgwf{l /t ePsf] dfnkf] t k| To] s jif{ a'´ fpg' kg]{ 5 . !)s= dfnkf]t b/ lgwf{/0f ug{ M bkmf !) df h'g ;'s} s'/ f n]l vPsf] ePtfklg o; P]g ug] adf]l hd hUufjfnfn] k|To] s jif{ a'´ fpg' kg]{ dfnkf] tsf] b/ g] kfn ;/sf/n] lgwf{ /0f ug{ jf To:tf] dfnkf] tsf] b/ :yfgLo lgsfon] lgwf{/ 0f ug]{ u/L tf]Sg ;Sg]5 . w !!= dfnkf]t a'´fpg] Dofb M hUufjfnfn] a'´ fpg' kg]{ dfnkf] t k|To]s jif{ h]i7 d;fGt;Dddf a'´ fpg' kg]{ 5 . !@= dfnkf]tdf 5'6 lbg M df3 d;fGt;Dddf ;f] jif{s f] dfnkf] t a'´ fpg] lbg] hUufjfnfnfO{ ;f] jif{sf] nfUg] dfnkf] tsf] kfF r k|l tzt 5' 6 lbOg] 5 . w !#= dfnkf]t ga'´fPdf nfUg] z'Ns M bkmf !! adf]l hdsf] Dofb gf3] kl5 ;f] jif{ sf] cfiff9 !% ut] ;Dddf dfnkf] t a'´ fPdf kF fr k|l tzt z' Ns ;d] t nufO{ dfnkf] t c; n ul/g] 5 . !$= dfnkf]t c;n x'g afFs L hUufsf] kmfF6jf/L M wbkmf !# adf]lhdsf] Dofbleq klg dfnkf] t ga'´ fO{ afFs L /x]s f] hUufsf] tf]lsP adf]l hdsf] kmfF 6jf/L dfnkf] t w sfof{ non] cfiff9 d;fGt;Dddf tof/ ug]{5 . ;/sf/L sfof{ no jf :yfgLo lgsfon] dfnkf] t p7fPsf] eP To:tf] kmfF 6jf/L ;/sf/L sfof{ no jf :yfgLo lgsfon] ;f] cjlwleq tof/ u/L dfnkf] t sfof{ nodf k7fpg' kg]{ 5 . ;f] kmfF 6jf/L kfFrf} ;+zf] w gåf/f yk . w kfFrf} ;+zf] w gåf/f yk . klxnf] ;+zf]w gåf/f ;+zf] lwt . w w klxnf] ;+zf]w gåf/f ;+zf] lwt . w klxnf] ;+zf]w gåf/f ;+zf] lwt . klxnf] ;+zf]w gåf/f ;+zf] lwt . kfFrf} ;+zf] w gåf/f yk .
  10. 10. w adf]l hdsf] dfnkf] t afF s L /x] sf] hUuf lnnfd laqmL ul/g] ePdf dfnkf] t sfof{ non] tf]s]s f] 7fpF x?df h cflZjg d;fGt;Dddf ; rgf k|sflzt ug]{5 . !%= dfnkf]t afFsL ePsf] hUuf /f]Ssf ug{ ;lsg M bkmf !$ adf]l hdsf] kmfF 6jf/Laf6 hUuf ;lsg] b]lvPsf] dfnkf] t afF sL ePsf] hUufjfnfsf] hUuf afFs L dfnkf] t r'l Qm ga'´ fP;Dd jf afFsLdf lnnfd laqmL geP;Dd dfnkf] t sfof{ non] /f]S sf /fVg ;Sg] 5 . t/, To;/L /f]Ssf /x]sf] hUufdf ;fljs adf]l hd v] tL ug{ kfpg] 5 . !^= hUuf lnnfd ug]{ M -!_ bkmf !$ adf]l hdsf] kmfF 6jf/Laf6 b]l vPsf] dfnkf] t afFs L ePsf] hUufdWo] dfnkf] t c; n pk/ ug{ dfnkf] t afFs L /x]s f] lsQf hUuf dfnkf] t sfof{ non] tf]lsP adf]l hd wlnnfd laqmL ug{ ;Sg]5 . w -@_ o; bkmf adf]l hd hUuf lnnfd laqmL ul/g] ePdf To:tf] lnnfd laqmLsf] sfd hd+;L/ dxLgf b]l v z'? ul/g]5 . -#_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]l hd lnnfd laqmL ubf{ s;} n] ;sf/ gu/]df To:tf] hUufsf] :jfldTj g] kfn ;/sf/df ;g]{ 5 / g]kfn ;/sf/sf] :jfldTjdf cfPsf] hUuf tf]lsP adf]l hd laqmL ljt/0f ug{ ;lsg]5 . t/ To:tf] hUufsf] :jfldTj g] kfn ;/sf/df ;/] klg ;f] hUufdf /x]s f] df]x Lsf] df]xLofgL xs sfod} /xg]5 . -$_ pkbkmf -!_ adf] hd lnnfd laqmLaf6 cfPsf /sd dWo] afF sL dfnkf] t / To;sf] krf; k|l tzt z'N s ;d] t s6fO{ afF s L /x]s f] /sd ;DalGwt hUufjfnfnfO{ lkmtf{ lbOg]5 . -%_ pkbkmf -#_ adf]l hd g] kfn ;/sf/sf] :jfldTjdf cfPsf] hUuf laqmL ljt/0f geP;Dd To;sf] /] vb] v / cGo Joj:yf tf]lsP adf]l hd x'g]5 . w -^_ o; bkmfdf h' g ;' s} s'/f n]l vPsf] eP tfklg cfiff9 !^ ut]b]l v hUuf lnnfd laqmL geP;Dd dfnkf]t bflvn x'g cfPdf To:tf] hUufjfnfaf6 w klxnf] ;+zf]w gåf/f ;+zf] lwt . h w t]f] ;+zf] wgåf/f ;+zf]lwt . w klxnf] ;+zf]w gåf/f ;+zf] lwt . h klxnf] ;+zf]w gåf/f ;+zf] lwt . t]f] ;+zf] wgåf/f ;+zf]lwt .
  11. 11. h dfnkf] t sfof{ non] dfnkf] tsf] jflif{s bz k|l tztsf b/n] z'Ns ;d] t nufO{ dfnkf]t c; n ug]{ 5 . t/, of] pkbkmf k| f/De x'g'eGbf cl3sf] dfnkf] t afF sLdf k}+ tL; k|l tzt zNs nufO{ dfnkf] t c; n ul/g]5 . != dfnkf]t a'´fpg] Dofb a9fpg ;lsg] M -!_ bkmf !! df h'g ;' s} s'/ f n]l vPsf] eP tfklg ;f] bkmfdf tf]lsPsf] Dofbleq h s'g} jif{ s' g} lhNnf jf lhNnfsf s' g} If] q jf s'g} JolQmsf] dfnkf] t a'´fpg g;Sg] kl/l:ylt 5 eGg] s'/ f nfu] d f g] kfn ;/sf/n] g] kfn /fhkqdf ; rgf k| s flzt u/L dfnkf] t a'´ fpg] Dofb a9fpg ;Sg]5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]l hd Dofb yk ePsf] d f ;f] yk ePsf] hlhNnfsf] s'g} If]q df ;f] yk Dofb e'Qmfg ePkl5 dfq bkmf !#, !$, !% / !^ adf]l hdsf] sf/jfO{ ul/g]5 / To:tf]d f hlt lbgsf] Dofb yk ePsf] 5 Tolt lbg ;f] bkmfx?df ljleGg sfd sf/jfO{ ug]{ egL pNn] v ePsf] Dofbx?df ;d] t ;f]x L adf]lhd yk u/L Dofb sfod ul/g]5 . !*= /;Lb lbg] M dfnkf] t sfof{ no jf dfnkf] t c; n ug]{ · ;/sf/L sfof{ no jf :yflgo lgsfon] a'l´lnPsf] dfnkf] tsf] /;Lb dfnkf] t a'´ fpg] nfO{ lbg' kg]{5 . !(= xbaGbLeGbf a9L hUufsf] dfnkf]t c;n ug]{ ;DaGwdf M eld;DaGwL P] g, @)@! adf]l hd /fVg kfpg] xbaGbLeGbf a9L hUuf ;DalGwt clwsf/Ln] k| fKt u/L laqmL ljt/0faf6 x:tfGt/0f geP;Dddf ;fljsadf]l hd g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ dfnkf] t a'´fpg] u/L ;fljs hUufjfnfsf] ef] u rngdf /x]s f] hUufsf] dfnkf] t ;f] hUufjfnfaf6 c; n pk/ ul/g]5 . t/, To:tf] hUufsf] dfnkf] t afF s Ldf hUuf lnnfd gu/L ;f] hUufjfnfn] kfpg] Ifltklt{ af6 afF s L dfnkf] t s§f ul/g]5 . kl/R5]b–% w klxnf] ;+zf]w gåf/f ;+zf] lwt . h h t]f] ;+zf] wgåf/f ;+zf]lwt . h cy{ ;DaGwL s]xL g]kfn P]g ;+zf] wg ug]{ P] g, @)$ åf/f ;+zf] lwt . · cy{ ;DaGwL s]xL g]kfn P]g ;+zf] wg ug]{ P] g, @)$ åf/f ;+zf] lwt . kfFrf} ;+zf] wgåf/f ;+ zf]lwt .
  12. 12. dfnkf]t ldGxf;DaGwL Joj:yf @)= gbLsf6, afn'a'h{ ePdf jf klx/f] uPdf dfnkf]t ldGxf lbg] M -!_ dfnkf] t nfUg] s'g} hUuf s' g} jif{ gbL vf] nfn]] sf6]df jf afn'a'h{ ePdf jf klx/f] uPdf jf klx/f] n] k'/ L d' Vo afnL x'g g;s]df ;DalGwt hUufjfnfn] tf]lsPsf] Dofbleq tf]l sPsf] 9fF rfdf ljj/0f vf]nL dfnkf] t sfof{ nodf b/vf:t lbg' kg]{5 . t/, afnL nfu]sf] hUufsf] xsdf pkbkmf -@_ adf]l hd hfF ra'´ x'g'e Gbf cufj} ;f] afnL sf6g' x'F b}g . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]l hd kg{ cfPsf] b/vf:tdf pNn]l vt s'/ fx?sf] hfF ra'´ ug{ dfnkf] t sfof{ nosf] k| d' vn] tL; lbgleq cfkm}+ uO{ jf 8f]/ v6fO{ hfF ra'´ ug{ u/fpg' kg]{5 . ;f] adf]lhdsf] hfF ra'´ ubf{ u/fpFb f ;f] jif{ dfnkf] t ldGxf ug'{ kg]{ b]l vPdf slt k|l tzt;Dd dfnkf] t ldGxf lbg' kg]{ xf] dfnkf] t sfof{ non] osLg u/L ldGxf lbO{ dfnkf]t ljefudf ;ft lbgleq hfgsf/L lbg' kg]{5 . -#_ pkbkmf -@_ adf]lhdsf] hfF ra'´ af6 s' g} hUuf ;w}sf] lgldQ j] ;fa b jf a]sDdf ePsf] b]l vPdf ;f] hUufsf] nut s§f ug{ dfnkf] t sfof{ non] g] kfn ;/sf/df hfx]/ ug]{5 / g] kfn ;/sf/n] d'gfl;j b] v]df ;f] hUufsf] nut s§f ug{ dfnkf] t sfof{ nonfO{ cfb]z lbg]5 . @!= ;'Svf jf cGo b}jL k|sf]kn] afnL x'g g;s]df dfnkf]t ldGxf x'g] M -!_ s'g} jif{ ;'S vf jf cl;gf k/L jf ;nx nfuL jf af9L cfO jf c? s' g} b} jL k| sf] kn] s' g} If]q df h d'Vo afnL gf]S ;fgL ePdf cfjZos hfF ra'´ u/L cf+l zs jf k/f dfnkf] t ldGxf lbg' kg]{ nfu]d f cfkmgf]] /fo ;lxt dfnkf] t sfof{ non] g] kfn ;/sf/df hfx]/ ug]{ 5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd hfx] / eO{ cfPdf jf s'g} tj/n] To:tf] cj:yfsf] ¸ hfgsf/L g] kfn ;/sf/nfO{ ePdf ========= cfjZos b]l vP hlt dfnkf] t g]kfn ;/sf/n] ldGxf ug]{5 . h ¸ t]f] ;+zf] wgåf/f ;+zf]lwt . cy{ ;DaGwL s]xL g]kfn P]g ;+zf] wg ug]{ P] g, @)$ åf/f l´lsPsf] .
  13. 13. kl/R5]b–^ dfnkf]t c;n ug]{ sfd, st{Jo / bfloTj;DaGwL Joj:yf · @@= o; P]g adf]lhdsf] clwsf/ k|of]u ug{ ;Sg] M bkmf ( sf] pkbkmf -@_ adf]l hd s'g} ;/sf/L sfof{ no jf :yfgLo lgsfon] of] P]g / o; P]g cGt{ut ag]sf] lgod adf]l hd dfnkf] t c;' n ubf{ ;f] ;DaGwdf hUuf lnnfd laqmL ug]{ afx]s dfnkf] t sfof{ nonfO{ k| fKt ;Dk0 f{ clwsf/x¿ To:tf] ;/sf/L sfof{no jf :yfgLo lgsfon] ;d] t k|o f] u ug{ kfpg]5g . · @#= xfgL gf]S;fgLsf] lauf] Joxf]g'{' kg]{ M s;} n] dfnkf] t c; n ubf{ hfgLhfgL jf g ablgot;fy of] P]g jf k| rlnt sfgg sf] alv{ nfk x'g] sfd u/L g]kfn ;/sf/ jf c? s;} nfO{ s'g} lsl;dsf] xfgL gf]S ;fgL k'¥ofPdf ;f] xfgL gf]S;fgLsf] lauf] / cGo bfloTj dfnkf] t c;' n ug]{ sfddf vl6Psf] JolQmn] Joxf] g'{ kg]{5 . To;/L dfnkf] t c;' n u/] sf] /sd xfgL gf]S;fgL ePsf]d f lgh pk/ k| rlnt sfgg adf]l hd sf/jfxL ;d] t x'g]5 . kl/R5]b– hUuf cfjfb ug]{ ;DaGwL Joj:yf · @$= ;/sf/L jf ;fj{hlgs hUuf btf{ ug{ jf cfjfb ug{ gx'g] M -!_ ;/sf/L jf ;fj{ hlgs hUuf JolQm ljz]i fsf gfddf btf{ jf cfjfb ug{ u/fpg x'F b}g . t/ g]kfn ;/sf/n] ;fj{ hlgs hUuf ;fj{ hlgs k|o f] hgsf] nflu / ;/sf/L hUuf g] kfn ;/sf/af6 plrt 7x¥ofPsf] s' g} sfdsf] nflu Joj:yf ug{ o; pkbkmfn] afwf k'¥ofPsf] dflgg] 5} g . -@_ s;} n] of] bkmf k| f/De x'g' eGbf cl3 jf kl5 s'g} ;/sf/L jf ;fj{ hlgs hUuf JolQm ljz]ifsf] gfpF df btf{ u/L cfjfb u/]sf] df To:tf] btf{ :jtM ab/ x'g]5 . To:tf] hUufsf] JolQm ljz]i fsf gfpF df /x]s f] btf{ nut ;d] t dfnkf] t sfof{ no jf g]kfn ;/sf/n] tf] s]sf] clwsf/Ln] s§f ug]{5 . · · kfF rf} ;+ zf]w gåf/f ;+zf] lwt . · kfF rf} ;+ zf]w gåf/f ;+zf] lwt . kfF rf} ;+ zf]w gåf/f ;+zf] lwt .
  14. 14. -#_ ;/sf/L hUuf / ;fj{ hlgs hUuf ;DalGwt dfnkf] t sfof{ non] btf{ u/L tf]lsP adf]l hdsf] clen] v cBfjlws /fVg' kg]{5 . @%= btf{ gePsf] hUuf cfjfb ug{ gx'g] M btf{ gePsf] hUuf s;} n] cfjfb ug'{ u/fpg' x'Fb}g . t/, bkmf @^ adf]l hd tf]l sPsf] ;ldltn] hUuf cfjfb ug{ :jLs[l t lbPkl5 jf k'gjf{ ;;DaGwL k| rlnt g] kfn sfgg adf]l hd hUuf laqmL ljt/0f ePkl5 To:tf] hUuf cfjfb ug{ o; bkmfn] afwf k'¥ofPsf] dflgg] 5}g . @^= :jLs[lt lnO{ btf{ gePsf] hUuf cfjfb ug{ M ug] -!_ btf{ gePsf] hUuf cfjfb ug{ tf]l sPsf] ;ldltaf6 :jLs[l t lng' kg]{ 5 . -@_ btf{ gePsf] hUuf cfjfb ug{ :jLs[ltsf] lgldQ tf]lsPsf] ;ldltdf b/vf:t lbg' kg]{5 . -#_ df]xL jf hUufjfnfsf] x}l ;otn] tf]lsPsf] xb;Dd cfkmgf]] hUuf gePsf] JolQmn] dfq pkbkmf -@_ adf]l hd b/vf:t lbg kfpg]5 . -$_ tf]lsPsf] ;ldltn] of] P]g / o; P]g cGtu{ t ag]sf] lgod tyf cGo k| rlnt g] kfn sfgg sf] cwLgdf /xL pkbkmf -#_ adf]l hdsf JolQmnfO{ btf{ gePsf] hUuf cfjfb ug{ :jLs[l t lbg ;Sg] 5 . -%_ pkbkmf -$_ adf]lhd tf]lsPsf] ;ldltn] :jLs[lt lb+ bf To:tf] hUuf cfjfb ug{ kfpg] zt{ x? tyf ;f] afktsf] b:t/ tf]lsPadf]l hd x'g]5 . t/, -s_ o; bkmfdf n]l vPsf] s'g} s'/ fn] bkmf @$ sf] · pkbkmf -!_ adf]l hd cfjfb jf btf{ ug{ gx'g] hUuf cfjfb ug{ :jLs[l t lbg] clwsf/ To:tf] ;ldltnfO{ x' g] 5}g . -v_ s'g} sf/0fn] s'g} JolQmsf] gfddf xfn cfjfbL btf{ x' g g;Sg] hUuf ;f] JolQmnfO{ tf]lsPsf] ;ldltn] cfjfb ug{ :jLs[lt lbg] 5}g . -u_ s'g} Ps} hUuf cfjfb ug{ :jLs[l tsf] nflu PseGbf a9L JolQmx?sf] b/vf:t k/]d f tf]l sP adf]lhdsf] k|fyldstf cg' ;f/ cg'dlt lbOg] 5 . · kfF rf} ;+ zf]w gåf/f ;+zf] lwt .
  15. 15. -^_ o; bkmfdf h' g ;' s} s'/ f n]lvPsf] ePtfklg s'g} If] q sf] hUufdf a;f]a f; u/fpg] ePdf g] kfn ;/sf/n] tf]s] sf] xb;Ddsf] hUuf k'g jf{ ;;DaGwL k| rlnt g]kfn sfgg adf]l hd laqmL ljt/0f u/fpg ;Sg] 5 . -_ tf]lsPsf] ;ldltn] hUuf cfjfb ug{ :jLs[l t lb+b f jf pkbkmf -^_ adf]l hd a;f]a f;sf] lgldQ hUuf laqmL ljt/0f ubf{ tf]l sPsf] ;ldlt jf ;DalGwt clwsf/Ln] To:tf] hUuf btf{ ug{ nufpg' kg]{5 . -*_ o; bkmf cGtu{ t ;DalGwt ;ldlt jf clwsf/Ln] u/]s f] lg0f{o jf cfb]znfO{ dfnkf] t sfof{ non] tf]l sP adf]l hd sfof{l Gjt ug]{5 . kl/R5]b–* ljljw @= lhldbf/;+usf] aSof}tf c;n ug]{ M lhldbf/L pGd ng x'Fb fsf avt lhldbf/;+ u k] 6 afF s L /xg uPsf] dfnkf] t k| rlnt g] kfn sfgg adf]l hd ;/sf/L afFs L ;/x lhldbf/L ] : tf adf]l hd c;n pk/ ul/g] 5 . @*= dfnkf]t c;n tx;Ln ug]{ sfddf afwf lj/f]w ug]{nfO{ ;hfo M s;} n] dfnkf] t c; n tx;Ln ug]{ sfddf afwf lj/f] w k'¥ofPdf ;f] afwf lj/f] w ug]{ JolQmnfO{ dfnkf] t sfof{ nosf k| d' vn] kfF r;o ?k}+ofF ;Dd hl/jfgf ug{ ;Sg] 5 . · @(= ;/sf/L jf ;fj{hlgs hUuf btf{ jf cfjfb u/]df x'g] ;hfo M s;} n] ;/sf/L jf ;fj{ hlgs hUuf btf{ jf cfjfb u/fPdf dfnkf] t sfof{non] lghnfO{ Psxhf/ ?k}o fFb]l v bzxhf/ ?k}o fF ;Dd hl/jfgf u/L To:tf] hUuf a‰ØfO{ lbg] 5 . @(s= ´'§f ljj/0f k]z u/]df x'g] ;hfo M k| rlnt sfgg adf]l hd dfnkf] t sfof{ noaf6 ;Dkfbg x' g] sfd sf/afxLsf] l;nl;nfdf s;} n] hfgL hfgL ´'§ f ljj/0f k] z u/] sf] b]lvg cfPdf tT;DawL lg0f{o ubf{ dfnkf]t sfof{ non] ;f] ljj/0f k] z ug]{ JolQmnfO{ Psxhf/ ?k} ofF ;Dd hl/jfgf ug{ ;Sg]5 . #)= :jLs[lt lagf hUuf cfjfb ug]{nfO{ ;hfo M s;} n] bkmf @^ sf] pkbkmf -$_ adf]l hd :jLs[l t k| fKt gu/L btf{ gePsf] s'g} hUuf cfjfb u/] d f jf ug{ nufPdf lghnfO{ ;f] hUuf cfjfb u/] s} jif{b]l vsf] k| rlnt g] kfn sfgg adf]l hdsf] · kfF rf} ;+ zf]w gåf/f ;+zf] lwt . kfFrf} ;+zf] w gåf/f yk .
  16. 16. dfnkf] tsf] lauf] sf] bz bf]Aa/;Dd hl/jfgf u/L dfnkf] t sfof{ nosf] k|d' vn] ;f] hUuf hkmt ug]{ 5, To;/L hkmt ePsf] hUufsf] ;DaGwdf tf]l sP adf]lhd x' g]5 . · #!= k'g/fj]bg M o; P]g sf] bkmf , *, *v=, @*, @( / #) adf]l hd dfnkf] t sfof{ non] u/] s f] lg0f{o pk/ k'g/fj] bg cbfntdf k'g/fj]b g nfUg] 5 . t/ bkmf adf]l hd dfnkf] t sfof{ non] xs a]xs ;DaGwL k| Zg p7fO{ cbfntaf6 lg0f{o ug'{ kg]{ u/L u/]s f] lg0f{o pk/ k'g/fj]b g cbfntdf k' g/fj]bg nfUg] 5} g . #@= cbfntnfO{ eP ;/xsf] clwsf/ x'g] M o; P]g cg' ;f/sf] sfd sf/jfO{ ubf{ aofg lng, kIf l´sfpg, k| df0f a' ‰g], sfuhkq bflvn u/fpg] ;DaGwdf dfnkf] t sfof{ nosf] k| d' vnfO{ k| rlnt g] kfn sfgg adf]l hd cbfntnfO{ eP ;/xsf] clwsf/ x' g]5 . ∑ #@s= ljefuLo sf/jfO{ x'g] M o; P]g adf]l hd dfnkf] t sfof{ noaf6 ug'{ kg]{ sf/jfO{ abgLotk 0 f{ 9+ uaf6 eP u/] sf] b]l vPdf ;DalGwt clws[ t jf sd{ rf/LnfO{ ljefuLo ;hfo x'g]5 . #@v= sfd sf/afxL ab/ ug{ ;Sg M o; P] g adf]l hd dfnkf] t clws[ taf6 hUufsf] ;Sg] gfd;f/L, bflvn vf/] h tyf bkmf sf] pkbkmf -#_ df plNnlvt ljj/0fx?df ;+ zf] wg ubf{ k| rlnt sfgg adf]l hd uDeL/ q' 6L ePsf] 5 eGg] s'/ f cbfntdf ph'/ kg'{ cl3 s;} sf] lgj] bg k/L jf s'g} Joxf]/ fn] yfxf x' g cfPdf dfnkf] t ljefusf] dxflgb]{zsn] pQm lg0f{o ab/ u/L sfg g adf]l hd k'g M lg0f{o ug{ ;Sg]5 . ##= lgod agfpg] clwsf/ M o; P]gsf] p2] Zo sfof{l Gjt ug{ g] kfn ;/sf/n] lgodx? agfpg ;Sg] 5 . #$= afwf c8sfp km'sfpg] clwsf/ M of] P]g sfof{ Gjog ubf{ s'g} afwf c8sfp k/] df c8sfp g]kfn ;/sf/n] ;f] afwf c8s fp km's fpgsf] nflu g] kfn /fhkqdf ; rgf k|sflzt u/L cfjZos cfb]z hf/L ug{ ;Sg]5 . · kfF rf} ;+ zf]w gåf/f ;+zf] lwt . ∑ rf}y f] ;+zf] w gåf/f yk . kfFrf} ;+zf] w gåf/f yk .
  17. 17. #%= lgis[o tyf vf/]h x'g] M of] P]g k|f/De ePsf lhNnfdf b]x fosf g] kfn sfgg x? lgis[o x'g]5g / of] P]g g] kfn clw/fHoe/ k| f/De ePkl5 pQm g] kfn sfgg x? :jtM vf/] h x'g] 5g M– -s_ eld k| z f;g P]g , @)@$, -v_ dfnkf] t -ljz]i f Joj:yf_ P]g , @)!*, -u_ dfnkf] t -ldGxf_ P]g , @)!(, -3_ dw]z dfnsf] ;jfn, -ª_ kxf8 dfn ;jfn .

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