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klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo   ÷34
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8. landslide and its controll dks 8

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8. landslide and its controll dks 8

  1. 1. klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷1
  2. 2. k|sf]k–1fgdfnf–* klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] k|sfzs klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷2
  3. 3. s[lt M klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo n]vs M /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] k|sfzs M jftfj/0f tyf afn ;/f]sf/ ;+:yf–g]kfn (ECO-Nepal) ;jf{lwsf/ M k|sfzsdf ;'/lIft ;+:s/0f M k|yd, c;f/ @)^$ ;ªVof M @,))) k|lt cfj/0f l8hfOg M /d]z bfxfn d'b|s M lszf]/ ckm;]6 k|; -k|f=_ ln=, kmf]g M $#%!)$$ ] d"No M ?= %)÷– ISBN : 978-99946-927-8-1 k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f tyf k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug]{ ;fd'bflos Ifdtf clej[l4sf nflu ;r]tg cleofgcGtu{t k|sf]k–1fgdfnf k|sfzgdf cf+lzs ¿kdf cfly{s ;xof]u ug]{ lgDg ;fem]bf/ ;+:yfx¿k|lt Osf]–g]kfn xflb{s cfef/ JoQm ub{5 M PS;gP8 g]kfn cS;kmfd hLaL g]kfn kf]= a= g+= ^@%&, sf7df8f}+, g]kfn kf]= a= g+= @%)), sf7df8f}+, g]kfn kmf]gM $$#^$&& kmf]gM %%@)%*^ kmofS;M (&&–!–$$!(&!* kmofS;M (&&–!–%%@#!(& j]e;fO6M www.actionaid.org/nepal j]e;fO6M www.oxfam.org.uk klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷3
  4. 4. k|sfzssf] egfO d'n'ssf] clwsf+z e"v08 kj{tLo If]qn] 9fs]sf] g]kfn ljgfzsf/L klx/f]sf] hf]vddf /x]sf] . ljljwtfo'Qm e"agf]6, sdhf]/ w/ftn, clgof]lht e"pkof]u, cltrl/r/g / jgljgfzh:tf ljleGg sf/0fn] e"ldsf] :j?kdf ljv08g cfO/x]sf] 5 eg] klx/f] hfg] w]/} k|fs[lts sf/0fnfO{ dfgjLo ultljlwn] yk an k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . jiff{ofddf g} o;sf] hf]lvd a9g] ePsfn] o;af6 ;'/lIft /xg c;f/b]lv c;f]h;Dd ljz]if zts{tf ckgfpg' kg]{ x'G5 . To;}n] klx/f]sf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf sfd jiff{ofd ;'? x'g'cufj} k|f/De ug{ ;lsPdf o;af6 ;'/lIft /xg] k|of;n] ;fy{stf k|fKt ug]{5 . s'g} klg 7fpFdf klx/f] slxn] hfG5 eg]/ ls6fg ug{ ;lsFb}g tfklg ;fdfGo hfgsf/Lsf cfwf/df klg o;sf] ;ªs]t kQf nufpg ;lsG5 . t/ g]kfnh:tf] sd lzlIft d'n'sdf o;af/]sf] hfgsf/L Go"g ePsfn] klx/f]sf] ;Defjgfsf] klxrfg / gS;fªsg lgs} sl7g ag]sf] 5 . klx/f] hfFb}u/]sf] yfxf kfpFbf kfpFb} klg ;'/lIft :yfg;Dd k'Ug] ;Defjgf sd x'g] x'Fbf hgwgsf] Ifltsf] b[li6n] of] e'OFrfnf]eGbf sd Ifltsf/s 5}g . To;}n] klx/f]sf] hf]lvd sd ug{ ;+/rgfTds ljsf;s} cfjZostf k5{ . klx/f] uPsf] 7fpF jf hfg nfu]sf] If]qdf afof]OlGhlgol/ª k|ljlwsf] cjnDag u/]/ cfjZostf cg';f/ :yfgLo tyf /fli6«o ;|f]tsf] pkof]u u/L hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ug'{ g} o;af6 ;'/lIft /xg] pkfo xf] . hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ug{ g;lsP a;f]af; ;'/lIft :yfgdf ;fg'{sf] s'g} ljsNk x'Fb}g . To;}n] klx/f] cGo k|sf]ksf t'ngfdf lgs} ljgfzsf/L / kL8fbfoL x'G5 . To;}n] k|sf]k 1ffgdfnfsf] o; v08df klx/f]sf] Go"gLs/0faf/] a9L hfgsf/L lbg] k|of; ul/Psf] 5 . klx/f] / o;sf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ug'{ kg]{ sfo{nfO{ ;s];Dd ;/n 9ªuaf6 k|:t't u/]/ n]vs /fdrGb| Gof}kfg]n] 7"nf] u'g nufpg' ePsf] 5 . klx/f] lgoGq0fsf nflu pxfFåf/f k|:t't ljlwnfO{ k|of]u u/]/ hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf sfo{df ;d'bfon] s]xL g s]xL nfe k|fKt ug{ ;Sof] eg] xfdLn] u/]sf] of] ;fgf] k|of; ;fy{s ePsf] 7fGg]5f}F . k|sf]k 1ffgdfnfnfO{ ;/n efiffdf k|:t't ug{ ;kmn n]vs Gof}kfg] ;lxt o;nfO{ k|sflzt ug{ k|]/0ff k|bfg ug]{ PS;gP8 g]kfnsf l;lgo/ lydln8/ Zofd;'Gb/ 1fjfnL / cS;kmfd hLaL g]kfnsf sfo{qmd ;+of]hs lji0f'k|;fb v/]n tyf o;sf] z'4fz'l4 / ;fh;Hhfdf ;xof]u ug]{ Osf]–g]kfnsf ;a} ;xofqLk|lt wGojfb JoQm ub{5f}F . Osf]–g]kfn ECO-Nepal ] klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷4
  5. 5. ljifo;"rL klx/f]sf]] kl/ro / k|sf/ %–( k[i7e"ld % klx/f]sf] kl/ro ^ klx/f]sf] k|sf/ & klx/f] hfg] sf/0f tyf k|efj !)–!^ k|fs[lts sf/0f !) dfgjLo sf/0f !@ klx/f]af6 x'g] Iflt tyf k|efj !# klx/f] lgoGq0f ug{ k"jtof/L { !^–@! g]kfndf klx/f]sf] hf]lvd !^ hf]lvdsf] klxrfg / gS;fªsg !& hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf pkfo !* p4f/, /fxt / k'gM:yfkg @@–@$ cfjf;If]q vfnL ug]{ @@ p4f/ tyf /fxt @@ k'gM:yfkg @# klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo @%–#! afof]OlGhlgol/ª k|ljlwsf] k|of]u @% afof]OlGhlgol/ªsf] dxŒj @% lgoGq0f ;+/rgfdf afof]OlGhlgol/ª @# pk;+xf/ #! ;Gbe{;fdu|L #! klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷5
  6. 6. klx/f]sf] kl/ro tyf k|sf/ k[i7e"ld g]kfn lxGbs'z lxdfnosf] sfvdf /x]sf] b]z xf] . oo lxdfnosf] If]qnfO{ ;+;f/s} ;a}eGbf sfG5f] kj{tLo z[ªvnf dflgG5 . sl/a % s/f]8 jif{ klxn] uPsf] zlQmzfnL e"sDkaf6 6]ly; ;fu/sf] kLFw dfly p7]/ o;sf] pTklQ ePsf] j}1flgs cg'dfg 5 . o;/L pTklQ ePsf] e"v08 l:y/ x'g w]/} nfdf] ;do nfUg] x'bf e"ue{ljbx¿ ef}uf]lns :j¿k F lgdf{0fsf] % s/f]8 jif{nfO{ 5f]6f] cjlw g} dfGb5g . To;}n] lxGbs'z lxdfno z[ªvnfsf] ef}uf]lns cj:yf sdhf]/ 5 . lxdno kj{t / ef/t v08sf] pTklQkl5 klg blIf0ftkm{ /x]sf] ef/tLo e"ueL{o Kn]6 pQ/L v08df /x]sf] ltAatLog Kn]6leq 3':g] qmd rln/x]sf]n] lxdfno kj{t z[ªvnf cem} cUnf] x'g] qmddf /x]sf] /x:o klg e"ue{ljbx¿n] k|sfzdf NofPsf 5g . clxn] klg ;u/dfyf x/]s jif{ s]xL ;]lG6ld6/sf b/n] cUnf] eO/x]sf] atfOG5 . h] eP klg % s/f]8 jif{klxn] pTklQ ePsf] o; If]qsf] ef}uf]lns / ef}ule{s cj:yf k"0f{ ¿kn] l:y/ eO;s]sf] 5}g . sdhf]/ e":j?ks} sf/0fn] ubf{ o; kj{tLo If]qdf klx/f]sf] k|sf]kn] lg/Gt/ ljgf; ul/x]sf] kfOG5 . g]kfnsf] *% k|ltzt e"efu kxf8 / kj{tLo If]qn] 9fs]sf] 5 . ljljwtfo'Qm sdnf] e"w/ftn / l:y/ eOg;s]sf] sdhf]/ ef}ule{s agf]6sf sf/0f of] If]q k|fs[lts¿kn] Hofb} g} ;+jbgzLn /x]sf] 5 . kj{tLo If]qsf] ] ef}ule{s agf]6 () k|ltzteGbf a9L le/fnf] 5 . h]7sf] clGtd ;ftfb]lv c;f]h;Dd x'g] 3gf dg;'gL jiff{n] o; sdhf]/ e"lddf cTolws rfk kg]{ u/]sf] 5 . 3gf jiff{ / le/fnf] e"agf}6sf] ;+36gsf sf/0f klx/f] / af9Lsf nflu of] If]q lgs} hf]lvddf /x]sf] 5 . g]kfnnufot kfls:tfg, ef/t, e'6fg, aªunfb]z, rLg / Dofgdf/ dg;'g k|f/De ePkl5 hnpTkGg k|sf]ksf b[li6n] lgs} kLl8t x'g] u/]sf 5g . o; ;dodf klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷6
  7. 7. g]kfndf t/fO{sf clwsf+z lhNnf af9Lsf] rk]6fdf k5{g eg] kxf8L lhNnfn] klx/f]sf] df/ ;xg' k5{ . klx/f]n] g]kfnsf] kxf8L lhNnfdf hgwgsf] w]/} Iflt ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . klx/f]sf] k|sf]khGo 36gfsf sf/0f d'nsn] kLl8tsf] p4f/, /fxt / k'g:yf{kgdf ;Lldt ;|ft–;fwgsf] 7"nf] ' ] lx:;f nufgL ug'{ kl/x]sf] 5 . pknAw tYofªscg';f/ g]kfndf x/]s jif{ ;fnfvfnf !@ xhf/sf] ;ªVofdf ;fgf tyf 7"nf klx/f] hfg] u/]sf] 5 . @)^) ;fnsf] dg;'gdf k[YjL /fhdfu{sf] d'lUnª–gf/fo0fu9 v08df !&@ j6f / @)^! ;fndf !)( j6f klx/f] uPsf] lyof] . @)^! ;fnsf] dg;'gLofdd} kfNkf lhNnfsf] bf]efgl:yt l;4afafsf] dlGb/glhs l;4fy{ /fhdfu{df uPsf] klx/f]df eLdsfo 9'ªuf] v;]/ Pp6f 6«s / Pp6f ofq'a; k'l/Fbf bh{gf}F dflg;n] Hofg u'dfpg'k/]sf] lyof] . g]kfndf klx/f]sf 36gfnfO{ k"0f{ ¿kdf ptfg{ lgs} sl7g x'G5 . ljs6 kxf8L If]qdf hldg v;]/ dfq klx/f] hfFbg, lxpF klx/f]n] klg lgs} 7"nf] } Iflt k'¥ofpg] u/]sf] 5 . @)^$ ;fn h]7df klZrd g]kfnsf] 8f]Nkf lhNnfsf] 6Øfª6Øfª] Onfsfdf uPsf] lxdkx/f]df k/L !^ hgfsf] Hofg uPsf] lyof] . jf:tjdf klx/f]n] g]kfndf jif]gL bh{gf}F dflg;sf] Hofg { lng] u/]sf] 5 eg] s/f]8f}F d"Nosf] ef}lts ;+/rgf Wj:t kfg]{ u/]sf] 5 . klx/f]sf] kl/ro jghªun, v]taf/L, eL/kfvf, ufpF;x/, ;8s cflb 5]psf] le/fnf] hldg rls{P/, km'6/ jf wl:;P/ cl:y/ eO{ df6f], 9'ªuf jf r§fg, ] jg:klt, dfgjlgld{t ef}lts ;+/rgf :ki6 b]lvg]u/L tnlt/ v:g] cyjf kfgL;Fu ldl;P/ aUg] k|lqmofnfO{ klx/f] elgG5 . klx/f] hfg] qmddf 9'ªufdf6f] / r§fg pbud:ynaf6 tnlt/ v:b} jf aUb} uP/ tNnf] If]qsf] sd le/fnf] jf d}bfgdf y'lk|G5 . kxf8sf] dflyNNff] efu tnlt/ v:bf 5]p5fpsf] efu klg rls{g yfN5 / kfgLsf] rfk jf k[YjLsf] u'?Tjfsif{0f ann] ubf{ tnlt/ em5{, h;nfO{ klx/f] elgG5 . klx/f] k|foM 7f8f] / le/fnf] kfvfdf hfG5 . ;8s agfpg] qmddf kfvf] hldgnfO{ 7f8f] u/L sf6]df, sdhf]/ e";txdf 7"nf ;+/rgfsf] lgdf{0f klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷7
  8. 8. ubf{, le/fnf] 7fpFdf y'kfl/Psf] 9'ªuf–df6f]sf] bafa kg]{ 7fpFdf 3/sf] hu vGbf, gbLn] lsgf/f s6fg ubf{ cyjf vfgL vGbf klg klx/f] hfG5 . To;} klg sdhf]/ ef}uf]lns agf]6sf sf/0f kxf8sf] 9'ªufdf6f] l:y/ / alnof] eOg;s]sf] cj:yfdf ;fdfGo rfk kbf{ klg e":vng x'G5 . ;fgf] ¿kdf k|f/De ePsf] e":vng lj:tf/} km}lnP/ 7"nf] klx/f] aG5 . 7"nf] klx/f] hfFbf dflg;sf] a;f]af; If]q, v]tLof]Uo hldg / jgIf]q ;d]t k'l/P/ jf au]/ 7"nf] ljgfz x'G5 . of] kL8f g]kfnsf ;a}h;f] kxf8L / lxdfnL lhNnfn] ef]Ub} cfPsf 5g . 3gf jiff{, jgljgfz / cGo k|fs[lts ;|ftsf] cgk]lIft ljgf;h:tf ] k|fs[lts / dfgjLo sf/0fn] sdhf]/ kxf8L If]qsf] dflyNnf] efusf] 9'ªuf, df6f] / r§fg tnlt/ v:5 . oL j:t' k[YjLsf] u'?Tjfsif{0f ansf] cg'kftdf lj:tf/} jf j]u;fy em5{, h;nfO{ klx/f] elgG5 . ;fdfGo efiffdf klx/f]nfO{ e":vng klg elgG5 . klx/f]sf] ¿kdf tn emg]{ e"If]q leq /x]sf] 3/, uf]7, v]taf/L, k'n, af6f]h:tf dfgjLo ;+/rgf tyf ¿v, kfgLsf] d'xfg, jGohGt'h:tf k|fs[lts ;|ft;d]t v;]/, efFlRrP/, lrlKnP/, ] / au]/ Ifltu|:t x'G5g . o; k|sf/ :ki6 x'G5 ls klx/f] Ps ljgfzsf/L k|sf]khGo 36gf xf], h;n] dfgjLo ;+/rgf dfq xf]Og k|fs[lts ;Dkbfdf klg Iflt k'¥ofpFb} ef}uf]lns :j¿kdf ;d]t kl/jt{g NofOlbG5 . klx/f]sf] k|sf/ klx/f] Hofb} k|fljlws ljifo ePsfn] ;fdfGo a'emfOsf ¿kdf o;sf] juL{s/0f ug'{ lgs} sl7g x'G5 . ef}uf]lns l:ylt, df6f], 9'ªuf, afn'jfh:tf ef}lts j:t'sf] agf]6 ;lxt ToxfF /x]sf jg:kltsf k|hflt / hnfwf/sf] cj:yfcg'¿k klx/f]sf] :j¿k tof/ x'G5 . To;}n] klx/f] slt k|sf/sf] x'G5 jf o;sf] juL{s/0f s;/L ug]{ eGg] ljifodf km/s–km/s dt /x]sf] kfOG5 . tyflk 8L= h]= efG;{åf/f ul/Psf] klx/f]sf] juL{s/0f clxn];Dd ;j{dfGo g} /x]sf] 5 . efG;{n] ;g !(&* u/]sf] klx/f]sf] juL{s/0f lgDgfg';f/ 5 M ktg (Fall) M kxf8sf] cUnf] 7fpFaf6 9'ªuf–df6f] cyjf r§fg PsfPs tnlt/ v:g] klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷8
  9. 9. k|lqmofnfO{ ktg elgG5 . o;/L emg]{ 9'ªuf–df6f] cyjf r§fg 7f8f] eL/af6 ;f]em} tn v:g], pl5l§g], x'l/{g] / u'8g] u5{ . 9'ªuf jf r§fg dfq v:g] klx/f]nfO{ z}n ktg elgG5 eg] df6f] dfq em/]df d[lQsf ktg elgG5 . To;}u/L 9'ªuf, df6f] ldl;P/ emg]{ klx/f]nfO{ ;+ld>0f ktg, ldl>t df6f] emg]{ k|lqmofnfO{ nfO{ e"–ktg elgG5 . ljeGhg (Topple) M s'g} cUnf] 7fpFaf6 r§fgsf] 6'qmf em's/, g'lxP/, afªluP/, tnlt/ 3'Dg] ] cyjf efFlRrg] k|lqmofnfO{ lje~hg elgG5 . o:tf] klx/f] s8f / g/d r§fgsf] kq ePsf] eL/kfvfdf hfG5 . g/d r§fgsf] ckIfo s8f r§fgeGbf l56f] x'G5 . g/d r§fgsf] kq l56f] lvOg] x'bf To;dflysf] F s8f r§fgsf] s]xL efu To;} em'lG8P/ a;]sf] x'G5 . h;n] ubf{ s8f r§fgsf] kq rls{G5 / em'lG8P/ a;]sf] efu la:tf/} afªluFb,} em'Sb} uP/ 6'lqmG5 / tnlt/ v:5 . :vng (Slide) M le/fnf] e"ldsf] 9'ªuf, df6f] cyjf r§fg lrlKnP/ tn emg]{ k|lqmofnfO{ :vng elgG5 . e'Orfnf], kfgLsf] axfjh:tf sf/0fn] le/fnf] hldg F tNnf] ;txlt/ lrlKnP/ ;b}{ hfG5 / lrlKnPsf] ;tx :ki6 b]lvG5 . e"– :vngsf b'O{ k|sf/ 5g M 3"0f{ jf aqmfsf/ :vng M afªuf] jf rDrfh:tf] cfsf/df klx/f] uPdf To:tf] klx/f]nfO{ 3'0f{ jf aqmfsf/ klx/f] elgG5 . o; k|sf/sf] klx/f]sf] v:g] k|lqmof s'g} Pp6f w'/L jl/kl/ ;Lldt /x]sf] x'G5 . :yfgfGtl/t :vng jf ;Lwf klx/f] M eL/af6 afªuf]l6ªuf] geO{ ;Lwf au]/ hfg] klx/f]nfO{ :yfgfGtl/t :vng elgG5 . o:tf] klx/f] ef}uf]lns agf]6 cg';f/ lgs} 7"nf] / nfdf] If]qdf km}lng ;S5 . o:tf] klx/f] ljz]ifu/L r§fg, 9'ªuf, df6f] / h}ljs kbfy{ /x]sf] ldl>t e"lddf hfG5 . kl/lIfKt km}ng (Lateral spread) t'ngfTds¿kn] s8f r§fg ePsf] ;fdfGo le/fnf] jf ;dy/h:t} b]lvg] hldgsf] aflx/L kqd'lg /x]sf] g/d / sdhf]/ afn'jfldl>t df6f]sf] klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷9
  10. 10. leqL efudf w]/} kfgL k:bf aflx/L / leqL kqaLrsf] hf]8fO sdhf]/ x'g hfG5 . o; sf/0fn] aflx/L v08 leqL v08dfly ;b}{ hfFbf t'ngfTds¿kn] s8f r§fg ePsf] aflx/L v08 6'lqmP/ aflx/L If]qdf km}lnG5 eg] To;nfO{ kl/lIfKt km}ng elgG5 . axg (Flow) M le/fnf] efusf] 9'ªuf, g/d r§fg / df6f]sf] kqdf kfgL ldl;P/ t/n kbfy{em}F b|tultdf au]/ km}lng] n]bf] :j¿ksf] klx/f]nfO{ axg (Flow) " ] elgG5 . au]/ hfg] kbfy{sf] lsl;dsf] cfwf/df axgnfO{ ;lDdl>t axg (Debris flow), e"–axg (Earth flow) tyf d[lQsf axg (Mud flow) elgG5 . klx/f]sf] efu jf v08 klx/f] uPsf] If]qsf] e"agf]6 / cj:yfcg'¿k Ps klx/f]df ljleGg efu jf v08 x'G5, t/ ;lhnf]sf] nflu efG;{n] lgDg rf/ efudf ljefhg u/]sf 5g M wf“hf kmf6]sf] efu M klx/f] em/]sf] 7fpFsf] dfly / slxn]sfxLF jl/kl/ wfFhf jf b/f/ k/]sf] x'G5 . oL wfFhfaf6 jiff{sf] kfgL leq k;]/ e"ldnfO{ sdhf]/ agfpF5 / klx/f] hfG5 . o:tf wfFhfs} sf/0f nfdf] ;do l:y/ /x]sf] klx/f] k'gM ;lqmo eP/ vt/f pTkGg u5{ . pbud:yn M klx/f] hfg k|f/De ePsf] ;a}eGbf dflyNnf] efunfO{ pbud:yn elgG5 . oxfFaf6 klx/f] emg]{ qmd ;'? x'G5 / oxfFsf] v'snf] 9'ªuf–df6f] qmdzM tnlt/ em5{ . ' :yfgfGt/0f ky M of] ;tx pbud:ynsf] 7Ls tnlt/ x'G5 . dflyaf6 klx/f] emg]{ qmd rln/x]df of] efu klg :vng x'g hfG5 t/ klx/f] /f]lsPdf eg] of] efu :jtM l:y/ x'G5 . lgIf]k:yn M dflyaf6 em/]sf 9'ªuf, df6f] / emf/kft y'lk|Psf] clGtd :yfgnfO{ lgIf]k:yn elgG5 . klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷10
  11. 11. klx/f] hfg] sf/0f tyf k|efj ;fdfGotof klx/f]nfO{ k|fs[lts sf/0fn] x'g] 36gfsf ¿kdf lnOG5 . k|ToIf ¿kdf dfgjLo rfk gePsf ;'g;fg / PsfGt 7fpFdf ;d]t 7"nf] klx/f] hfg] u/]sfn] klg o;nfO{ k|fs[lts 36gf dflgPsf] xf] . t/ e"lddf kg]{ s'g} g s'g} k|sf/sf] bafa g} klx/f] hfg] sf/s ePsfn] o;df dflg;sf] klg e"ldsf /x]sf] x'G5 . l:y/ /x]sf] j:t'df ult k}bf x'g jf ljrng pTkGg x'g afXo jf cfGtl/s bafa k/]sf] x'g' k5{ . e"ld klg l:y/ /x]sf] ef}lts j:t' xf] . k[YjLsf] ;tx jf leqL v08df /x]sf 9'ªuf, df6f] r§fgh:tf l:y/ j:t'df ult k}bf eP/ tn embf{ jf aUbf ltgLx¿sf] k"jl{ :yltdf kl/jt{g cfpF5 / e":j¿kdf klg kl/jt{g NofpF5 . o;/L l:y/ j:t'df ult k|bfg ug]{ ljleGg sf/0fx¿ x'G5g, h;nfO{ klx/f] hfg] sf/0f dflgG5 . To;}n] klx/f] hfg] sf/0f s] xf] eg]/ oyfy{ v'6ofpg hldgsf ljleGg v08nfO{ rnfodfg agfpg] sf/0fsf] klxrfg x'g' k5{ . To;}sf cfwf/df klx/f]sf ljleGg sf/0fsf] ljj]rgf ul/Psf] 5 . k|fs[lts sf/0f ef}uf]lns tyf ef}ule{s cj:yfdf ljleGg k|fs[lts sf/0fn] ljrng k}bf eO/x]sf] x'G5 . e"ue{df /x]sf Kn]6 rnfodfg x'G5g . To:tf rnfodfg Kn]6 Ps cfk;df 7f]lSsFbf km'6/ 6'qmf aGb5g / ToxfF b/f/ ] pTkGg x'G5 . o; k|lqmofn] hldgsf] dflyNnf] ;txdf ljrng k}bf u5{ . o;sf cltl/Qm klx/f] hfg] k|fs[lts sf/0f w]/} 5g M xfjfkfgL xfjfkfgLn] k[YjLsf] ef}uf]lns :j¿kdf ljleGg lsl;dn] k|efj kf/]sf] x'G5 . tLj| j]usf] jfo'n] w"nf], afn'jf p8fP/ e"cksif{0f tyf e"IfonfO{ klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷11
  12. 12. k|>o lbFbf klx/f] hfg] l:ylt k}bf u5{ . To;}u/L cltj[li6 eP/ af9L cfpFbf ;txL / w/ftndf e"ldut hnsf] rfk a9g uO{ klx/f] hfg] jftfj/0f tof/ x'G5 . v8]/L k/]df klg e"ldut hnsf] ;tx tn em5{ / hldg efl:;P/ klx/f] hfg] ;Defjgf a95 . ef}ule{s ljrngsf sf/0f pTkGg b/f/leq cTolws kfgLsf] k|jfx x'bf F ToxfF lgs} 7"nf] bafa k5{ / b/f/sf]] cfsf/df cem j[l4 x'b} uP/ r§fg F / df6f] cfk;df 5'l§P/ tnlt/ emg{ yfN5 / 7"nf] klx/f] hfg;S5 . e"Ifo cltj[li6 ePdf jf lg/Gt/ em/L k/]df sdhf]/ kj{tLo If]qsf] df6f]df yk bafa pTkGg eP/ hldg sdhf]/ aG5 / df6f]sf] aUg] k|lqmofdf tLj|tf cfpF5 . jiff{sf] k|f/Dedf df6f]sf] IfoLs/0f Go"g eP klg To;sf] k|efj ;fgf 9'ªuf, sdhf]/ r§fgdf k5{ / la:tf/} IfoLs/0fdf j[l4 eO{ kfgL aUg] 7fpFsf] df6f]–9'ªuf ;d]t aU5 . kl/0ffd:j¿k axfjdfu{df vf]N;f / lr/fx¿sf] lgdf{0f x'G5 . e"Ifo x'g] k|lqmof lg/Gt/ /xFbf sfnfGt/df To:tf] If]qdf klx/f] hfg ;'? x'G5 . ckIfo r§fg / 9'ªuf df6f] lgdf{0fsf k|dv ;|ft x'g . e";txdf xfjf, kfgL, ' ] hLjhGt'sf] ultljlw ;~rfng x'bf 9'ªuf / r§fgdf 3if{0f k/]/ lvOg] F k|lqmofnfO{ ckIfo elgG5 . k|fs[lts ¿kdf x'g] lqmofsf sf/0f r§fg sdhf]/ x'g,] km'6g,] 6'6g] / cGttM df6f]df ¿kfGt/0f x'G5 . o:tf] ckIfosf sf/0f sdhf]/ ePsf r§fg klx/f]sf] ¿kdf tn emg]{ ;Defjgf a9L x'G5 . e'O“rfnf] e'Orfnf] klx/f] hfg] Ps k|fs[lts sf/0f xf] . e"lddf cfpg] sDkgn] F cUnf] le/kfvfsf sdhf]/ e"efu / r§fg tn emg]{ ;Defjgf /xG5 . !(() ;fn @)$% ;fndf uPsf] e'Ornf]sf sf/0f k"jf{~rnsf w]/} F 7fpFdf klx/f] uPsf] lyof] . e"Orfnf]sf] sDkgdf k/]sf] r§fgdf ;fdfGo F ¿kn] kfgL k:bf jf afXo bafa kbf{ klx/f] hfg] ;Defjgf x'G5 . klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷12
  13. 13. gbL s6fg g]kfnsf] clwsf+z e"If]q kxf8 / lxdfnn] 9fs]sf] 5 . pQ/Lefudf /x]sf] klZrdb]lv k"j;Dd km}lnPsf] lxdfno z[ªvnf g]kfnsf gbLsf] pTklQ { If]q x'g . pQ/af6 tLj| ultdf blIf0ftkm{ emg]{ gbL / jiff{ofddf cfpg] af9Ln] lsgf/ s6fg ubf{ dflysf] e"efudf bafa k5{ / klx/f] hfG5 . af9Ldf 7"nf–7"nf ¿v;d]t aUg] ePsfn] To:tf h}ljs j:t'af6 x'g] 7Ss/sf] bafan] ;d]t gbLlsgf/ s6fg u/]/ klx/f] hfG5 . dfgjLo sf/0f dflg; k|sl[ tsf] Ps cleGg cªu ePsfn] k|fs[lts cGtlqm{ofdf p;sf] cx+ e"ldsf /x]sf] x'G5 . k|fs[lts ;|ftsf] pkof]u cfkm"cg'sn ug{ ;Sg] ] " Ifdtf ePsf] dflg;sf ultljlwn] k|fs[lts jftfj/0fdf k|lts"n k|efj kfl//x]sf] 5 . dflg;n] cfˆgf] hLjg ;'vdo agfpg ug]{ ljleGg ultljlwn] klx/f] hfg] jftfj/0f tof/ ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . To:tf ultljlwaf6 kg]{ k|efjnfO{ ;+If]kdf lgDg cg';f/ lng ;lsG5 M e"ldsf] s6fg dflg;n] a:gsf nflu 3/, oftfoftsf nflu ;8s jf af6f], l;FrfOsf nflu s'nf]h:tf ljleGg ef}lts ;+/rgfsf] lgdf{0f ubf{ hldgsf] l9:sf] jf kfvf] vGg] / km]b sf6g] sfd x'G5 . o;/L vlgPsf] e"ldsf] :j¿k kl/jt{g x'g,] kfgLsf] axfjdf kl/jt{g x'g,] jgljgfz x'gh:tf sf/0fn] ] l:y/ /x]sf] hldgdf bafa pTkGg eP/ ljrng cfpF5 / klx/f] hfg] ;Defjgf a9]/ hfG5 . To;}u/L af6f] jf ;8s vGbf lgl:sPsf] 9'ªuf, df6f] / cGo e}lts j:t' tNnf] efudf v:bf e"lddf cltl/Qm ef/ ylkG5 . kl/0ffd:j¿k sdhf]/ hldgdf e"Ifosf] qmd a95 . e"Ifo ePsf] hldgdf jiff{sf] kfgLn] bafa ylkFbf klx/f] hfg] ;Defjgf klg a9b} hfG5 . jgljgfz kfgL / cGo k|sf/sf] bafanfO{ Go"g ug{ tyf df6f]nfO{ h/fn] hs8]/ klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷13
  14. 14. e"Ifo x'gaf6 /f]Sg] sfo{df jgsf] dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf /x]sf] x'G5 . t/ dflg;n] v]taf/Lsf] lj:tf/, b}lgs cfjZos kg]{ sf7 / bfp/fsf] Joj:yf jf Jofkfl/s k|of]hg / r/Lr/gsf nflu jg kmF8fgL ug]{ sfo{nfO{ tLj|tf lbPsf] 5 . o;/L eO/x]sf] jgljgfz / e"lddfly a9]sf] rfkn] klx/f]sf] ;DefjgfnfO{ cem a9fPsf] x'G5 . klx/f]af6 x'g] Iflt tyf k|efj klx/f]nfO{ klg hnpTkGg k|sf]ksf ¿kdf lrlgG5 . st}st} w"n] klx/f] uPsf pbfx/0f kfOP klg jiff{ ofddf g} klx/f]sf] k|sf]k a9g] ePsfn] o;nfO{ hnpTkGg k|sf]kdf lnOPsf] xf] . klx/f]n] hldg k"/} ;f]xf]// / aufP/ n}hfg] ePsfn] o;sf] k|efj lgs} ] eofgs x'G5 . klx/f]n] aufPsf] e"ld l:y/ x'g nfdf] ;do nfUg] / sltko cj:yfdf ;fdfGo nufgLn] k'gM:yfkg ug{ g;lsg] sf/0fn] klg o;sf] ;fdflhs / cfly{s k|efj x[boljbf/s x'G5 . klx/f]af6 kg]{ k|efjnfO{ 5f]6s/Ldf lgDgcg';f/ lng ;lsG5 M tTsfnLg k|efj klx/f]n] 3/, uf]7 / cGo ef}lts ;+/rgf aufpg] ePsfn] To;df k/]/ dflg; dg],{ 3fOt] x'g] jf x/fpg]h:tf dfgjLo Iflt tTsfn b]lvG5 . o;n] v]taf/L aufP/ / k'// afnLgfnL ljgfz u5{ . 3/uf]7 aUbf ] To;df 3/kfn'jf hgfj/;d]t au]/ / k'l/P/ Iflt x'G5 . klx/f] hfFbf glhssf 3/ rs{g,] elTsg], efl:;g] / aUg]] x'bf 3/df ePsf] vfB;fdu|L F / cGo ;DklQ gi6 x'G5 . o:tf] cj:yfn] dflg; 3/af/ljxLg x'g] dfq xf]Og, vfB;fdu|L, nQfsk8f / ;kmf vfg]kfgLsf] cefjsf] ;d:ofdf klg k5{g . klx/f]n] gbL y'lgP/ To;sf] axfjdfu{ kl/jt{g x'g] jf y'lgPsf] afFw km'6/ tNnf] If]qdf af9L hfg] hf]lvd klg pTkGg x'G5 . ] klx/f]sf sf/0f ;8s elTsP/ jf klx/f] v;]/ ;8s cj?4 x'bf cfjfudgdf F ;d:of cfpF5 . o; cj:yfdf p4f/ tyf /fxtsfo{ k|efljt aG5 / kLl8t;Dd p4f/sfo{ k'Ug g;s]/ hgwgsf] Iflt cem a9g ;S5 . klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷14
  15. 15. ;s8, k'n elTsP/ oftfoft cj?4 eO{ ;jf/L;fwg, ofq' / dfnafxs uf8L cnkq kg],{ :yfgLo pTkfbgn] ahf/sf] kx'r u'dfpg] / ahf/df F dfn;dfgsf] cefj x'gh:tf ;d:of tTsfn} b]vf k5{g . klx/f]sf ] ljleGg k|efjaf6 ljsf; k"jf{wf/sf ;+/rgf / ;fj{hlgs ;DklQ gi6 x'g,] h}ljs ljljwtfdf Iflt k'Ug], vfg]kfgLsf d'xfg b"lift x'g,] ;du| jftfj/0f lau|g] / cfly{s l:yltdf ;d]t gsf/fTds k|efj k/L ljsf;sf ;du| ultljlw g} cj?4 x'G5g . klx/f]af6 ;8s, l;FrfO s'nf], ljB't k|;f/0f nfOg / ;~rf/ ;Dks{ cj?4 x'g hfG5g . o;n] k|ToIf kLl8t JolQm tyf kl/jf/nfO{ dfq k|efj k/]sf] x'bg, klx/f] uPsf] If]qsf] ef}uf]lns, cfly{s, ;fdflhs F } ;+/rgfdf klg k|efj kf/]sf] x'G5 . h;af6 oL If]qdf k/]sf] cNksfnLg k|efjnfO{ cfsng ug{ klg ;lsG5 . klx/f] uPsf] nuQ} pTkGg x'g] r'gf}tL / To;n] ;d'bfodf kfg]{ lgDg cg';f/sf k|efjnfO{ g} cNksfnLg k|efjsf ¿kdf lng ;lsG5 M klx/f]n] 3/uf]7d} Iflt k'¥ofPsf] eP vfBfGg, n'ufkmf6f], cf}iflwpkrf/ cflbsf] cefj x'G5 . ;~rf/ ;Dks{ cj?4 x'gfn] /fxt Joj:yfkgsf] ;d:of pTkGg eP/ hgwgsf] Iflt a9g ;S5 . :j:y / ;'/lIft vfBfGg / z'4 kfgL tyf ;/;kmfOsf] cefjdf dxfdf/L km}lng] 8/ x'G5 . ;8s, k'n / cGo ;fj{hlgs ;+/rgf Ifltu|:t x'bf b}lgs hLjg F ofkgsf ;fwgsf] cefj eP/ ;dfhdf cl:y/tf a9g] ;+Effjgf /xG5 . bL3{sfnLg k|efj s'g} klg k|sf]ksf] k|efj nfdf] ;do;Dd /x]sf] x'G5 . af9Lsf t'ngfdf klx/f] lgs} eofgs / ljgfzsf/L x'G5 . gbLdf kfgL a9b} uPdf, PSsf;L gbLsf] kfgL 36]df, lxnf] df6f] ldl;Psf] uGw cfPdf af9L cfpFb5 eg]/ cg'dfg ug{ ;lsG5 t/ Psfw cj:yfdf afx]s klx/f] } klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷15
  16. 16. e'Orfnf]h:t} PsfPs cfpF5 . To;}n] o;sf] k|efj tTsfn / cNksfndf F dfq ;Lldt /xFbg . } klx/f]df k/]sf] kl/jf/ / ;dfhn] lgs} nfdf] ;do;Dd kL8fsf] ef/ af]Sg' kg]{ l:ylt pTkGg x'G5 . sltko kl/jf/sf afnaRrf cleefjsljxLg x'g ;S5g eg] sltko JolQm czQm eP/ k"/f hLjg sd{ljxLg cj:yfdf latfpg afWo x'G5g . g]kfnsf] jt{dfg cj:yfsf] d"Nofªsg ug]{ xf] eg] 3/uf]7 / v]taf/L g} u'dsf] kl/jf/sf] cfly{s k'gM:yfkg ] c;Dejh:t} b]lvPsf] 5 . klx/f]af6 eTs]sf jf Ifltu|:t ef}lts ;+/rgfsf] k'glg{df{0f u/L kLl8tnfO{ klxn]s} cj:yfdf kmsf{pg nfdf] ;do nfU5 . klx/f]n] aufPsf] e"ld k'gM:yfkg ug{ tyf rnfodfg e"ldnfO{ l:y/ agfP/ k"jf{j:yfdf Nofpg jiff}F dfq nfUg] x}g 7"nf] cfly{s nufgL klg ug'kg]{ x'gfn] ljsf;sf cGo { lqmofsnfkdf cj/f]w pTkGg x'G5 . klx/f]sf] k|sf]kdf k/L lj:yflkt x'gkg]{ cj:yf cfpFbf cfkmGt;Fu ' lj5f]l8g'kg]{ ;fdflhs ;d:of klg pTkGg x'G5 . k|foM ;LdfGt ul/a ju{ g} klx/f]sf] hf]lvd /x]sf :yfgdf a:g afWo x'g] ePsfn] ltgLx¿sf] k'gM:yfkg gx'bf To:tf] ;d'bfo emg ul/aLaf6 k|tfl8t x'G5 . kLl8t F ;d'bfo cfˆgf] k"jjt ;fdflhs, cfly{s dof{bf / ljsf;sf cj;/af6 { jl~rt x'g] ePsfn] ltgLx¿sf efjL k':tfdf ;d]t k|lts"n c;/ kg]{ x'G5 . klx/f]n] ljzfn jg If]q klg aufP/ / k'// Iflt u5{, h;sf sf/0f ] k|fs[lts kl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnL / h}ljs ljljwtf ;d]t gi6 x'G5 . gi6 ePsf] kl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnL / h}ljs ;|ftsf] k'gM:yfkg x'g bzsf}F ] nfU5 . o;af6 jftfj/0f cksif{0f eP/ ;|ftsf] cefj x'G5 / ar]sf ] jg If]qdf rfk a9L h}ljs ljljwtf yk ;ªs6fkGg x'G5 . klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷16
  17. 17. klx/f] lgoGq0f ug{ k"jtof/L { klx/f]sf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ug]{ k|of; g} o;af6 aRg] k"jtof/L xf] . { ;fdfGotof klx/f]sf] k|sf]kk|lt dflg; ;+jbgzLn x'g ;s]sf] kfOFbg . ] } t/ klx/f]nfO{ k|sf]ksf 36gfx¿dWo] cTolws ljgfzsf/L 36gf xf] eGg ;lsG5 . jiff{ ePsf] ;dodf af9L cfpg] ljleGg ;ªst k|fKt u/]/ ] ;'/lIft 7fpFtkm{ efUg ;do ldNg ;S5 t/ klx/f] hfg} nu]sf] cj:yfdf o;sf] k|sf]kaf6 aRg lgs} sl7g x'G5 . w]/} e"Ifo eO/xg] e"If]qdf :yfgLo k|ljlw / ;|ftsf] pkof]u u/L klx/f] ] lgoGq0fsf pkfo cjnDag ug'{ h?/L x'G5 . o;sf nflu ef}uf]lns agf]6, e"pkof]u k|jl[ Q / k|ljlw, v]tLk|0ffnL, k|fs[lts ;|ftdf cfwfl/t ] pBf]u jf vlgh pBf]u / dfgjLo a;f]af;sf] :j¿ksf] ljZn]if0f u/L klx/f] hfg ;Sg] ;Defjgfsf] klxrfg x'g' k5{ . g]kfndf klx/f]sf] hf]lvd klx/f]af6 aRg klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ckgfpg' g} ;a}eGbf dxŒjk"0f{ pkfo xf] . To;sf nflu klx/f]af6 s'g jf s:tf] If]q a9L k|efljt x'G5 jf s:tf] e"efudf klx/f] hfg] ;Defjgf a9L x'G5 eg]/ klxrfg ug'{ k5{ . o;nfO{ klx/f]sf] hf]lvdsf] klxrfg klg eGg ;lsG5 . g]kfnsf] clwsf+z e"efu kxf8 / lxdfnn] 9fs]sf] 5 . sdhf]/ e"v08, cToGt} le/fnf] kxf8–kj{t oxfFsf] klx/f]sf] hf]lvdsf sf/0f x'g . To;}u/L e"ue{sf] blIf0fL v08df /x]sf] ef/tLo e"v08Lo Kn]6 / pQ/tkm{ /x]sf] ltAatLog Kn]6 cfk;df 3':g] qmddf /x]sfn] g]kfnsf] kj{tLo If]q t'ngfTds ¿kdf rnfodfg /x]sf] 5 . h;n] klx/f]sf] ;DefjgfnfO{ a9fPsf] 5 . ;a}eGbf kl5 ag]sf] r'/] tyf lzjflns kxf8L If]q lgs} sdhf]/ /x]sfn] klg oxfF w]/} klx/f] hfg] u/]sf] 5 . xfn}sf jif{df o; If]qdf a9]sf] dfgjLo rfk / 9'ªuf df6f] ef/tlt/sf] lgsf;Ln] ;d]t lzjflns If]q lgs} ;ªs6fkGg ag]sf] 5 . o; If]qaf6 klx/f];Fu} aUg] 9'ªuf / klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷17
  18. 18. u]uofgn] t/fO{sf]] pAhfp hldg k'g,{] gbLsf] psf; eP/ af9Lsf] | 8/nfUbf] cj:yf pTkGg x'g] qmd a9]sf] 5 . hf]lvdsf] klxrfg / gS;fªsg k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu hf]lvddf /x]sf] If]qsf] ;xL klxrfg cfjZos k5{ . To;df klg klx/f]sf] hf]lvd klxrfg ug'{ lgs} sl7g x'G5 . ef}uf]lns agf]6 / e"ueL{o cj:yfaLr /x]sf] ;DaGwsf] ;d]t ljZn]if0f ug'{ kg]{ ePsfn] klx/f]sf] hf]lvd klxrfg ug'{ lgs} sl7g /x]sf] xf] . klx/f]sf] hf]lvdsf] klxrfg ug]{ sfo{sf nflu pRr:t/Lo k|fljlws 1fg / k|ljlwsf] cfjZostf k5{ . tyflk :yfgLo 1fg, k|ljlw / ;Lkaf6 klg cfjf; If]q 5]p5fp hfg ;Sg] klx/f]sf] klxrfg / gS;fªsg ug{ ;lsG5 . :yfgLo k|of;n] 7"nf] If]qnfO{ ;d]6g g;s] klg klx/f] hfg ;Sg] ;Defjgfsf] klxrfg eg] ug{ ;lsG5 . k|fljlws tyf ljz]if1sf] cefj ePsf 7fpFdf klx/f]sf] hf]lvd klxrfg / gS;fªsg ug{ lgDg ljifodf Wofg lbg' k5{ M s= e"ldsf] :ynut lg/LIf0f M a;f]af; jf v]taf/LeGbf dflyNnf] tyf tNnf] If]qsf] eL/kfvfsf] lg/LIf0f u/]/ klx/f] hfg]–ghfg] cj:yf kQf nufpg ;lsG5 . klxn] kfgL gpld|Psf] 7fpFdf crfgs kfgL pld|g,' hldg lr/f kg'{ jf wl:;g', af]6la?jfsf h/fn] hldg 5f]8g' / ToxfFaf6 kfgL pld|g,' lrl/Psf] jf wl:;Psf] 7fpFaf6 lxnf] df6f] aUg', 9'ªuf jf r§fgn] cfˆgf] ;flassf] :yfg 5f]8g yfNg' klx/f] hfg;Sg] cj:yfsf] ;"rs x'g . v= kxf8L If]qdf plNnlvt cj:yf b]lvP ToxfFaf6 hfg] klx/f]n] eL/dfly / tNnf] If]qdf slt;Dd c;/ ug{ ;S5 eg]/ ljZn]if0f ug'{ k5{ . hldg lrl/Psf], wl:;Psf], df6f] jf 9'ªufn] :yfg 5f]8sf] cj:yf ] x]// sqf] klx/f] hfG5 < slt If]qdf km}lng ;S5 < s'g 3/uf]7 ] ;a}eGbf a9L hf]lvddf /x]sf 5g < s'g If]qsf] v]tLof]Uo e"ld jf afnLgfnL gi6 x'g ;S5 < h:tf ljifosf] ljZn]if0f ug'{ k5{ . :yfgLo 1fg / ;Lkn] ljZn]if0f ug{ sl7g ePsf] cj:yfdf lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{no, lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt, hnpTkGg k|sf]k Joj:yfkg sfof{no jf cGo ;/f]sf/jfnf lgsfonfO{ hfgsf/L u/fP/ k|fljlwssf] klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷18
  19. 19. Joj:yf u/L hf]lvd ljZn]if0f ug'{ k5{ . k|fljlwsåf/f klx/f]sf] hf]lvd klxrfg tyf gS;fªsg ug{ lgudgljlwsf] pkof]u x'G5 M hldgsf] ;tx, e"ldut cj:yf / 9'ªuf, df6f], r§fgnufotsf e"–;txsf ljleGg j:t'sf] lj:t[t ljZn]if0f u/]/ e"ldsf] k|fljlws k/LIf0f x'G5 . ljutdf klx/f] uPsf]] If]qsf] k"jcj:yfdf x'g] u/]sf ;dfg e"pkof]u { eO/x]sf] If]qdf eljiodf hfg ;Sg] klx/f]sf] ;Defjgfsf] klxrfg u/L e"cfs[ltsf] ljZn]if0faf6 ;Defljt klx/f]sf] klxrfg x'G5 . klx/f] hfg] sf/0f, k|lqmof;DaGwL tYofªs / ;"rgfsf cfwf/df klx/f]sf sf/stŒjsf] cWoog u/L le/fnf] hldgsf] l:y/tf / cl:y/tfsf] klxrfg x'G5 . klx/f]sf] hf]lvd tyf ;ªs6fled'v If]qsf] gS;fªsgsf nflu e"–;"rgf k|0ffnLsf] ;ˆ6j]o/sf] k|of]u GIS klg k|rngdf cfPsf] 5 . o;n] e"ldsf] le/fnf]kgsf] l:ylt, sf]0f, r§fgsf] lsl;d / ;+/rgf, df6f]sf] k|sf/ / ulx/fO, hnk|jfx, h}ljs j:t'sf] cj:yf cflbsf] ljZn]if0fnfO{ j}1flgs 9ªuaf6 k|:t't u5{ . u= klx/f]sf] hf]lvd gS;fªsg ul/;s]kl5 ef}uf]lns cj:yf, ;Defljt klx/f]sf] :j¿k cflbsf cfwf/df klx/f]sf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf sfd ug'{ k5{ . klx/f]sf] hf]lvd ePsf] cj:yf b]lvPdf :yfgLo k|ljlw, 1fg, ;Lk / ;fwg tyf ;|ftsf] pkof]u u/L hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] ] sfo{ ug'{ k5{ . hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf pkfo klx/f]sf] hf]lvd ljZn]if0f / gS;fªsgkl5 Go"gLs/0fsf sfo{ k|f/De ug'{ k5{ . klx/f]sf] ;Defljt :j¿ksf] klxrfgn] lgoGq0f tyf Go"gLs/0fsf] of]hgf lgwf{/0f ug{ ;3fp k'¥ofpF5 . lgoGq0f / Go"gLs/0fsf] sfo{ :yfgLo ;|ft, ;fwg, ;Lk / k|ljlwsf cltl/Qm ;/sf/L / u}/;/sf/L ] lgsfosf] ;xof]u / ;xsfo{df ug'kg]{ x'G5 . lgoGq0fsf] sfo{ ug{ g} { g;lsg] ePdf jf k|efjsf/L x'g g;Sg] b]lvPdf ;ªs6fled'v a:tL / ;DklQ ;'/lIft :yfgdf ;fg'{ kg]{ x'G5 . klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷19
  20. 20. dflg;n] ;–;fgf klx/f]sf] lgoGq0f ug{;Sg] eP klg 7"nf] klx/f] lgoGq0f ug{ ;lsFbg . ;fgf] If]qdf, ;fgf] eL/ jf kfvfdf hfg nfu]sf] klx/f]sf] } ;dod} klxrfg ePdf :yfgLo k|ljlw ckgfP/ klg To;nfO{ /f]Sg ;lsG5 . olb 7"n} klx/f] hfg ;Sg] ;Defjgf /x]df ljz]if k|ljlw, ;|ft ] / ;fwgsf] k|of]un] To;sf] k|efjnfO{ dfq Go"g ug{ ;lsG5 . ctM ;fdfGo klx/f]sf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu klx/f] hfg' cl3 ug]{ sfdnfO{ lgDgcg';f/ lng ;lsG5 M hldg wl:;Psf] jf lrl/Psf] If]qeGbf dflysf] kfgLnfO{ s'n;f] ] agfP/ klx/f]sf] hf]lvd gePsf] 7fpFaf6 aufpg] jf s6fpg] . klx/f] hfg nfu]sf] efusf] tNnf] If]qdf 6]jf kvf{n nufP/ dflysf] hldg, 9'ªuf, df6f] tn v:gaf6 /f]Sg] . klx/f] v:g nfu]sf] If]qdf dflg;, 3/kfn'jf kz'sf] k|jz lgif]w ] ug]{ jf ;s];Dd jGohGt'sf] k|jz ;d]t /f]Sg] k|oTg ug]{ . ] ;8s, af6f], s'nf] vGbf jf v]taf/Lsf] ;'wf/ ubf{ jf lgdf{0f sfo{ ubf{ eL/sf] km]bLsf] s6fg /f]Sg] . s6fg ug}{ kg]{ ePdf lgdf{0f sfo{sf] :j¿k x]/L :yfgLo jf cfw'lgs k|ljlwaf6 6]jf kvf{n nufpg] / j[Iff/f]k0f u/L e"Ifo lgoGq0f ug]{ . klx/f]sf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ljz]ifu/L kxf8L If]qdf ljleGg sfo{x¿ ug'kg]{ x'G5 . o:tf sfo{n] e"pkof]u k|jl[ Qdf ;d]t ;'wf/ { NofP/ hldg efl;g], lrl/g], v:g] / aUg] k|lqmof Go"g x'g] ;Defjgf /xG5 . h;sf nflu lgDgcg';f/sf sfd ug'{ pkof]uL x'g5 M ] e"pkof]udf ;'wf/ klx/f] k|foM sdhf]/ eL/kfvfdf hfG5 . vfBfGg pTkfbgsf nflu kxf8L If]qsf kfvfaf/Ldf vghf]t ug'{ k5{ . kfvfdf v]t la/fP/ wfg klg /f]Kg] ul/G5 . To;f] ubf{ kfvfsf] sdnf] df6f] x'b} hldgsf] leq;Dd kfgL F k:5 . o;af6 ;txsf] df6f]df kfgLsf] rfk / df6f]sf] tf}ndf ;d]t j[l4 x'bf bafa a9]/ klx/f] hfg] ;Defjgf a95 . kfvfaf/Ldf o:tf] cj:yf F pTkGg x'g glbg kfgLsf] axfj / ;f];gsf] cj:yfsf] cWoog u/L pGgt lsl;dsf ux|f agfP/ afnLsf] rqmcg';f/ v]tL ug'{ k5{ . clt le/fnf] hUufdf wfgsf] ;§f kmnkm"n v]tL u/]/ tyf ux|fx¿sf] l8ndf klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷20
  21. 21. 3fF; nufP/ klx/f]sf] hf]lvd sdug{ ;lsG5 . le/fnf] hldgsf] Joj:yfkgsf nflu s[lif k|ljlw (Sloping Agriculture Land Technology – SALT) ckgfpg' k5{ . kfvf]–af/Lsf] l;/fgdf ;s];Dd wfgafnL gnufpg] / nufpg} k/]df kfgLsf] lgsf;sf] plrt Joj:yf ug'{ k5{ . jgljgfz lgoGq0f tyf jg;+/If0f jgljgfz klx/f]sf sf/0fdWo] Ps xf] . ¿v / 3fF;sf h/fn] ;txsf] df6f]nfO{ dfq geP/ ;txleqsf] df6f], 9'ªuf, kx/f cflbnfO{ ;d]t alnof];u hs8]/ l:y/ agfPsf] x'G5 . To;}n] kxf8L If]qsf] jgljgfz F /f]s/ / jg gePsf gfªuf 8fF8fdf j[Iff/f]k0f u/]/ klx/f]sf] hf]lvd ] sdug{ ;lsG5 . sdhf]/ e"agf]6 ePsf] x'bf r'/] kj{t z[ªvnfdf F dfgjLo rfk cTolws a9]/ e"Ifo / klx/f] hfg] qmdn] t/fO{sf] pAhfp e"ld ;d]t d?e"dLs/0ftkm{ pGd'v ePsf] 5 . of] ;d:of ;dfwfg ug{ klg jg ;+/If0f h?/L /x]sf] 5 . cfjf; If]qsf] dfkb08 lgwf{/0f kxf8L If]qdf 5l/P/ /x]sf] a;f]af;nfO{ ;'/lIft If]qsf] klxrfg u/L Joj:yfkg ug'{ klx/f]sf] hf]lvdaf6 x'g] dfgjLo Iflt Go"g ug]{ pkfo xf] . o;sf nflu hf]lvd gS;fªsg u/L ;ªs6fled'v a:tLnfO{ ;'/lIft :yfgdf :yfgfGt/0f ug{ kxn x'g' k5{ . vf;u/L a;f]af;sf nflu pko'Qm e"ld jf If]qsf] dfkb08 lgwf{/0f x'g' cfhsf] k|dv cfjZostf ' b]lvPsf] 5 . ul/aLsf] /]vfd'lg /x]sf] hg;ªVofsf] 7"nf] lx:;f klx/f]sf] hf]lvdo'Qm If]qdf a;f]af; ug{ afWo /x]sf] x'G5 . e"agf]6 / hf]lvdaf/] s]xL hfgsf/L gePsf / hfgsf/L eP klg ;'/lIft :yfgdf a;f]af; ug{ c;dy{ To:tf ;d'bfosf nflu ;'/lIft cfjf;sf] k|aGw ug{ ;/sf/L lgsfosf] Wofg hfg' h?/L 5 . o;sf lgldQ ;d'bfon] ;/sf/sf] Wofg cfslif{t ug'{ k5{ . lbuf] ljsf;sf] sfof{Gjog ljsf; lgdf{0f / cGo dfgjLo lqmofsnfknfO{ lbuf] ljsf;sf] cjwf/0ff klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷21
  22. 22. cg'¿k kl/rfng ug{ ;lsPdf klx/f];u} cGo k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd klg F 36fpg ;lsG5 . klx/f]sf] hf]lvd a9g'df k|fs[lts ultljlw dfq lhDd]jf/ geP/ dflg;sf] klg 7"nf] e"ldsf /xG5 / To:tf k|sf]kaf6 dflg; g} a9L kLl8t x'G5 . To;}n] ljsf; lgdf{0fsf qmddf k|fs[lts ;|ftsf] a'l4dQfk"0f{ pkof]u, k|sf]kk|lt/f]wL k|ljlwsf] k|of]u / vt/fd'Qm ] If]qsf] 5gf]6 ug'{ k5{ . klx/f] hfg] k|lqmofnfO{ ;xof]u ldNg] dfjgLo ultljlwdf lgoGq0f ug{ / e"pkof]u, v]tLkftL, ljsf; lgdf{0fsf sfddf k|sf]k k|efj d"Nofªsg ug]{ k|lqmofnfO{ cfTd;ft ug{ ;lsPdf o:tf k|sf]ksf hf]lvdaf6 w]/} xb;Dd ;'/lIft /xg ;lsG5 . hgr]tgf clej[l4 ;ªs6fled'v If]qsf hgtfnfO{ klx/f] /f]syfd u/L aRg] / c;/ Go"g ug]{ ljleGg pkfoaf/] kof{Kt hfgsf/L lbP/ hgr]tgf a9fpg' hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f tyf k"jtof/Lsf] csf]{ k|efjsf/L pkfo xf] . ;'/lIft :yfgsf] { klxrfg, cfsl:ds¿kdf cfOkg]{ ljkbsf] cj:yfdf k|of]u ug{ ;lsg] ;fd'bflos / ;fj{hlgs ejgsf] lgdf{0f, k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnLsf] k|aGw, { ] k|sf]kkl5sf] tTsfnLg cj:yfdf ug'{ kg]{ ;xsfo{h:tf ljifodf hgr]tgf a9fpg] sfo{ ug'{ k5{ . klx/f] hfg] If]qsf] klxrfg, lgoGq0fsf pkfo / klx/f] uPkl5 ug'kg]{ sfo{, ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿;Fusf] ;Dks{ / ;dGjoh:tf { ljifodf klg ;fd'bflos 5nkmn, 1fgsf] ;f6f;f6 ug'{ k5{ . klx/f]af6 x'g] Ifltsf] ;fdgf / w}otfsf nflu tflnd lbg], cEof; u/fpg], { ;fj{hlgs :yfgdf hfgsf/Ld"ns ;"rgfkf6L /fVg' k5{ . To;}u/L ;d'bfonfO{ o:tf ljifodf 1fg lbg] kf7o;fdu|L, >Job[io ;fdu|L pknAw u/fpg' k5{ . ;dGjo tyf ;xsfo{ klx/f]sf] hf]lvddf /x]sf ;d'bfosf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f tyf ;'/Iffsf nflu k"jtof/L, p4f/, /fxth:tf sfo{ ug{ ;/sf/sf :yfgLo lgsfox¿, { /]8qm;, 8LkLg]6 g]kfn, /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx¿sf] ;"rL agfP/ pgLx¿;Fu ;DaGwsf] ljsf; ub}{ ;dGjo / ;xsfo{ ug'{ k5{ . klx/f] uOxfn]df ug'{kg]{ cfkTsfnLg sfo{sf af/]df klg ;/f]sf/jfnx¿aLr sfo{of]hgf tof/ u/L sfdsf] afF8kmfF8 ug'{ k5{ . klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷22
  23. 23. p4f/, /fxt / k'gM:yfkg klx/f]sf] lgoGq0f ug'{ lgs} sl7g x'G5 . 7"nf] klx/f] hfg] ;ªst b]lvPdf ] tTsfn} ;'/lIft :yfgsf] vf]hL u/L a;f]af; If]q vfnL u/fpg' k5{ . klx/f] uO/x]sf] cj:yf / uO;s]kl5 p4f/ / /fxtsf sfo{ ug'kg]{ x'G5 . { cfjf;If]q vfnL ug]{ eL/ jf kxf8af6 df6f] / 9'ªuf vl;/x]sf] b]lvPdf, dfly kxf8lt/ s'g} gofF d'xfg km'6df, Ogf/ jf d"nsf] kfgL wldnf] b]lvPdf, kf]v/Lsf] kfgL ] crfgs ;'sdf, d'xfg, gx/, gfnL jf gbLsf] kfgL crfgs 36]df, ¿v ] 9n]sf] jf efFlRrPsf] cfjfh ;'lgPdf, hldg wfFhf k/]sf] b]lvPdf, 3/jl/kl/sf] hldgaf6 cfjfh cfPdf / 3/sf] 9f]sf 7Ls;Fu gv'ndf jf ] leQf rls{Pdf klx/f] hfg nfu]sf] 7fGg' k5{ . o:tf ;ªst b]lvgf;fy ] ;'/lIft :yfgtkm{ hfg' k5{ . o;/L cfjf; If]q vfnL ubf{ afnaflnsf, j[4–j[4f, czQm / dlxnfsf] ;'/Iffdf ljz]if Wofg lbg' k5{ . p4f/ tyf /fxt klx/f] uPsf] cj:yfdf ;d'bfosf s'g} ;b:o klx/f]df k/]sf] cfef; ePdf ltgLx¿sf] vf]hL ug'{ klxnf] st{Jo x'G5 . 7"nf] klx/f] uP/ :yfgLo ;|ft tyf ;fwgn] p4f/ / /fxtsf sfo{ wfGg g;lsPdf ] glhssf] ;'/Iff lgsfo jf ;]gfnfO{ tTsfn va/ ug'{ k5{ . klx/f] uPsf] ;dodf kLl8tsf] p4f/ / /fxtsf nflu lgDg ljifodf Wofg lbg' k5{ M x/fPsf ;b:osf] tTsfn vf]hL ug],{ 3fOt]sf] pkrf/sf] k|aGw ldnfpg], ;'/Iff lgsfo, /]8qm;h:tf p4f/ tyf /fxt sfo{df ;+nUg lgsfonfO{ klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷23
  24. 24. tTsfn} va/ ug],{ ;'/lIft :yfgdf c:yfoL lzlj/ v8f u/L lj:yflktsf] a;f]af; u/fpg], lzlj/df z'4 vfg]kfgL, ;/;kmfO, ;ªs6sfnLg lzIffsf] Joj:yf ug]{, kLl8tnfO{ ;fGTjgf lbg] / zflGtsf nflu cfjZos k|aGw ldnfpg], cfly{s ;|ftsf] cefj x'g glbg ;/sf/;Fu /fxt dfu ug]{ / ] :yfgLo lgsfo, ;ª3;+:yf / gful/s ;dfh;Fu ;xof]u ;ªsng u/L Jojl:yt ¿kdf ljt/0f ug],{ ;dfhdf pTkGg x'g ;Sg] ljs[lt tyf cdfgjLo b'36gf lgoGq0fsf { nflu ;'/Iff ;+oGqsf] :yfkgf ug]{ . dxfdf/L km}lng;Sg] ;Defjgfk|lt ;ts{ /x]/ ;/;kmfOdf Wofg lbg] / cfkTsfnLg cf}iflwsf] k|aGwdf Wofg lbg] . Ifltu|:t ePsf ljB't ljt/0f nfO{g, ;~rf/sf ;fwg, k'n, ;8s cflb tTsfn ;~rfng ug{ cfjZos kg]{ sfo{x¿ ug],{ kLl8tsf] dfgjclwsf/sf] /Iffsf nflu kxn ug]{ . k'gM:yfkg klx/f] uO;s]kl5 ;ªs6u|:t If]q / kLl8t kl/jf/sf] lj:t[t ;j]If0f{ ug'{ k5{ . Ifltu|:t ;8s, k'n, l;FrfO s'nf], 6]lnkmf]gnfOg / ljB't k|;f/0f nfOgsf] dd{t;Def/ u/L ;'rf? ug'{ k5{ . kLl8t kl/jf/nfO{ s[lif;fdu|L vl/b ug{ l56f]5l/tf] 9ªun] kof{Kt ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg], ;ªs6u|:t If]qsf dflg;sf nflu vfBkbfy{, kz'sf nflu 8fn]3fF; tyf ;'/lIft lkpg] kfgLsf] Joj:yf ug]h:tf sfd ug'{ k5{ . o:tf sfdsf { nflu ;/sf/L lgsfo, u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf tyf ;d'bfon] ;lqmotfsf ;fy cfjZos e"ldsf lgjf{x ug'{ k5{ . klx/f]af6 cTolws Iflt Joxf]/sf / cGoq a;f]af;sf] Joj:yf jf ] hLljsf]kfh{gsf cfwf/ gePsf kl/jf/sf] klxrfg u/L ltgLx¿nfO{ klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷24
  25. 25. ;'/lIft :yfgdf a;f]af; u/fpg] sfo{ ;/sf/sf] bfloTjleq kg]{ ljifo xf] . oblk ;/sf/;Fu kof{Kt ;|ft gx'g] ePsfn] ;/sf/L ;xof]u k|fKt ] ug{ sl7g x'g ;S5 . t/ ;/sf/n] jg dGqfno, ef}lts of]hgf tyf lgdf{0f dGqfnoh:tf lgsfoaLr ;dGjo u/]/ kLl8t kl/jf/nfO{ a;f]af; u/fpg ;'/lIft :yfgsf] Joj:yf ug{ g;Sg] eg] x'bg . ;/sf/n] kof{Kt F } cfly{s ;xof]u ug{ g;s] klg ;'/lIft :yfgdf /x]sf] e"ld kLl8tnfO{ lbP/ klx/f]af6 Ifltu|:t e"ldsf] k'gM:yfkg u/L jgsf ¿kdf ljsf; ug{ ;S5 . ;xof]uL ;+:yfx¿n] o:tf ljifodf Wofg lbP/ lj:yflkt kl/jf/nfO{ ;'/lIft :yfgdf a;f]af; u/fpg kxn ug'{ k5{ . ;/sf/n] eTs]sf ;8s, k'n ;lxt cGo ef}lts ;+/rgfsf] k'glg{ldf{0f ;dod} ug{' k5{ . o;sf cltl/Qm ;/sf/L, u}/;/sf/L / :yfgLo ;|ftsf] ] kl/rfng u/]/ klx/f]sf] lj:tf/ k|lqmofnfO{ lgoGq0f ug{ ljleGg pkfo cjnDag ug'{ k5{ . klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷25
  26. 26. klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo klx/f]sf] cfsf/, ulx/fO / 9'ªuf–df6f]sf] agf]6sf cfwf/df klx/f]sf] lgoGq0f ug{ ljleGg k|ljlwsf] k|of]u x'G5 . o;/L klx/f] lgoGq0f ubf{ eljiodf k'gM klx/f] hfg glbg lbuf] ljsf;sf] cjwf/0ff cg'¿k sfd ug'{ k5{ . 7"nf] klx/f] uPsf] 7fpFdf 7"n} nufgL u/L lgoGq0fsf pkfo ckgfpg' kg]{ x'G5 . o:tf] vr{ k|ltkmnsf t'ngfdf lgs} w]/} x'g klg ;S5 . sltko klx/f] ;fdfGo k|ljlw, :yfgLo ;|ft / ;fwgsf] pkof]uaf6 ] ug{ ;lsG5 . o:tf] sfo{n] nufgLsf t'ngfdf k|ltkmn w]/} lbg ;S5 M afof]OlGhlgol/ª k|ljlwsf] k|of]u 9'ªuf, df6f], l;d]G6, tf/hfnL cflbsf] k|of]uaf6 lgdf{0f x'g] ;+/rgfn] e"ldsf] k|fs[lts :j¿knfO{ ;'/lIft /fVg g;Sg] k|dfl0ft ePsf] 5 . l;d]G6sf] k|of]un] jg:kltsf] k'g?Tkfbg /f]Sg], e"ldsf] kfgL ;f]:g] Ifdtf z"Go agfpg] / Iflt ePsf ;+/rgfsf] dd{t;Def/df lgs} 7"nf] vr{ nfUg] ePsfn] afof]OlGhlgol/ª k|ljlwsf] ljsf; ePsf] 5 . ljleGg ljåfgx¿sf cg';f/ …jg:kltsf] Psn k|of]u jf l;len OlGhgLol/ª ;+/rgf;Fu hLljt jf lghL{j jg:kltsf] PsLs[t k|of]u u/]/ s'g} klg klx/f] jf e"–IfonfO{ lgoGq0f ug]{ sfo{nfO{ afof]OlGhlgol/ª elgG5Ú . afof]OlGhlgol/ªsf] dxTj klx/f] cyjf e"–Ifo /f]Sg 7"nf kvf{n cyjf cGo dxFuf ;+/rgfx¿ u|fdL0f :t/df lgdf{0f ug{ k|fljlws, cfly{s, ef}uf]lns sf/0fn] lgs} sl7g x'G5 . t/ afof]OlGhlgol/ª k|ljlwaf6 klx/f] lgoGq0f ug{ rflxg] clwsf+z ;fdfu|L :yfgLo :t/d} pknAw x'g], :yfgLo ;Lkaf6 g} agfpg ;lsg], hgzlQm klg ufpFd} pknAw x'g] ePsfn] of] k|ljlw lgs} pkof]uL dflgPsf] 5 . o; k|ljlwaf6 x'ssf ¿vaf6 :yfgLo {] klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷26
  27. 27. cfjZostfsf bfp/f, v/, 3Ff;kft cflb pknAw x'g] / k|fs[lts jftfj/0f sfod /xg] ePsfn] of] k|ljlw ljsl;t d'n'sdf ;d]t nf]slk|o /x]sf] 5 . k|fs[lts ;|f]t ;+/If0f / pkof]usf b[li6n] klg of] k|ljlwsf] dxTj a9b} uPsf] 5 . o; k|ljlwsf] dxŒj lgDg sf/0fn] klg a9]sf] 5 M c8 o fpg] jg:kltsf] km]bn] jiff{sf] kfgLnfO{ tLj| ultdf aUg jf n]bf] df6f]nfO{ ;f]xf]l/P/ aUgaf6 /f]S5 . To;}u/L a'6ofgn] kfvf]af6 9'ªuf–df6f]nfO{ /f]s/ jf c8ofP/ l:y/ agfpF5 . ] k| l t/f] w emf/kftn] hldgsf] ;txnfO{ 9fs]/ e"–;txdf jiff{sf] kfgLsf] bafa kg{ glbg] x'bf e"Ifosf] k|lqmof lgolGqt x'G5 . F h] l ng] jg:kltsf h/fx¿ ;txsf] 9'ªuf–df6f]leq h]lnP/ /x]sf x'G5g . h;n] ubf{ ToxfFsf] hldg rNg kfpFbg / sd ulx/fOaf6 aUg] e"ldut hnsf] } k|jfxsf] c;/nfO{ sd u5{ . c8 s fpg] ¿vsf] d"nh/f hldgsf] leq;Dd uPsf] x'G5 . o:tf] h/fn] le/fnf] hldgaf6 v:g ;Sg] 9'ªuf–df6f]nfO{ /f]S5 . ;xf/f ¿vsf] d"nh/f tyf ;xfos h/fn] jl/kl/sf] df6f]nfO{ hs8]sf] x'G5 hf] lgs} alnof] / :yL/ x'G5 . o;/L l:y/ ePsf] df6f]sf sf/0f 9'ªuf klg hsl8P/ l:y/ /xG5 . kfgLsf] lgsf; jg:kltn] hldgsf] ;tx jf ;txeGbf d'lgsf] cgfjZos kfgLnfO{ h/fsf] dfWodaf6 hldgleq l5/fO{ tsf{pg] sfd u5{g . klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷27
  28. 28. cGo pkof] l utf jg:kltn] jiff{sf] j]unfO{ /f]s/, hldgsf] kfgLnfO{ ;f];/, h/fåf/f u|x0f ] u/]/ tyf k|sfz;+Zn]if0f lqmofåf/f kfgLsf] jfikLs/0f u/]/ e"–Ifo lgoGq0f / k|fs[lts rqmsf] lg/Gt/tfnfO{ sfod /fVg of]ubfg lbG5 . lgoGq0f ;+/rgfdf afof]OlGhlgol/ª afof]OlGhlgol/ª k|ljlwcGtu{t ljleGg ;+/rgfsf] lgdf{0f;Fu} pko'Qm k|hfltsf jg:klt x'sf{P/ df6f]nfO{ l:y/ agfpg ;lsG5 . ;a} If]qdf j[Iff/f]k0f u/]/ dfq gk'Ug] x'bf ;+/rgf lgdf{0f;Fu} la?jf /f]lkG5 . F ;fdfGotof e"Ifo ePsf jf klx/f] uPsf If]qdf afof]OlGhlgol/ª k|ljlwaf6 lgdf{0f ul/g] ;+/rgf lgDg cg';f/ 5g M km]bL kvf{n ;–;fgf klx/f] uPsf] If]qsf] k'gM:yfkg tyf ;8s, s'nf] jf cGo lgdf{0f sfo{ ubf{ km]bL s6fg ePsf] If]qdf 6]jf kvf{n nufP/ dflysf] e"ld tn v:gaf6 /f]Sg e"ldsf] km]bLdf sl/a !–@ ld6/ prfOsf] kvf{n agfP/ 6]jf lbg] tyf km]bLsf] s6fgaf6 arfpg agfOg] ;+/rgfnfO{ km]bL kvf{n elgG5 . vf8n k'g{] hldg rls{P/ jf wl;P/ 7"N7"nf vfN8f kg{ ;S5g . o:tf vfN8 a9b} uPdf To;df kfgL hd]/ jf cGo sf/0fn] bafa pTkGg eP/ klx/f] hfg ;S5 . To;}n] To:tf vfN8f k'// e":vng lgoGq0f ug{ ;lsG5 . ] 6]jf kvf{n s8f / g/d r§fg ePsf] 7fpFdf t'ngfTds ¿kdf g/d r§fg w]/} lvOG5 / s8f r§fg cl:y/ eP/ emg{ ;S5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf s8f r§fgnfO{ c8ofP/ v:g glbg s8f r§fgnfO{ hu agfP/ g/d r§fgsf] 7fpFdf agfOg] kvf{nnfO{ 6]jf kvf{n elgG5 . o:tf kvf{nx¿ agfpFbf cfjZostf cg';f/ kfgL lgSng] Kjfnx¿ klg /fVg] ul/G5 . klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷28
  29. 29. dfGb|] kvf{n le/fnf] ;txdf ;':t axg ePdf jf ;txdf n]bf] au]df To;nfO{ /f]Sg ;–;fgf ux|f agfpg afF;sf lsnf uf8]/ afF;s} ef6fx¿n] dfGb|fh:t} ] a'g/ agfOPsf] ;+/rgfnfO{ dfGb|] kvf{n elgG5 . dflyaf6 v;]sf ] j:t'x¿ Tof] kvf{n leq k5{g / e"ldsf] le/fnf]kgdf la:tf/} sd x'b} F hldg l:y/ eP/ klx/f]sf] hf]lvd Go"g x'G5 . 9'ªuf 5fKg] e"Ifo a9]/ klx/f]sf] ;Defjgf b]lvPsf vf]N;fx¿nfO{ ulxl/g glbg kfgL aUg] 7fpFdf 9'ªuf 5fk]/ e"Ifo lgoGq0f ul/G5 . t/, 7"nf] If]qdf 9'ªuf 5fKg] sfo{ ck|fs[lts dfq geO{ a9L vlr{nf] ;d]t x'g] ePsfn] To;sf] ljsNkdf cGo afof]OlGhlgol/ª k|ljlwnfO{ klxnf] k|fyldstf lbg' k5{ . lgoGq0f af“w vf]N;f] ag]sf] s'n;f]df kfgLsf] axfault 36fpg jf kfgL;Fu aUg] 9'ªuf ] df6f]nfO{ /f]s/ vf]N;f]sf] kLFwnfO{ l:y/ /fVg agfOg] ;+/rgfnfO{ lgoGq0f ] afFw elgG5 . o:tf] afFwsf] hu alnof] agfOG5, h;af6 vf]N;fsf lsgf/;d]t lgolGqt x'G5 . h'6sf] hfnL klx/f] uPsf] gfªuf] / le/fnf] hldgdf jiff{n] k'gM df6f] aufpgaf6 /f]Sg / la?jf x'sf{pg h'6sf] hfnL agfP/ le/fnf] ;txnfO{ 5f]lkG5 . o:tf] af]/f leh]kl5 ;'Sg w]/} ;do nfUg] x'gfn] le/fnf] tyf anf}6] hldgdf la?jf x'sG5 . kl5 ToxL hfnL s'lxP/ la?jfnfO{ dnsf] sfd lbG5 . { aLpnfO{ 5fkf] xfNg] 3fF;, k/fn cfbL c8sfpg klg of] hfnLsf] k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 . ;tx 9fSg] kfgL kfg]l{ alQs} hldg ;f]:g] / t'?Gt} km';km';] klx/f] hfg] If]qdf ;tx 9fSg] sfo{ ul/G5 . o:tf] ;txdf 3'/ofg tyf Knfli6sn] 5f]Kg' k5{ . klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷29
  30. 30. k|mGr 8]g ] « klx/f]leq cyjf kfvf]leq hDdf ePsf] e"ldut kfgLnfO{ pQm :yfgaf6 ;'/lIft ¿kdf aflx/ k7fpg agfOg] ;+/rgfnfO{ k|mGr 8]g elgG5 . ] ]« o;df rf/}lt/ Kjfn kfl/Psf] Knfli6ssf] kfOk nufOG5 . hldgleq hDdf ePsf] jf kl5 hDdf x'g ;Sg] kfgL kfOkaf6 aflx/ lg:s]/ hldgleq a9]sf] bafa sd x'G5 . k|mGr 8«gsf] k|of]u e"ldut kfgLsf ] ] sf/0f x'g] klx/f] /f]Sg ul/G5 . 9'ªu] afln:6 le/fnf] hldgnfO{ v08–v08 eP/ 6'lqmg / tn v:g nfu]sf] 9'ªuf df6f]nfO{ klx/f]sf] ¿kdf v:g glbg le/fnf] ;txdf 58s] jf t];f]{ u/]/ Uoflaog tf/ /fvL To;leq 9'ªuf e/]/ 9'ªu] aflni6 agfOG5 . o;n] 5l/P/ au]sf] kfgLnfO{ lgoGq0f u/L Psf]xf]¥ofpg d2t u5{ . of] k|ljlw k|foM df6f] emg]{ le/fnf] If]qdf k|of]u ul/G5 . ef/axg kvf{n 9'ªuf–df6f] ePsf] 7fpFnfO{ elTsgaf6 hf]ufpg cyjf klx/f] uPsf] jf hfg;Sg] cl:y/ kfvf]nfO{ c8ofpg agfOg] ;+/rgfnfO{ ef/axg kvf{n elgG5 . of] ;+/rgf 9'ªuf–df6f]sf] bafanfO{ y]Ug lgdf{0f ul/G5 . 9'ªuf–df6f]sf] agf]6, prfO{, le/fnf]kg cflbsf cfwf/df 9'ªufsf] dfq, 9'ªuf / l;d]G6sf] hf]8fO ePsf], Uoflaog hfnLdf 9'ªuf e/]sf] jf kSsL ef/axg kvf{n lgdf{0f ul/G5 . gfnL lgdf{0f hldgsf] ;tx jf s]xL ulx/fOdf ePsf] kfgL tsf{pg 9'ªu,] kSsL] cflb ljleGg k|sf/sf gfnL agfOG5 . 9'ªu] gfnL agfpFbf klxn] vfN8f] vGg' k5{ / To;nfO{ h'6sf] hfnL jf af]/fn] 9fSg' k5{ . o;f] ubf{ hldg leqsf] kfgL ;lhn} gfnLdf cfpF5 . h'6sf] hfnL jf af]/fdfly dl;gf] 9'ªuf / afn'jfsf] !)–@) ;]lG6ld6/sf] tx /fVg' k5{ . gfnLsf] ;aeGbf ulx/f] efudf Pp6f Kjfn /fvL To;dfly qmd}n] 7"nf 9'ªuf eb}{ hfg' klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷30
  31. 31. k5{ . gfnLsf] 5]p5]pdf eg] dl;gf 9'ªuf / afn'jf eg'{ k5{ . dflyNnf] efudf kfgL hfgnfO{ 9'ªuf 5fk]sf] s'n;f] agfpg' k5{ . ] jfg:klts ;+/rgf dfly plNnlvt ;+/rgf;Fu jg:kltsf pko'Qm k|hflt /f]k/ x'sf{pg ] ;lsG5 . To:tf ;+/rgfn] klx/f] tyf e"Ifo lgoGq0f ug]{ sfd u5{g . afof]OlGhlgol/ª k|0ffnLdf ;fgf l;len OlGhlgol/ª ;+/rgfsf ;fy jg:klt /f]k/ x'sf{pbf lbuf] x'g] / k|fs[lts jftfj/0f;Fu ldNg] x'gfn] ] F x/]s If]qdf nf]slk|o x'b} uPsf] kfOG5 . jg:klt /f]Kg] k|lqmof / k|hfltsf] F 5gf]6af/] ;fdfGo hfgsf/L lng' pko'Qm x'g5 . ] 3f“; /f]Kg cl:y/ le/fnf] hldgdf kfgLåf/f x'g] s6fg jf e"Ifo /f]Sg t];f],{ 7f8f] / 58s] nfOgdf 3fF;sf la?jf tyf l56} x'sg] l;dfnL, c;'/f], lv/f]h:tf { { a'6ofgL jg:kltsf xfFuf sf6]/ /f]lkG5 . o:tf k|hflt v]tLof]Uo e"ldsf] sfGnfdf, afFemf] tyf le/fnf] hldgdf /f]lkG5 . o;sf cltl/Qm klx/f] uO;s]sf] :yfg tyf ;8ssf] lsgf/ ;'/lIft /fVg klg o:tf jg:klt /f]lkG5 . hLljt 5]saf/ ;fgf vf]N;fx¿df kSsL afFwsf] ;§f hLljt 5]saf/ klg nufpg ;lsG5 . of] 5]saf/ l56f] ;g]{ ¿v tyf a'6fsf xfFufaf6 agfOG5 . vf]N;f k/]sf] 7fpFdf vGtLn] Kjfn kf/]/ xfFuf /f]kL jl/kl/sf] df6f]nfO{ /fd|/L lyRg' k5{ . hLljt 5]saf/sf] dflylt/ sfd gnfUg] xfFufx¿ uf8]/ dfGb|] kvf{ndf h:t} 6f6L jf kml/sf] agfpg' k5{ . o;/L agfOPsf] af/ vf]N;fsf] b'a} lsgf/df /fd|/L c8sfpg' k5{ . ¿v jf a'6f /f]Kg] le/fnf] kfvf]df ¿v tyf a'6f /f]Kg' k5{ . ¿v jf a'6fsf a]gf{x¿ sl/a ! ld6/sf] b"/Ldf nx/} /f]lkG5 . tL la?jf x'ls{Pkl5 h/fn] hldgnfO{ klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷31
  32. 32. h]n/ c8sfpg] / ;xf/f lbg] sfd u5{ . la?jfsf] 5gf]6 ubf{ sf];bf/ ] ] nx/] la?jfx¿nfO{ k|fyldstf lbg' /fd|f] x'G5 . To:tf la?jfn] cl:y/ hldgsf] pa{/f zlQm klg a9fpg] x'bf k|fs[lts ¿kdf jg:kltsf cGo F k|hflt klg x'ls{P/ cl:y/ e"ldnfO{ l:y/ agfpF5 . af“; /f]Kg] ufFlhg] jf emofªlug] hftsf afF; /f]Kgfn] df6f]sf] axfjdf lgoGq0f cfpF5 . afF;sf h/fn] df6f]nfO{ h]n/ le/fnf] e"ldsf] km]bLnfO{ ;xf/f ] lbG5 . o:tf] jfg:klts ;+/rgfn] km]bL kvf{nsf] klg sfd u5{ . klx/f] hfg ;Sg] ;Defjgf ePsf jf klx/f] uPsf If]qdf o:tf ;+/rgf lgdf{0f ubf{ eljiodf hfg ;Sg] klx/f]sf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf ;xof]u k'U5 . oxfF pNn]v ePsf s]xL k|ljlwafx]s clwsf+z k|ljlw :yfgLo ;|ft, ;fwg, ;Lk / k|ljlw;Fu glhs ePsfn] ;d'bfon] cfˆg} kxndf ] klg o:tf sfd ug{ ;lsG5 . ;d'bfosf] k|of; dfq kof{Kt gx'g] cj:yfdf ;/sf/sf :yfgLo lgsfo, lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt / k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf If]qdf sfd ug]{ ;+:Yffx¿;Fu ;xof]u lnP/ sfo{ ug'{ k5{ . pk;+xf/ klx/f] k|fs[lts k|sf]kh:tf] nfu] klg ;r]tgf/lxt dfgjLo lqmofsnfkn] o;sf] hf]lvd j[l4 u/fO/x]sf] 5 . oBlk o;nfO{ k"0f{ ¿kdf lgoGq0f ug{ g;lsP klg pko'Qm k|ljlw ckgfP/ ;–;fgf hf]lvd Go"g ug{ ;lsG5 . vf;u/L sdnf] / cl:y/ df6f]nfO{ l:y/ agfpg afof]OlGhlgol/ª k|ljlwsf] k|of]u ug'{ pQd x'g5 . o;af6 klx/f] hfg] k|lqmof Go"g eP/ ] dfgj, h}ljs ;Dkbf tyf ef}lts ;DklQsf] ljgfznfO{ w]/} xb;Dd sd ug{ ;lsG5 . klx/f]sf] /f]syfd / lgoGq0fdf k|of]u x'g] sltko k|ljlw dxFuf x'G5g / jftfj/0f d}qL klg xFbgg . t/ afof]OlGhlgol/ª k|ljlw ;:tf] / jftfj/0f ' } d}qL x'G5 . ;Lldt ;fwg / ;|ft ePsf] xfd|f] d'nssf] kl/k|Iodf ] ' ] klx/f]sf] /f]syfd / lgoGq0fsf nflu cfw'lgs k|ljlw;Fu} h}ljs k|ljlwsf] ;dfof]hg ug'{ plrt x'G5 . klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷32
  33. 33. g]kfndf klx/f]af6 jif]gL x'b} cfPsf] Iflt sd ug{ o;sf] Joj:yfkgnfO{ { F k|efjsf/L agfpg' h?/L 5 . o;sf nflu k|sf]k tTk/tf, p4f/ / /fxtsf] Joj:yfkg;Fu} k'gM:yfkg / k'glg{df{0fsf sfo{nfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg' k5{ . k|sf]k tTk/tfsf nflu klx/f]sf] hf]lvd ePsf] If]qsf afl;GbfnfO{ klx/f] hfg] ;ªst, klx/f] uPdf ckgfpg] pkfo / 3/df ] tof/L /fVg'kg]{ cfjZos ;fdu|Laf/] hfgsf/L u/fpg' k5{ . o:t}, p4f/, /fxt, k'gM:yfkg / k'glg{df{0fh:tf sfo{df ;DalGwt ;/sf/L lgsfo, u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf / :yfgLo ;d'bfo tyf gful/s ;dfhsf] ;lqmo ;+nUgtf /xg' cfjZos 5 . ;Gbe{;fdu|L Bhubanesh Kumar Pradhan, A consultancy report of Disaster Preparedness for Natural Hazards Current Status in Nepal, Internacional Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) May 2007. Disaster Scenario of Nepal, Government of Nepal, Ministry of Home Affairs, July 2004. a;Gt >]i7, jL/]Gb| ah|frfo{ / ;'lzn k|wfg -cg'jfbs– an/fd /fof_, ef}uf]lns ;"rgf k|0ffnL M Ps kl/ro, cGt/f{li6«o PsLs[t kj{tLo ljsf; s]Gb| (ICIMOD), l7;]Da/ @))% . World Disaster Report, Focus on reducing risk- 2002. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, ;fd'bflos k|sf]k Joj:yfkg -kl/ro k'l:tsf_, ;xeflutfTds k|sf]k Joj:yfkg sfo{qmd, ;+o'Qm /fi6«;ª3Lo ljsf; sfo{qmd, k|yd ;+:s/0f, @)^! . kof{j/0f dfl;s, k|sf]k Joj:yfkg ljz]if, k"0ff{ªs %@, @)^@, / cGo cªsx¿ jftfj/0f tyf afn ;/f]sf/ ;+:yf– g]kfn (ECO-Nepal) . ;ljGb| l;+x, kof{j/0f e"uf]n, k|ofu k':ts ejg, Onfxafb, @))! . http://nationalatlas.gov/articles/geology/a_landslide.html http://unisdr.org ljleGg ldltdf g]kfnaf6 k|sflzt b}lgs tyf dfl;s kqklqsfx¿ . klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷33
  34. 34. klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo ÷34

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