An Introduction to the Curriculum

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Introduction to the Curriculum: Definition of the curriculum, Creating and Designing a Curriculum and Evaluation of a Curriculum

Presented to the Jose Rizal Graduate School for Curriculum Evaluation

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An Introduction to the Curriculum

  1. 1. An Introduction
  2. 2. CURRICULUM • A prescribed course. • Offered in all schools. • Present and designed differently for all student levels.
  3. 3. BASIC CONTENT General Courses Specific Courses Degree or Certification
  4. 4. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY VS. HIGHER EDUCATION Primary and Secondary Education Higher Education
  5. 5. TYPES OF CURRICULUM 1. Traditional Curriculum • Text-book-Workbook approach. • Focuses on grades.
  6. 6. TYPES OF CURRICULUM 2. Thematic Unit Study • Integrated study. • More focused on academics based on the student’s interests.
  7. 7. TYPES OF CURRICULUM 3. Programmed • Self-paced; based on the student’s desired pacing. • Little direction from teachers or tutors.
  8. 8. TYPES OF CURRICULUM 4. Classical • This coincides with the child’s cognitive development. • Involves the TRIVIUM of learning.
  9. 9. TRIVIUM OF LEARNING Grammar Stage Dialectic Stage Rhetoric Stage
  10. 10. TYPES OF CLASSROOM CURRICULUM 1. Written Curriculum • Published part of formal education. • Includes the following: a. Objectives b. Course guides c. Lesson plans and course material d. grading criteria
  11. 11. TYPES OF CLASSROOM CURRICULUM 2. Hidden Curriculumm • Based on norms and values of the educational institute. • Gives prioritize to certain subjects.
  12. 12. TYPES OF CLASSROOM CURRICULUM 3. Null curriculum • Material and subjects not taught in the class.
  13. 13. TYPES OF CLASSROOM CURRICULUM 4. Tested curriculum • Body information on which students will be tested.
  14. 14. TYPES OF CLASSROOM CURRICULUM 5. Electronic curriculum • Internet-based • Focused on critical thinking
  15. 15. CURRICULUM VS. SYLLABUS • Guideline or outline. • Given upon request. • Break down of ideas. • Suggested presentation. • Measure of effectiveness. • Designed by school. curriculum • Descriptive course list. • Given during class. • Overview of class. • Made and designed by teachers. syllabus
  16. 16. CURRICULUM PLANNING •A process where a teacher builds a class curriculum through coordinating with school boards in order to achieve uniform goals.
  17. 17. CURRICULUM PLANNING What is a curriculum plan? • Helps with planning material. [Objective planning] • Maintains uniformity. • Mainly for Primary and Secondary levels.
  18. 18. PROCESS AND MAIN COMPONENTS Planning is either basic or comprehensive. 1. Charts and Reports 2. Subject schedules 3. Topics to be discussed 4. Examinations, paperwork and assessment.
  19. 19. MAIN COMPONENTS FRAMING THE CONTEXT Implementing the lessons Evaluating learning Monitoring progress Planning the lessons
  20. 20. ASSESSMENT OF SUCCESS •How students cope By Observation • Complete discussionSecurity
  21. 21. CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT •Method of which teaching organizations and training institutes guide learning. •Both inside and outside the classroom.
  22. 22. FOUR ELEMENTS OF CURRICULUM DEV’T Identification Planning Evaluation Practical Application
  23. 23. ASPECTS OF CURRICULUM •Programs of an educational institution. •Majors, Concentrations, degree programs •Faculty information. Visible •Welfare of the participants of the curriculum. •Student-centered/focused. Invisible
  24. 24. LEVELS OF CURRICULUM The Visible Aspect • Academic • Extra-curriculum The Invisible Aspect • Sub-curriculum • Intra-curriculum • Meta-curriculum
  25. 25. LEVELS OF CURRICULUM 1. Academic Curriculum • Courses and subjects. 2. Extra-curriculum • Amplifier of the academic curriculum.
  26. 26. LEVELS OF CURRICULUM 1. Sub-curricular • Physical and emotional state of the student. 2. Intra-curriculum • Bias of certain aspects of a person’s being.
  27. 27. LEVELS OF CURRICULUM 1. Sub-curricular • Physical and emotional state of the student. 2. Intra-curriculum • Bias of certain aspects of a person’s being.
  28. 28. LEVELS OF CURRICULUM 3. Meta-curriculum • Funding, research quality, institutional and environmental aspects. • Also includes the spiritual aspect of the curriculum.
  29. 29. CURRICULUM DESIGN Often designed by specialists and professionals of different expertise. However adapted by parents and guardians who homeschool their children.
  30. 30. CURRICULUM DESIGN Challenge and Enjoyment Progression Depth
  31. 31. CURRICULUM DESIGN Personalization Coherence Relevance
  32. 32. CURRICULUM EVALUATION • Determining the worth of an entire curriculum. • Helps the policy-making bodies and administrators in making decisions. • Reference for people involved in the school body.
  33. 33. TYPES OF EVALUATION Diagnostic Evaluation 1. What needs to be improved? 2. Making decisions on how to improve them. Formative Evaluation 1. Planning within the student body/personnel. Summative Evaluation 1. Progress reports. 2. Reporting of findings and conclusions.
  34. 34. METHODS OF EVALUATION 1. External evaluation •People from outside the school system with various expertise.
  35. 35. METHODS OF EVALUATION Why is external evaluation needed? 1. Need for independence 2. Span of control 3. Legal requirements 4. Expertise of the people involved.
  36. 36. METHODS OF EVALUATION 1. Internal evaluation •People from within the student body or institution. •Existing groups within the system.
  37. 37. METHODS OF EVALUATION Why is internal evaluation needed? •For centralization and decentralization.
  38. 38. THE FOCUSES OF CURRICULUM EVALUATION Curriculum development Analysis of outcomes Monetary resources Analysis of teaching quality Curriculum Design
  39. 39. REFERENCES: • Smith, S.E. , Wallace, O. (September 11, 2012). What Is Curriculum Design? Retrieved from: http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-curriculum- design.htm • Ellis-Chistensen, T. , Wallace, O. (October 1, 2012). What is Curriculum? Retrieved from: http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-curriculum.htm • Faria, Allison , Wallace, O. (July 17, 2012). What is Curriculum Planning? Retrieved from: http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-curriculum- planning.htm • Curriculum (n.d.) , In Wikipedia. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curriculum
  40. 40. REFERENCES: • Vientiane, L. Building Capacities of Curriculum Specialists for Educational Reform [PDF Document] Retrieved from IBE UNESCO website • http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/archive/cu rriculum/Asia%20Networkpdf/vienrepor.pdf • Primary School Curriculum. Retrieved. October 12, 2012 • http://www.curriculumonline.ie/en/primary_school_curriculum / • What is Curriculum Development? Retrieved October 11, 2012 • http://www.cglrc.cgiar.org/icraf/toolkit/What_is_curriculum_d evelopment_.htm • Principles for Curriculum Design • http://www.educationscotland.gov.uk/thecurriculum/howisth ecurriculumorganised/principles/index.asp

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