Molecular geometry

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Molecular geometry

  1. 1. No heavy math included Molecular Geometry
  2. 2. Shapes of Molecules <ul><li>Molecular Structure or Molecular Geometry </li></ul><ul><li>is the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms that constitute a molecule. It determines several properties of a substance including its reactivity, polarity, phase of matter, color, magnetism, and biological activity. </li></ul><ul><li>the chemical formula has no direct relationship with the shape of the molecule. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Shapes of Molecules <ul><li>Molecular Structure or Molecular Geometry </li></ul><ul><li>the three-dimensional shapes of molecules can be predicted by their Lewis structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Valence-shell electron pair repulsion ( VSEPR ) model or electron domain ( ED ) model: Used in predicting the shapes. The electron pairs occupies a certain domain. They move as far as possible. Lone pairs occupies more domains contributing largely to the repulsion and shape. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Terms and Definition <ul><li>Bonding Pairs (AX) – electron pairs that are involved in the bonding. </li></ul><ul><li>Lone Pairs (E) – electrons that are not involved in the bonding. They tend to occupy a larger domain. </li></ul><ul><li>Electron Domains – total number of pairs found in the molecule that contribute to its shape. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Linear <ul><li>Bonding Pairs: 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Lone Pairs: 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Electron Domains: 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Bond angle: 180° </li></ul><ul><li>Example: CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Image: </li></ul>
  6. 6. Trigonal Planar <ul><li>Bonding Pairs: 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Lone Pairs: 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Electron Domains: 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Bond angle: 120° </li></ul><ul><li>Example: BF 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Image: </li></ul>
  7. 7. Bent or Angular <ul><li>Bonding Pairs: 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Lone Pairs: 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Electron Domains: 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Bond angle: 120° (119°) </li></ul><ul><li>Example: SO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Image: </li></ul>
  8. 8. Tetrahedral <ul><li>Bonding Pairs: 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Lone Pairs: 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Electron Domains: 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Bond angle: 109.5° </li></ul><ul><li>Example: CH 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Image: </li></ul>
  9. 9. Trigonal Pyramidal <ul><li>Bonding Pairs: 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Lone Pairs: 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Electron Domains: 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Bond angle: 109.5° (107.5°) </li></ul><ul><li>Example: NH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Image: </li></ul>
  10. 10. Bent or Angular (Ver.2) <ul><li>Bonding Pairs: 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Lone Pairs: 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Electron Domains: 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Bond angle: 109.5° (104.5°) </li></ul><ul><li>Example: H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>Image: </li></ul>
  11. 11. Trigonal Bipyramidal <ul><li>Bonding Pairs: 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Lone Pairs: 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Electron Domains: 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Bond angle: 90°, 120° </li></ul><ul><li>Example: PCl 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Image: </li></ul>
  12. 12. Seesaw <ul><li>Bonding Pairs: 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Lone Pairs: 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Electron Domains: 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Bond angle: 180°, 120° (173.1°, 101.6°) </li></ul><ul><li>Example: SF 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Image: </li></ul>
  13. 13. T-shaped <ul><li>Bonding Pairs: 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Lone Pairs: 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Electron Domains: 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Bond angle: 90°, 180° (87.5°, < 180°) </li></ul><ul><li>Example: ClF 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Image: </li></ul>
  14. 14. Linear (Multiple Lone Pairs) <ul><li>Bonding Pairs: 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Lone Pairs: 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Electron Domains: 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Bond angle: 180° </li></ul><ul><li>Example: XeF 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Image: </li></ul>
  15. 15. Octahedral <ul><li>Bonding Pairs: 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Lone Pairs: 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Electron Domains: 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Bond angle: 90° </li></ul><ul><li>Example: SF 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Image: </li></ul>
  16. 16. Square Pyramidal <ul><li>Bonding Pairs: 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Lone Pairs: 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Electron Domains: 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Bond angle: 90° (84.8°) </li></ul><ul><li>Example: BrF 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Image: </li></ul>
  17. 17. Square Planar <ul><li>Bonding Pairs: 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Lone Pairs: 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Electron Domains: 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Bond angle: 90° </li></ul><ul><li>Example: XeF 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Image: </li></ul>
  18. 18. Pentagonal Bipyramidal <ul><li>Bonding Pairs: 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Lone Pairs: 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Electron Domains: 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Bond angle: 90°, 72° </li></ul><ul><li>Example: IF 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Image: </li></ul>

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