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PHYSICAL SCIENCE
POLARITY OF MOLECULE &
MOLECULAR GEOMETRY
OBJECTIVES:
• familiarize with the different shapes of
molecules;
• explain how polarity of bonds and
molecular geometry affects the polarity of
molecules.
You can predict the shape or
molecular geometry of a
substance using the following
steps:
Step 1: Determine the central atom of
a molecule. The central atom is the
least electronegative element.
Step 2: Draw the appropriate Lewis
dot structure for the molecule.
Step 3: Count the number of bonding
pairs of electrons and non-bonding (or
lone pairs) around the central atom.
Step 4: Determine the electron pair
orientation using the total number of
electron pairs.
Step 5: Identify the shape of the molecule
of based on the location of the
atoms.
SHAPES OF MOLECULES
 Molecular Structure or Molecular Geometry
 the three-dimensional shapes of molecules can be
predicted by their Lewis structures .
 Valence-shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) model
or electron domain (ED) model: Used in predicting the
shapes. The electron pairs occupies a certain domain.
They move as far as possible. Lone pairs occupies
more domains contributing largely to the repulsion and
shape.
Terms andDefinition
 Bonding Pairs (AX)- electron pairs that are
involved in the bonding.
 Lone Pairs (E)- electrons that are not involved
in the bonding. They tend to occupy a larger
domain.
 Electron Domains- total number of pairs found
in the molecule that contribute to its shape.
 Bonding Pairs: 2
 Lone Pairs: 0
 Electron Domains: 2
 Bond angle: 180°
 Example: CO₂
LINEAR
LEDS
VSEPR
 Bonding Pairs: 3
 Lone Pairs: 0
 Electron Domains: 3
 Bond angle: 120°
 Example: BF₃
TRIGONAL PLANAR
LEDS
VSEPR
 Bonding Pairs: 2
 Lone Pairs: 1
 Electron Domains: 3
 Bond angle: 120°
 Example: SO₂
BENT/ aNGULAR
LEDS
VSEPR
 Bonding Pairs: 4
 Lone Pairs: 0
 Electron Domains: 4
 Bond angle:
109.5°
 Example: CH₄
TETRAHEDRAL
LEDS
VSEPR
 Bonding Pairs: 3
 Lone Pairs: 1
 Electron Domains: 4
 Bond angle:
109.5°
 Example: NH₃
TRIGONAL PYRAMIDAL
LEDS
VSEPR
 Bonding Pairs: 2
 Lone Pairs: 2
 Electron Domains: 4
 Bond angle:
109.5°
 Example: H₂O
BENT/ANGULAR (ver. 2)
LEDS
VSEPR
 Bonding Pairs: 5
 Lone Pairs: 0
 Electron Domains: 5
 Bond angle: 90°,
120°
 Example: PCl₅
TRIGONAL BIPYRAMIDAL
LEDS
VSEPR
 Bonding Pairs: 4
 Lone Pairs: 1
 Electron Domains: 5
 Bond angle: 180°,
120°
 Example: SF₄
SEESAW
LEDS
VSEPR
 Bonding Pairs: 3
 Lone Pairs: 2
 Electron Domains: 5
 Bond angle: 90°, 180°
 Example: ClF₃
T-SHAPED
LEDS
VSEPR
 Bonding Pairs: 6
 Lone Pairs: 0
 Electron Domains: 6
 Bond angle: 90°
 Example: SF₆
OCTAHEDRAL
LEDS
VSEPR
Example 1: Predict the molecular geometry of
BCl3
Step 1: ENB = 2.0 ENCl= 3.0 therefore, B will be the
central atom and three Cl atoms are attached to it.
By looking at the chemical formula, you will also
have an idea that boron will be the central atom and
three atoms of choline are attached to it.
Step 2:
Step 3: The central atom has three electron
pairs: 3 bonded pairs and no lone pair
Step 4: The electron pair orientation for three
electrons is trigonal planar.
Step 5: The molecular shape of BCl3 is
trigonal planar.
ACTIVITY 4
Create an acrostic story with the
acronym of POLARITY that tells how
Physical Science subject shapes you as
who you are now.
Performance task
ASSESSMEN
T:
Multiple
Choice
1. From the given Lewis structure of
NH3, how many nonbonding pair/s
of electron are around the central
atom?
a. 0
b. 1
c. 2
d. 3
2. What is the molecular shape
of CHBr3?
a. Linear
b. Trigonal planar
c. Trigonal bipyramidal
d. Tetrahedral
3. These are the pair of electrons
that are not bonded.
a. Bond pair
b. Electron pair
c. Lone Pair
d. Dipole Pair
4. Which of the following pairs of
atoms are bound by a nonpolar
covalent bond?
a. Na-Cl
b. Ca-O
c. P-N
d. C-S
5. Which of the following statements is INCORRECT?
a. Polar covalent bonds can be present in a
nonpolar molecule.
b. Polar covalent bond is present if the
electronegativity difference
between atoms is equal or less than 0.4.
c. Polarity of bond and molecular geometry are
the two factors that affect the polarity of molecules.
d. Polar bond forms when electrons are
unequally shared by two atoms
in a compound.
Physical Science Molecular Geometry.pptx

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Physical Science Molecular Geometry.pptx

  • 1. PHYSICAL SCIENCE POLARITY OF MOLECULE & MOLECULAR GEOMETRY
  • 2. OBJECTIVES: • familiarize with the different shapes of molecules; • explain how polarity of bonds and molecular geometry affects the polarity of molecules.
  • 3. You can predict the shape or molecular geometry of a substance using the following steps: Step 1: Determine the central atom of a molecule. The central atom is the least electronegative element. Step 2: Draw the appropriate Lewis dot structure for the molecule.
  • 4. Step 3: Count the number of bonding pairs of electrons and non-bonding (or lone pairs) around the central atom. Step 4: Determine the electron pair orientation using the total number of electron pairs. Step 5: Identify the shape of the molecule of based on the location of the atoms.
  • 5. SHAPES OF MOLECULES  Molecular Structure or Molecular Geometry  the three-dimensional shapes of molecules can be predicted by their Lewis structures .  Valence-shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) model or electron domain (ED) model: Used in predicting the shapes. The electron pairs occupies a certain domain. They move as far as possible. Lone pairs occupies more domains contributing largely to the repulsion and shape.
  • 6. Terms andDefinition  Bonding Pairs (AX)- electron pairs that are involved in the bonding.  Lone Pairs (E)- electrons that are not involved in the bonding. They tend to occupy a larger domain.  Electron Domains- total number of pairs found in the molecule that contribute to its shape.
  • 7.  Bonding Pairs: 2  Lone Pairs: 0  Electron Domains: 2  Bond angle: 180°  Example: CO₂ LINEAR LEDS VSEPR
  • 8.  Bonding Pairs: 3  Lone Pairs: 0  Electron Domains: 3  Bond angle: 120°  Example: BF₃ TRIGONAL PLANAR LEDS VSEPR
  • 9.  Bonding Pairs: 2  Lone Pairs: 1  Electron Domains: 3  Bond angle: 120°  Example: SO₂ BENT/ aNGULAR LEDS VSEPR
  • 10.  Bonding Pairs: 4  Lone Pairs: 0  Electron Domains: 4  Bond angle: 109.5°  Example: CH₄ TETRAHEDRAL LEDS VSEPR
  • 11.  Bonding Pairs: 3  Lone Pairs: 1  Electron Domains: 4  Bond angle: 109.5°  Example: NH₃ TRIGONAL PYRAMIDAL LEDS VSEPR
  • 12.  Bonding Pairs: 2  Lone Pairs: 2  Electron Domains: 4  Bond angle: 109.5°  Example: H₂O BENT/ANGULAR (ver. 2) LEDS VSEPR
  • 13.  Bonding Pairs: 5  Lone Pairs: 0  Electron Domains: 5  Bond angle: 90°, 120°  Example: PCl₅ TRIGONAL BIPYRAMIDAL LEDS VSEPR
  • 14.  Bonding Pairs: 4  Lone Pairs: 1  Electron Domains: 5  Bond angle: 180°, 120°  Example: SF₄ SEESAW LEDS VSEPR
  • 15.  Bonding Pairs: 3  Lone Pairs: 2  Electron Domains: 5  Bond angle: 90°, 180°  Example: ClF₃ T-SHAPED LEDS VSEPR
  • 16.  Bonding Pairs: 6  Lone Pairs: 0  Electron Domains: 6  Bond angle: 90°  Example: SF₆ OCTAHEDRAL LEDS VSEPR
  • 17.
  • 18. Example 1: Predict the molecular geometry of BCl3 Step 1: ENB = 2.0 ENCl= 3.0 therefore, B will be the central atom and three Cl atoms are attached to it. By looking at the chemical formula, you will also have an idea that boron will be the central atom and three atoms of choline are attached to it. Step 2:
  • 19. Step 3: The central atom has three electron pairs: 3 bonded pairs and no lone pair Step 4: The electron pair orientation for three electrons is trigonal planar. Step 5: The molecular shape of BCl3 is trigonal planar.
  • 20.
  • 22. Create an acrostic story with the acronym of POLARITY that tells how Physical Science subject shapes you as who you are now. Performance task
  • 24. 1. From the given Lewis structure of NH3, how many nonbonding pair/s of electron are around the central atom? a. 0 b. 1 c. 2 d. 3
  • 25. 2. What is the molecular shape of CHBr3? a. Linear b. Trigonal planar c. Trigonal bipyramidal d. Tetrahedral
  • 26. 3. These are the pair of electrons that are not bonded. a. Bond pair b. Electron pair c. Lone Pair d. Dipole Pair
  • 27. 4. Which of the following pairs of atoms are bound by a nonpolar covalent bond? a. Na-Cl b. Ca-O c. P-N d. C-S
  • 28. 5. Which of the following statements is INCORRECT? a. Polar covalent bonds can be present in a nonpolar molecule. b. Polar covalent bond is present if the electronegativity difference between atoms is equal or less than 0.4. c. Polarity of bond and molecular geometry are the two factors that affect the polarity of molecules. d. Polar bond forms when electrons are unequally shared by two atoms in a compound.