3.2 carbs, lipids & proteins

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3.2 carbs, lipids & proteins

  1. 1. 3.2 Carbohydrates, Lipids & Proteins Topic 3 The Chemistry of Life
  2. 2. Carbs, Lipids & Proteins 3.2.1 Distinguish between organic and inorganic compounds. Compounds containing carbon that are found in living organisms (except hydrogencarbonates, carbonates and oxides of carbon) are regarded as organic. 3.2.2 Identify amino acids, glucose, ribose and fatty acids from diagrams showing their structure. Specific names of amino acids and fatty acids are not expected.
  3. 3. Carbs, Lipids & Proteins 3.2.3 List three examples each of monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. The examples used should be: glucose, galactose and fructose maltose, lactose and sucrose starch, glycogen and cellulose. 3.2.4 State one function of glucose, lactose and glycogen in animals, and of fructose, sucrose and cellulose in plants.
  4. 4. Carbs, Lipids & Proteins 3.2.5 Outline the role of condensation and hydrolysis in the relationships between monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides; between fatty acids, glycerol and triglycerides; and between amino acids and polypeptides. (This can be dealt with using equations with words or chemical formulas). 3.2.6 State three functions of lipids. (Include energy storage and thermal insulation). 3.2.7 Compare the use of carbohydrates and lipids in energy storage.
  5. 5. Organic and Inorganic Recall that Organic compounds are substances that contain carbon and are found in living systems. There are a few exceptions: – Carbon dioxide, carbonates All other substances are considered Inorganic Compounds. Organic compounds often have covalent bonds Inorganic compounds can have either covalent or ionic bonding – Covalent - Bonds where electrons are shared between the atoms • Formed between two non-metals – Ionic - bonds where electrons are transferred between atoms • Formed between a metal and a non metal
  6. 6. Amino Acids There are 20 amino acids. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. All amino acids have: – An amine group. –NH2 – A carboxyl group. -COOH – A central carbon atom and hydrogen atom. – An R group – side chain. The generalised structure of an amino acid is: Amine group Carboxyl group
  7. 7. Carbohydrates These are Organic Compounds Containing: – Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen (CH20’s) Carbohydrates can be divided into 3 main groups: – Monosaccharides • Single, simple sugars eg: glucose, fructose, ribose • Soluble in water. – Disaccharides • Pairs of monosaccharides – Sucrose – Glucose + Fructose – maltose – Glucose + Glucose • Soluble in water. – Polysaccharides • Large chains of monosaccharides eg: starch, glycogen, cellulose • Insoluble in water.
  8. 8. Carbohydrates Two common monosaccharides are: – Glucose. • a six carbon hexose ring. – Ribose. • a five carbon pentose ring.
  9. 9. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates have different functions in living things: Glucose – energy source for cell respiration Lactose – sugar/source of energy in milk Glycogen – stores glucose in liver & muscles Fructose – sweetens most succulent fruits Sucrose – transport sugar in plants (phloem) Cellulose - primary component of plant cell wall
  10. 10. Lipids Lipids release about twice as much energy per gram as carbohydrates. Lipids have many different functions in living things: – Energy storage: • Layers of fat in animals. • Oil in plants. – Heat insulation: • Layer of fat under skin reduced heat loss. – Buoyancy: • Lipids are less dense than water and so help animals float. – Waterproofing: • Waxy cuticle on leaves reduce water loss – Cell membranes.
  11. 11. Lipids Lipids can be classified into different groups: – Fats • Usually solid at room temperature. • Contain saturated fatty acids. • Usually made in animals. – Oils • Usually liquids at room temperature. • Contain unsaturated fatty acids. • Usually made in plants. – Waxes – Steriods • Different structure to other lipids • Examples include some hormones.
  12. 12. Lipids A common group of lipids are neutral fats: They consist of a glycerol molecule and fatty acids. – glycerol + 1 fatty acid  monoglyceride – glycerol + 2 fatty acids  diglyceride – glycerol + 3 fatty acids  triglyceride
  13. 13. Condensation Reactions In condensation reactions two units are joined together to create larger molecules and water. – Carbohydrates • glucose + glucose  maltose + water – Amino Acids • amino acid + amino acid  dipeptide + water – Lipids • glycerol + fatty acid  monglyceride + water
  14. 14. Hydrolysis Reactions In Hydrolysis reactions, two units are separated using water. – Remember hydro means water and lysis means to split. – Carbohydrates • polysaccharides + water  disaccharides or monosaccharides – Amino Acids • polypeptide + water  dipeptides or amino acids – Lipids • Glycerides + water  glycerol + fatty acid
  15. 15. Mono, Di and Polysaccharides Glycosidic Link
  16. 16. Mono, Di and Polysaccharides
  17. 17. Fatty Acids, Glycerol and Glycerides
  18. 18. Fatty Acids, Glycerol and Glycerides
  19. 19. Amino Acids, Dipeptides and Polypeptides
  20. 20. Amino Acids, Dipeptides and Polypeptides
  21. 21. IBO guide: 3.2.1 Distinguish between organic and inorganic compounds. Compounds containing carbon that are found in living organisms (except hydrogencarbonates, carbonates and oxides of carbon) are regarded as organic. 3.2.2 Identify amino acids, glucose, ribose and fatty acids from diagrams showing their structure. Specific names of amino acids and fatty acids are not expected.
  22. 22. IBO guide: 3.2.3 List three examples each of monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. The examples used should be: glucose, galactose and fructose maltose, lactose and sucrose starch, glycogen and cellulose. 3.2.4 State one function of glucose, lactose and glycogen in animals, and of fructose, sucrose and cellulose in plants.
  23. 23. IBO guide: 3.2.5 Outline the role of condensation and hydrolysis in the relationships between monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides; between fatty acids, glycerol and triglycerides; and between amino acids and polypeptides. (This can be dealt with using equations with words or chemical formulas). 3.2.6 State three functions of lipids. (Include energy storage and thermal insulation). 3.2.7 Compare the use of carbohydrates and lipids in energy storage.

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