Carbohydrates and lipids                           Jorge Melo
   High specific heat capacity.                                   High latent heat.
Hydrolysis   Condensation
   List the features of carbohydrates.   Using diagrams to explain the structure of a    simple carbohydrate.   Explain...
   Carbohydrates   Disaccharides   Polysaccharides   Lipids   Triglycerides   Phospholipids   Cholesterol
   Most important source of energy   Store energy   Make structure   Elimination of waste materials and    toxins   S...
   Carbon    Hydrate   Carbon and water   3 atoms   C   O   H
   Three types of    carbohydrates       Monosaccharides        (simple sugars)       Disaccharides        (double suga...
   Carbohydrates are made up of sugar    molecules, the general formula for sugar is    CnH2nOn.   A carbohydrate that i...
   The name of monosaccharides varies with the         number of C atoms3C      Trioses5C      Pentoses6C      Hexoses
   Main energy source    for most living    organisms   Photosynthesis    product   Structural isomers   α 1-4 linkage...
   Fructose        Very sweet sugar   Galactose        Found on milk                            Galactose
   Made by joining two    monosaccharides.   Two α glucose molecules form    maltose.   condensation reaction.   glyco...
   Sucrose: the sugar you put in your tea   lactose: milk sugar
   Using the diagram on the previous slide work    out the formula for maltose.   C12H22O11
   What name is given to the carbohydrate in which n    is     6     5     3   State 2 different functions of the car...
   Maltose is broken down    by the enzyme maltase.   This is a hydrolysis    reaction.
   Linking together thousands of α glucose molecules    produces amylose found in starch.   Amylose molecules coil to fo...
   Animals do not store amylose, instead they use    glycogen which is similar but contains 1-6    glycosidic bonds formi...
   Cellulose is similar to amylose but it is made of    β-glucose, the β 1-4 bonds do not cause it to coil    instead it ...
   Fats and oils       Room temp. fats are solids, oils are        liquid   Made of:     C     O     H   Higher pro...
   Simplest example of    a lipid   3 fatty acids attached    to a glycerol    molecule
   The carboxyl group at the end    of the fatty acid reacts with the    hydroxyl group on the glycerol.   Forming an es...
   Insoluble in H2O – no    charge   Hydrophobic   Saturated (where each of    the carbons in the fatty    acid are att...
   Like a triglyceride but one    of the fatty acid chain    replaced by a phosphate    group   Different properties   ...
   Basic form    of the cell    membrane
   Cholesterol is very    different from other    lipids, some don’t class    it as a lipid at all.   This basic structu...
   List the features of carbohydrates.   Using diagrams explain the structure of a    simple carbohydrate.   Explain ho...
Biological molecules (Carbohydrates and Lipids) water and Proteins Recap-AS Biology [JM]
Biological molecules (Carbohydrates and Lipids) water and Proteins Recap-AS Biology [JM]
Biological molecules (Carbohydrates and Lipids) water and Proteins Recap-AS Biology [JM]
Biological molecules (Carbohydrates and Lipids) water and Proteins Recap-AS Biology [JM]
Biological molecules (Carbohydrates and Lipids) water and Proteins Recap-AS Biology [JM]
Biological molecules (Carbohydrates and Lipids) water and Proteins Recap-AS Biology [JM]
Biological molecules (Carbohydrates and Lipids) water and Proteins Recap-AS Biology [JM]
Biological molecules (Carbohydrates and Lipids) water and Proteins Recap-AS Biology [JM]
Biological molecules (Carbohydrates and Lipids) water and Proteins Recap-AS Biology [JM]
Biological molecules (Carbohydrates and Lipids) water and Proteins Recap-AS Biology [JM]
Biological molecules (Carbohydrates and Lipids) water and Proteins Recap-AS Biology [JM]
Biological molecules (Carbohydrates and Lipids) water and Proteins Recap-AS Biology [JM]
Biological molecules (Carbohydrates and Lipids) water and Proteins Recap-AS Biology [JM]
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Biological molecules (Carbohydrates and Lipids) water and Proteins Recap-AS Biology [JM]

  1. 1. Carbohydrates and lipids Jorge Melo
  2. 2.  High specific heat capacity. High latent heat.
  3. 3. Hydrolysis Condensation
  4. 4.  List the features of carbohydrates. Using diagrams to explain the structure of a simple carbohydrate. Explain how complex carbohydrates are formed from simple carbohydrates. List the differences between triglycerides and phospholipids. Describe the structure of lipids. Explain how the structure of lipids affects their properties.
  5. 5.  Carbohydrates Disaccharides Polysaccharides Lipids Triglycerides Phospholipids Cholesterol
  6. 6.  Most important source of energy Store energy Make structure Elimination of waste materials and toxins Sources: dairy products, fruits and sugar (simple) starches are found in grains or cereals such as rice, barley, oat, buckwheat, millet and rye, and in some root vegetables including parsnips and potatoes (more complex).
  7. 7.  Carbon Hydrate Carbon and water 3 atoms C O H
  8. 8.  Three types of carbohydrates  Monosaccharides (simple sugars)  Disaccharides (double sugars (form from two monosaccharides)  Polysaccharides (polymer chain – hundreds of monosaccharides)
  9. 9.  Carbohydrates are made up of sugar molecules, the general formula for sugar is CnH2nOn. A carbohydrate that is a single sugar molecule is a monosaccharide. Examples include glucose, fructose, and galactose. As sugars monosaccharides are all sweet. Glucose is an example of a Hexose, and has two forms alpha and beta.
  10. 10.  The name of monosaccharides varies with the number of C atoms3C  Trioses5C  Pentoses6C  Hexoses
  11. 11.  Main energy source for most living organisms Photosynthesis product Structural isomers α 1-4 linkages: starch (amylose and amylopectin) easy to break down by enzymes β 1-4 linkages: linear microfibrils of cellulose difficult to break down
  12. 12.  Fructose  Very sweet sugar Galactose  Found on milk Galactose
  13. 13.  Made by joining two monosaccharides. Two α glucose molecules form maltose. condensation reaction. glycosidic bond (covalent) Because the link is between carbon 1 and 4, it’s an α 1-4 glycosidic bond. Disaccharides are also sweet.
  14. 14.  Sucrose: the sugar you put in your tea lactose: milk sugar
  15. 15.  Using the diagram on the previous slide work out the formula for maltose. C12H22O11
  16. 16.  What name is given to the carbohydrate in which n is  6  5  3 State 2 different functions of the carbohydrates Simple carbohydrates are combined to form disaccharides, what else is produced?
  17. 17.  Maltose is broken down by the enzyme maltase. This is a hydrolysis reaction.
  18. 18.  Linking together thousands of α glucose molecules produces amylose found in starch. Amylose molecules coil to form long spirals held in place by hydrogen bonds, making it compact. Starch is insoluble and metabolically inactive making it perfect for storing in plant cells. It is not sweet.
  19. 19.  Animals do not store amylose, instead they use glycogen which is similar but contains 1-6 glycosidic bonds forming side branches. Glycogen is broken down by the enzyme glycogen phosphorylase which is activated by insulin.
  20. 20.  Cellulose is similar to amylose but it is made of β-glucose, the β 1-4 bonds do not cause it to coil instead it is straight. As a result the molecules do not form hydrogen bonds within the same strand but with their neighbours forming bundles called fibrils which in turn for larger bundles called fibres all held by hydrogen bonds. This makes cellulose extremely strong, and there are very few animals with enzymes to break β 1- 4 bonds.
  21. 21.  Fats and oils  Room temp. fats are solids, oils are liquid Made of:  C  O  H Higher proportion of H Insoluble in H2O
  22. 22.  Simplest example of a lipid 3 fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule
  23. 23.  The carboxyl group at the end of the fatty acid reacts with the hydroxyl group on the glycerol. Forming an ester bond, (involves covalent bonds). This is a condensation reaction Ester bond
  24. 24.  Insoluble in H2O – no charge Hydrophobic Saturated (where each of the carbons in the fatty acid are attached to two hydrogen atoms.) Unsaturated (double bonds)
  25. 25.  Like a triglyceride but one of the fatty acid chain replaced by a phosphate group Different properties Head hydrophobic Tail hydrophilic Blue: Fatty acid Pink: Glycerol Yellow phosphate group
  26. 26.  Basic form of the cell membrane
  27. 27.  Cholesterol is very different from other lipids, some don’t class it as a lipid at all. This basic structure is shared with all steroids that are made from it, many of which are hormones.
  28. 28.  List the features of carbohydrates. Using diagrams explain the structure of a simple carbohydrate. Explain how complex carbohydrates are formed from simple carbohydrates. List the differences between triglycerides and phospholipids. Describe the structure of lipids. Explain how the structure of lipids affects their properties.

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