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  1. 1. Biochemistry
  2. 2. Organic Vs Inorganic <ul><li>Organic Compound: a compound that contains Carbon and Hydrogen. </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic Compound: a compound that does not contain both carbon and hydrogen. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic or inorganic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HCl </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NaCl </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Categories of Organic Compounds <ul><li>1) Carbohydrates (Sugars) </li></ul><ul><li>2) Proteins </li></ul><ul><li>3) Lipids (Fats) </li></ul><ul><li>4) Nucleic Acids </li></ul>
  4. 4. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Primary source of energy </li></ul><ul><li>Includes sugars and starches. </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of carbon, </li></ul><ul><li>hydrogen, </li></ul><ul><li>and oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>In a ratio of 1:2:1. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Carbohydrates <ul><li>The simplest Carbs are called Monosaccharides or simple sugars. Examples include Glucose, Fructose, and Galactose. </li></ul><ul><li>Complex carbohydrates are called either Disaccharides, or polysaccharides. </li></ul><ul><li>A disaccharide is two monosaccharides combined, and a polysaccharide is many combined. Starch is a polysaccharide and is used for food storage. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Carbohydrates <ul><li>The chemical reaction that joins saccharides is called dehydration synthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Dehydration synthesis is the formation of a bond and the removal of water </li></ul>
  7. 7. Dehydration Synthesis
  8. 8. Proteins <ul><li>Made up of Amino Acids. They contain the elements Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen. </li></ul><ul><li>Amino Acids contain the -NH2 group which is called the amino group, and the COOH group or the Carboxyl group. </li></ul><ul><li>Amino Acids are defined by the side group or R- group. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Proteins <ul><li>When two more amino acids are put together they become a polypeptide. </li></ul><ul><li>The bond that holds amino acids together between the carboxyl group of one Amino Acid and the amino group of another is called a peptide bond. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Proteins <ul><li>The order in which amino acids are placed in the chain determines the structure of the protein. </li></ul><ul><li>The structure of the protein determines the function of the protein. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Enzymes <ul><li>Enzymes are proteins that catalyze ( i.e. speed up) chemical reactions. Enzymes are catalysts. </li></ul><ul><li>In enzymatic reactions (enzyme controlled reactions), the molecules at the beginning of the process are called substrates, and the enzyme converts them into different molecules, the products. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Enzymes <ul><li>Almost all processes in a cell need enzymes in order to occur at significant rates. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are extremely specific for their substrates and speed up only a few reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Each enzyme will work on a very few different molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>Lock and Key model </li></ul>
  13. 14. Enzymes
  14. 15. Enzymes <ul><li>Like all catalysts, enzymes work by lowering the activation energy for a reaction, thus dramatically accelerating the rate of the reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Most importantly; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes are not used up by the reaction. After they have done their work they release the products and are not changed. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Lipids <ul><li>Lipids are a large class of hydrophobic (water hating) compounds that include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatty acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oils </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lipids have many functions in living organisms including nutrients, energy storage, and structural components of cell membranes. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Lipids <ul><li>We will be mostly concerned with the lipids in the class of triglycerides (fats). </li></ul><ul><li>All triglycerides have a glycerol backbone. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Lipids <ul><li>A fatty acid is a chain of carbon and hydrogen, usually 12-24 carbons (only even numbers), with a carboxyl group at one end. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Triglyceride <ul><li>A triglyceride is created when the process of dehydration synthesis chemically binds three fatty acids to a molecule of glycerol. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Nucleic acids <ul><li>DNA </li></ul><ul><li>RNA </li></ul><ul><li>The building blocks of nucleic acids are called NUCLEOTIDES </li></ul>
  20. 21. Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Nucleotides : monomers of nucleic acids. </li></ul><ul><li>All nucleic acids consist of many nucleotides bonded together. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Nucleotide <ul><li>1. Sugar: 5-carbon ribose or deoxyribose </li></ul><ul><li>2. Phosphate group </li></ul><ul><li>3. Nitrogen base </li></ul>
  22. 23. DNA Nucleotides <ul><li>a) Sugar = deoxyribose </li></ul><ul><li>b) Double helix form: two intertwined chains (double stranded) </li></ul><ul><li>Specific base pairing, complementary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guanine (G) - Cytosine (C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adenine(A) - Thymine (T) </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. RNA Nucleotides <ul><li>a) Sugar = ribose </li></ul><ul><li>b) Uracil (U) replaces thymine (T) in RNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uracil (U) - Adenine (A) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guanine (G) - Cytosine (C) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>c) Single stranded helix </li></ul>