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Monosaccharides

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Monosaccharides

  1. 1. Biochemistry for Medics www.namrata.co
  2. 2. The term carbohydrate is derived from the French term : hydrate de carbone  Compounds composed of C, H, and O  Empirical formula (CH2O)n when n = 5 then C5H10O5 Not all carbohydrates have this empirical formula: e.g. deoxysugars, amino sugars etc Carbohydrates are the most abundant compounds found in nature (cellulose: 100 billion tons annually)
  3. 3. -They have large number of hydroxyl groups (polyhydroxy) -In addition they may contain-an aldehyde group (polyhydroxyaldehydes) or a keto group-(polyhydroxyketones). -Their derivatives may also contain nitrogen, phosphorus or sulfur.  H C O H COH   R HYDROXYL GROUP ALDEHYDE GROUP KETO GROUP
  4. 4. Functions of Carbohydrates
  5. 5. Classification of carbohydrates
  6. 6. Monosaccharides
  7. 7. MONOSACCHARIDES NOMENCLATURE D-Glyceraldehyde Dihydroxyacetone.
  8. 8. Monosaccharides Classification Name Relevant examples 3 Triose Glyceraldehyde, Dihydroxyacetone 4 Tetrose Erythrose ,Erythrulose 5 Pentose Ribose, Ribulose, Xylulose 6 Hexose Glucose, Galactose, Mannose, Fructose Neuraminic acid 9 Nonose also called Sialic acid
  9. 9. Aldose sugars n - denotes the number of asymmetric carbon atoms
  10. 10. Ketose sugars n - denotes the number of asymmetric carbon atoms
  11. 11. Asymmetric carbon atom Dihydroxyacetone.
  12. 12. Isomerism in Monosaccharides
  13. 13. D and L Isomers Of Glyceraldehyde
  14. 14. Isomers of Monosaccharides(D and L)
  15. 15. D and L Isomers of Fructose
  16. 16. Isomerism in Monosaccharides
  17. 17. POLARIMETRY
  18. 18. Specific rotation of various carbohydrates at 20oC
  19. 19. Isomers differing as a result of variations in configuration of the —OH and —H on carbon atoms 2, 3, and 4 of glucose are known as ep Isomers of Monosaccharides
  20. 20. Epimers of Glucose
  21. 21. Isomers of Monosaccharides(Aldoses)
  22. 22. Isomers of Monosaccharides (Ketoses)
  23. 23. Isomers of monosaccharides
  24. 24. Isomers of monosaccharides
  25. 25. Anomers Haworth Projection of -D-Glucose
  26. 26. Anomers
  27. 27. Anomers
  28. 28. Mutarotation
  29. 29. Isomers of Monosaccharides
  30. 30. Structural representation of sugars
  31. 31. Rules for drawing Haworth projections
  32. 32. Rules for drawing Haworth projections
  33. 33. Rules for drawing Haworth projections
  34. 34. Rules for drawing Haworth projections
  35. 35. Pyranose and Furanose forms of Glucose
  36. 36. Pyranose and Furanose forms of Ribose
  37. 37. Chair and Boat Conformations Chair and boat conformations of a pyranose sugar 2 possible chair conformations of -D-glucose
  38. 38. Reactions of monosaccharides
  39. 39. Formation of osazones
  40. 40. Formation of osazones
  41. 41. Oxidation reactions
  42. 42. Oxidation Products Of D-Glucose
  43. 43. Reduction
  44. 44. Sructures of some sugar alcohols
  45. 45. Action of strong acids on monosaccharides
  46. 46. Action of Alkalies on sugars
  47. 47. Action of Alkalies on sugars
  48. 48. Important derivatives of monosaccharides
  49. 49. Amino Sugars
  50. 50. Amino Sugar acids
  51. 51. 2-Deoxy sugars
  52. 52. Deoxy Sugars
  53. 53. 3-Sugar acids
  54. 54. 4-Sugar alcohols
  55. 55. 5-Sugar Esters
  56. 56. 6-Glycosides
  57. 57. Condensation reactions: Acetal and Ketal formation
  58. 58. Significance of Glycosides
  59. 59. Summary

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