Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Antibiotics: classification and spectrum of action

88,407 views

Published on

Antibiotics presentation

Published in: Education
  • It's been ten months without a yeast infection. More than that, for the past couple of months I only had one migraine attack, comparing to six a week as I used to. I also very often suffered from runny nose and acne on my forehead. Since I started your program, it's been like a miracle. My acne disappeared in less than 2 weeks, I lost 10 pounds, and the flu like symptoms I often use to suffer from are also a thing of the past. I feel so young and empowered and I would have never believed there was a natural solution for my problems, if I was told a year ago. I wish everybody knew about this method. There are so many hopeless women and men out there with candida yeast infections. I know I will never have to go through that again. ■■■ https://tinyurl.com/y3flbeje
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD FULL BOOKS, INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD FULL. BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • The Yeast Infection No More book has literally saved my life. After years of getting no help from the established "medical profession" and getting sicker and afflicted by pain mood swings and depression, I bought your book and in less than5 weeks my chronic muscle aches and joint pain, caused by my candida yeast infection, have disappeared, and I literally tossed away my cane that I have been using for years. I couldn't believe it, it was nothing short of a miracle. I still can't believe it. Now, months later, the depression has also vanished. I no longer cry with no reason and I feel happier and energized. I am sure the protocols in your book have saved untold thousands of people like me from suffering and pain and "given us our lives back." I will never understand why don�t doctors tell us or investigate more on the subject of candidiasis. Two of my friends, one of them a naturopath had recommended that I try your program. And just like that, I was cured and liberated from years of misery. I have recommended your book to numerous people and all have received a great deal of relief. If only I had been told about it sooner, it would have saved me years of pain and exhaustion. I really tried everything. After 2 months on your program, people say that I look10 years younger, and they are right! Thank you very much for everything you have done for me!  https://tinyurl.com/y4uu6uch
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • thanks
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Antibiotics: classification and spectrum of action

  1. 1. ANTIBIOTICS 6th year - 2015 - D2 Basel Abu Fares Bashar Mudallal
  2. 2. Empiric Antimicrobial Therapy • Choose antibiotic(s) to cover for most likely and lethal organisms for the type of infection • Prior to obtaining laboratory results (usually reserved for serious infections) • Adjust antibiotic(s) based on C&S  if causative organism identified, use antibiotic to which organism is sensitive  if causative organism not identified, re-evaluate need for ongoing antimicrobial therapy (and continue with empiric antibiotic(s) if indicated)
  3. 3. Classification • Cell Wall Inhibitors • Glycopeptides • Protein Synthesis Inhibitors • Topoisomarase Inhibitors • Anti-metabolites • Anti-mycobacterials • Sulfones
  4. 4. Cell Wall Inhibitors •Include : -penicillins -cephalosporins -carbapenems -glycopeptides
  5. 5. Penicillins
  6. 6. Cephalosporins (IV/PO) • 1st generation: cephalexin/cefazolin (mostly GP, some GN) • 2nd generation: cefuroxime/cefuroxime (some GP and some GN, *anaerobes) • 3rd generation: cefixime/cefotaxime, ceftriaxone (good Streptococcalcoverage, mostly GN) and ceftazidime (no GP, mostly GN, Pseudomonas) • 4th generation: --/cefepime (most GP, most GN, Pseudomonas)
  7. 7. Carbapenems (broad coverage: GP, GN and anaerobes) •imipenem (+ Pseudomonas) •meropenem (+ Pseudomonas) •ertapenem
  8. 8. Glycopeptides (all GP and C. difficile– the oral form) • vancomycin
  9. 9. Protein Synthesis Inhibitors • 50S ribosome inhibitors -Macrolides -Lincosamides • 30S ribosome inhibitors -Aminoglycosides -Tetracyclines
  10. 10. Macrolides [GP, Hemophilus, and atypical bacteria (Legionella, Chlamydophila, Mycoplasma)] • erythromycin • clarithromycin • azithromycin
  11. 11. Lincosamides •clindamycin (most GP, GN anaerobes) •chloramphenicol (broad-spectrum) •linezolid (for resistant GP infections)
  12. 12. Aminoglycosides (GN aerobic bacilli) •gentamicin •tobramycin •amikacin
  13. 13. Tetracyclines (GP, syphilis, Chlamydophila, Rickettsia, Mycoplasma) •doxycycline/tetracycline
  14. 14. Topoisomarase Inhibitors •Flouroquinolones •Rifampin •Metronidazole
  15. 15. Fluoroquinolones (GN – although resistance becoming a huge problem) • ciprofloxacin (+ Pseudomonas) • norfloxacin (for UTI only) • respiratory fluoroquinolones (some GP, GN, "atypicals", Legionella, Mycoplasma, Chlamydophila) • levofloxacin • moxifloxacin (+ anaerobes)
  16. 16. Rifampin (GP mostly, H. Inf., N. meningitidis and mycobacteria)
  17. 17. Metronidazole (anaerobes incl. C. difficile; Trichomonas, Entamoeba)
  18. 18. Anti-metabolites •Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole •Nitrofurantoin
  19. 19. TMP/SMX (GN bacilli, S. saprophyticus, Enterococcus)
  20. 20. Nitrofurantoin •(GN bacilli, S. saprophyticus, Enterococcus)
  21. 21. Anti-mycobacterials
  22. 22. Sulfones
  23. 23. Antibiotics for Selected Bacteria
  24. 24. Others • treatment for C. Difficile: metronidazole OR oral vancomycin; consider both in serious infection
  25. 25. Resources • Toronto Notes 2014
  26. 26. THANK YOU The End

×