Biodiesel 101 and Troubleshooting Filter Plugging Issues Presented by Hoon Ge Sponsored by the Minnesota Soybean Growers A...
Topics <ul><li>History of Diesel </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel 101 </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel Standards </li></ul><ul><li>M...
History of Diesel <ul><li>Vegetable Oil for Fuel </li></ul><ul><li>High Sulfur Diesel </li></ul><ul><li>Low Sulfur Diesel ...
Machinery Exhibit – 1900 World’s Fair <ul><li>Rudolph Diesel  demonstrated his compression ignition engine, which at the r...
History of Diesel   <ul><li>Diesel Engines ran on Vegetable oils until the 1920's  </li></ul><ul><li>1920’s petroleum dies...
Diesel From Crude
Crude Oil - Petroleum A complex assortment of materials consisting of mixtures of hydrocarbons and other compounds contain...
Demand For Crude 1 barrel (bbl) = 42 gallons (U.S.)   <ul><li>Globally about 85,000,000 bbl/day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over...
Five Basic Refinery Processes <ul><li>Separation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atmospheric and vacuum distillation </li></ul><...
Diesel HDS Unit The HDS Unit uses catalysts to remove substances like sulfur, nitrogen and aromatics.  When diesel comes o...
High Sulfur Diesel pre-1993
High Sulfur Diesel <ul><li>Before 1993 sulfur content of diesel was unregulated </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur in diesel fuel co...
<ul><ul><li>The Good: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfur is a natural lubricant and Anti-Microbial   </li></ul></ul>
<ul><ul><li>The Bad: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High sulfur fuel = High sulfur emission =   ACID RAIN </li></ul></ul>
Low Sulfur Diesel Post-1993
Low Sulfur Diesel <ul><li>1993 when the EPA mandated the lowering of sulfur in diesel fuels to a 500ppm </li></ul><ul><li>...
Biodiesel 101
History Of Biodiesel <ul><li>Energy crunch of the 1970s stimulated biofuels research but federal research money disappeare...
Biodiesel Defined <ul><li>Biodiesel , n. -- a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from v...
Making Biodiesel Transesterification <ul><li>  (Catalyst) </li></ul><ul><li>100 pounds  +  10 pounds  =  10 pounds  +  100...
Biodiesel Raw Materials <ul><li>Oil or Fat Alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Soybean Methanol (common) </li></ul><ul><li>Corn Etha...
The Biodiesel Reaction <ul><li>Vegetable Oil </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>Animal Fat  </li></ul><ul><li>(100 lbs...
Biodiesel Attributes <ul><li>High Cetane (avg. over 50) </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra Low Sulfur (avg. ~ 2 ppm) </li></ul><ul><l...
Biodiesel ASTM D6751 <ul><li>Property   ASTM Method  Limits   Units </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium & Magnesium, combined  EN 14...
New ASTM Standards passed June 19, 2008 <ul><li>Inclusion of B5 into the D975 specification for #2 diesel fuel  </li></ul>...
B6-B20 ASTM D7467 Specification <ul><li>Property  ASTM Method  Limits  Units </li></ul><ul><li>Acid Number  D 664  0.30 ma...
Materials Compatibility <ul><li>B100 may adversely affect some elastomers such as natural or nitrile rubbers over time. </...
Materials Compatibility <ul><li>Biodiesel and biodiesel blends will form high sediment levels when in contact with the fol...
Emissions
Biodiesel CO2 Cycle
Reduction in Emissions
Supply and Demand
Biodiesel Demand 700 million 450 million 250 million 75 million 25 million 20 million 15 million 5 million 2 million 500,0...
If Every Trucker Used B2 The industry would utilize 761 million gallons of B100 annually
U.S. Biodiesel Market Outlook
Energy Independence  & Security Act of 2007 <ul><li>Renewable requirement for diesel must met by biodiesel. </li></ul><ul>...
Demand For Diesel In The US (In Millions Of Gallons)
Potential Demand For Biodiesel In The US <ul><li>Demand should not be measured by total demand but by the fraction that re...
Growth In Diesel Automobile Market <ul><li>According to the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers, there are currently more...
Increasing Biodiesel Use <ul><li>The National Biodiesel Board has set a goal of replacing 5% of the nation’s on-road diese...
Minnesota <ul><li>Currently has a mandate of B5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective May 1, 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May...
B5 Usage in Minnesota <ul><li>Prevents 139 tons of particulate matter </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate 330,000 tons of lifecycl...
Biodiesel Production Capacity
Production Locations  (9/29/08) 176 Plants
Production Capacity by State   (8/11/08)
Blending  ULSD and Biodiesel
Why Blend Biodiesel into ULSD? <ul><li>Compatible with the compression ignition platform and with diesel fuel itself </li>...
ULSD & Lubricity <ul><li>Sulfur compounds are natural lubricants in diesel. </li></ul><ul><li>ULSD regulations are causing...
Biodiesel Adds Significant Lubricity to ULSD ULSD Premium Diesel Bio 2.0% Bio 5.0% Bio 11.0% HFRR Average Scar
Properties of ULSD & Biodiesel Blends -20°F (3-4x Additive) -24°F -26°F -26°F CFPP 3°F 1°F 1°F 0°F Cloud Point 44.4 42.8 4...
Cold Flow Properties
Cloud & CFPP <ul><li>Cloud Point  – The temperature at which the first wax crystals form and are visible to the naked eye....
CFPP Testing of ULSD Bio Blends -20 +1 B11 ULSD (3x) -17 +3 B20 ULSD(4x) CFPP  °F w/ Additive Cloud Point  °F, Base Fuel S...
CFPP Testing of No 1 ULSD with No 2 ULSD   CFPP  °F  Base Fuel w/additive Cloud Point  °F Base Fuel Sample  Description <-...
CFPP Testing of B5 with No 1 ULSD   -22 0 ULSD CFPP  °F  Base Fuel w/additive Cloud Point  °F Base Fuel Sample  Descriptio...
Manufacturers  Policies on Biodiesel
Biodiesel Position with OEM’s <ul><li>Original Equipment Manufacturers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B100 Must Meet ASTM D 6751 <...
Manufacturers Approving B100 <ul><li>Case IH – nearly half of all models </li></ul><ul><li>Fairbanks Morse </li></ul><ul><...
Manufacturers Approving B20 <ul><li>Arctic Cat </li></ul><ul><li>Buhler </li></ul><ul><li>Case IH – 90% of all models </li...
Manufacturers Approving B5 <ul><li>Ford </li></ul><ul><li>Caterpillar </li></ul><ul><li>General Motors </li></ul><ul><li>I...
BQ-9000
BQ-9000  Accreditation or Certification <ul><li>Accreditation or Certification given by the National Biodiesel Accreditati...
Quality Control <ul><li>In 2006, 41% of B100 samples tested met ASTM D6751 specification. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2007, 90% o...
BQ-9000 Information  Through the NBB www.bq-9000.org  www.biodiesel.org  www.nbb.org Find information on the requirements ...
2007/2010 Engines
2007 Model Year Engines <ul><li>EPA regulations require reduced sulfur in diesel fuel for 2007 model year engines </li></u...
Diesel Particle Filters (DPF) <ul><li>Diesel particle filters (DPF) are found in all 2007 model year diesel vehicles.  </l...
<ul><li>NEVER Put anything but ULSD into a Diesel Vehicle fitted with a Particulate Filter (2007+)!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>T...
Exhaust Gas Recirculation <ul><li>EGR is a common technology to reduce NOx emissions.  Recently cooled EGR has been used t...
<ul><li>EGR system cycles a  </li></ul><ul><li>portion of the engine’s  </li></ul><ul><li>exhaust gases back into  </li></...
Exhaust Gas Recirculation <ul><li>Cooled EGR Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not require additional onboard hardware...
NOx Reductions <ul><li>For 2010, the focus  </li></ul><ul><li>Shifts back to NOx.  </li></ul><ul><li>The regulations set  ...
2010 Engines Choice Between Two Competing Technologies  Selective Catalytic Reduction   NOx  Absorption System
Selective Catalytic Reduction <ul><li>The appeal of the SCR system is relative simplicity.  Nothing else gets added to the...
<ul><li>SCR removes NOx by injecting — or dosing — a non-toxic diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) composed of water and urea into ...
NOx Absorption <ul><li>NOx absorbers are the major alternative to SCR systems.  They work by absorbing NOx from the exhaus...
Filter Plugging Issues
Breakdown of Filter Plugging Sources <ul><li>Filter Plugging Issues Addressed by the Minnesota Diesel Hotline </li></ul><u...
Microbial Growth What Are Microbes? <ul><li>Microbes are bacteria or fungus that live and propagate in fuel. </li></ul><ul...
Water Concentrations <ul><li>Biodiesel Can Hold More Water than ULSD </li></ul><ul><li>B100 reaches saturation at approxim...
High Water Concentration
Icing of the filter   <ul><li>When there is excess free water in fuel, it can form ice on the filter and cause filter plug...
Paraffin Wax
Paraffin Wax   <ul><li>High level of paraffin material could be from the way ULSD is processed. </li></ul><ul><li>When the...
Oxidation
Oxidation   <ul><li>Filters with a black and shiny surface but no microbial growth odor or gel or sediment indicate they m...
Engines <ul><li>Hot Fuel Return </li></ul>Hot Hot Coking Fuel New Technology delivers the unused fuel from the engine bloc...
Glycerin
Monoglyceride Build-up <ul><li>This filter tested positive for high concentrations of saturated monoglyceride material. </...
Sediment/Rust build-up
Sediment/Rust build-up   <ul><li>Some of the filters had solid sediment within the folds and solid particles in the filter...
Troubleshooting Checklist <ul><li>Microbial Growth  –  Exposure to air and water </li></ul><ul><li>Icing of Filter  –  Exc...
Steps to Maintaining Fuel <ul><li>Store Fuel in Clean, Dry Dark Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Keep Tank Topped off to elim...
Useful Information Resources
NBB Resources:  www.biodiesel.org <ul><li>Technical Library </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel Bulletin  </li></ul><ul><li>Inform...
MN Diesel Hotline <ul><li>Established to: </li></ul><ul><li>Provide triage for fuel  problems not adequately addressed by ...
Contact Information <ul><li>The MN Diesel Hotline is: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For general guidance issues </li></ul></ul...
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  • The French Government wanted energy independence for its African Colonies. “The French Government at the time thought of testing the applicability to power production of the Arachide, or earth-nut, which grows in considerable quantities in their African colonies, and which can be easily cultivated there, because in this way the colonies could be supplied with power and industry from their own resources, without being compelled to buy and import coal or liquid fuel.” – Rudolph Diesel
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  • _____________US is 20% of world processing of crude ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
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  • Minnesota mechanics training

    1. 1. Biodiesel 101 and Troubleshooting Filter Plugging Issues Presented by Hoon Ge Sponsored by the Minnesota Soybean Growers Association
    2. 2. Topics <ul><li>History of Diesel </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel 101 </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Materials Compatibility </li></ul><ul><li>Emissions </li></ul><ul><li>OEM </li></ul><ul><li>Supply and Demand </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel Market Outlook </li></ul>ULSD & Biodiesel BQ-9000 Cold Flow Properties 2007/2010 Engines Filter Plugging Issues Biodiesel Handling Useful Resources
    3. 3. History of Diesel <ul><li>Vegetable Oil for Fuel </li></ul><ul><li>High Sulfur Diesel </li></ul><ul><li>Low Sulfur Diesel </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel </li></ul><ul><li>ULSD </li></ul>1900’s 1920 1993 1998 2006
    4. 4. Machinery Exhibit – 1900 World’s Fair <ul><li>Rudolph Diesel demonstrated his compression ignition engine, which at the request of the French Government, ran on peanut oil . </li></ul>www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/arch/1900fair.html - Jeffrey Howe
    5. 5. History of Diesel <ul><li>Diesel Engines ran on Vegetable oils until the 1920's </li></ul><ul><li>1920’s petroleum diesel fuel became easier to produce due to advances in the distillation process, and became the main fuel for diesel engines </li></ul>
    6. 6. Diesel From Crude
    7. 7. Crude Oil - Petroleum A complex assortment of materials consisting of mixtures of hydrocarbons and other compounds containing variable amounts of sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and organometallics and whose physical properties may vary widely in volatility, specific gravity, and viscosity.
    8. 8. Demand For Crude 1 barrel (bbl) = 42 gallons (U.S.) <ul><li>Globally about 85,000,000 bbl/day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 17,000,000 bbl of crude oil processed every day in the US (714,000,000 gal/day) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>800,000,000 gal/day total product demand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>360,000,000 gal/day gasoline </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>140,000,000 gal/day distillate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>68,000,000 gal/day jet fuel </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>150 U.S. refineries with capacities ranging from 15 mbbl/day (600,000 gallons/day) to over 500 mbbl/day (21,000,000 gallons/day and operate at 90+% capacity </li></ul>
    9. 9. Five Basic Refinery Processes <ul><li>Separation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atmospheric and vacuum distillation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extractions (Solvent dewaxing) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Conversion </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Catalytic, thermal and hydrocracking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Upgrading </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reforming, alkylation, isomerization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Finishing or treating </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrotreating and desulfurization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Blending </li></ul>
    10. 10. Diesel HDS Unit The HDS Unit uses catalysts to remove substances like sulfur, nitrogen and aromatics. When diesel comes out of the HSD unit, it is finished diesel fuel/heating oil. http://oilandgas.veoliawater.com/en/expertise/our_understanding/your_business/process_schematic/refinery_process_diagram/
    11. 11. High Sulfur Diesel pre-1993
    12. 12. High Sulfur Diesel <ul><li>Before 1993 sulfur content of diesel was unregulated </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur in diesel fuel could be as high as 5000ppm </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><ul><li>The Good: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfur is a natural lubricant and Anti-Microbial </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><ul><li>The Bad: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High sulfur fuel = High sulfur emission = ACID RAIN </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Low Sulfur Diesel Post-1993
    16. 16. Low Sulfur Diesel <ul><li>1993 when the EPA mandated the lowering of sulfur in diesel fuels to a 500ppm </li></ul><ul><li>This was done to reduce </li></ul><ul><li>these harmful emissions </li></ul><ul><li>When sulfur was reduced </li></ul><ul><li>the fuel lost: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lubricity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microbial protection </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Biodiesel 101
    18. 18. History Of Biodiesel <ul><li>Energy crunch of the 1970s stimulated biofuels research but federal research money disappeared in the 1980s. </li></ul><ul><li>First literature use of the term biodiesel is found in a Chinese paper published in 1988. The next paper using that term appeared in 1991. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Biodiesel Defined <ul><li>Biodiesel , n. -- a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, designated B100, and meeting the requirements of ASTM D 6751. </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel blend , n. -- a blend of biodiesel fuel meeting ASTM D 6751 with petroleum-based diesel fuel designated BXX, where XX is the volume percent of biodiesel. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Making Biodiesel Transesterification <ul><li> (Catalyst) </li></ul><ul><li>100 pounds + 10 pounds = 10 pounds + 100 pounds </li></ul><ul><li>Triglyceride Alcohol Glycerin Mono-Alkyl Esters </li></ul><ul><li>_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Soy oil Methanol Biodiesel </li></ul><ul><li>- Raw Vegetable Oil is NOT Biodiesel! </li></ul><ul><li> - Other ‘biomass’ products aren’t Biodiesel </li></ul><ul><li> - Must meet ASTM D 6751 </li></ul>
    21. 21. Biodiesel Raw Materials <ul><li>Oil or Fat Alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Soybean Methanol (common) </li></ul><ul><li>Corn Ethanol </li></ul><ul><li>Canola </li></ul><ul><li>Cottonseed Catalyst </li></ul><ul><li>Sunflower Sodium hydroxide </li></ul><ul><li>Beef tallow Potassium hydroxide </li></ul><ul><li>Pork lard </li></ul><ul><li>Used cooking oils </li></ul>
    22. 22. The Biodiesel Reaction <ul><li>Vegetable Oil </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>Animal Fat </li></ul><ul><li>(100 lbs.) </li></ul><ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Methanol or </li></ul><ul><li>Ethanol </li></ul><ul><li>(10 lbs.) </li></ul>Biodiesel (100 lbs.) + Glycerin (10 lbs.) In the presence of a catalyst Combining Yields
    23. 23. Biodiesel Attributes <ul><li>High Cetane (avg. over 50) </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra Low Sulfur (avg. ~ 2 ppm) </li></ul><ul><li>High Lubricity, even in blends as low at 1-2% </li></ul><ul><li>High Energy Balance (3.5 to 1) </li></ul><ul><li>Low Agriculture Inputs: Soybeans </li></ul><ul><li>78% Life Cycle CO 2 Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable, Sustainable </li></ul><ul><li>Domestically Produced </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces HC, PM, CO in existing diesel engines </li></ul>
    24. 24. Biodiesel ASTM D6751 <ul><li>Property ASTM Method Limits Units </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium & Magnesium, combined EN 14538 5 maximum ppm (ug/g) </li></ul><ul><li>Flash Point (closed cup) D 93 93 minimum Degrees C </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol Control (One of the following must be met) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Methanol Content EN14110 0.2 maximum % volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash Point D93 130 minimum Degrees C </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water & Sediment D 2709 0.05 maximum % vol. </li></ul><ul><li>Kinematic Viscosity, 40 C D 445 1.9 - 6.0 mm 2 /sec. </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfated Ash D 874 0.02 maximum % mass </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S 15 Grade D 5453 0.0015 max. (15) % mass (ppm) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S 500 Grade D 5453 0.05 max. (500) % mass (ppm) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Copper Strip Corrosion D 130 No. 3 maximum </li></ul><ul><li>Cetane D 613 47 minimum </li></ul><ul><li>Cloud Point D 2500 Report Degrees C </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Residue 100% sample D 4530* 0.05 maximum % mass </li></ul><ul><li>Acid Number D 664 0.50 maximum mg KOH/g </li></ul><ul><li>Free Glycerin D 6584 0.020 maximum % mass </li></ul><ul><li>Total Glycerin D 6584 0.240 maximum % mass </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus Content D 4951 0.001 maximum % mass </li></ul><ul><li>Distillation, T90 AET D 1160 360 maximum Degrees C </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium/Potassium, combined EN 14538 5 maximum ppm </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidation Stability EN 14112 3 minimum hours </li></ul><ul><li>Cold Soak Filtration Annex to 6751 360 maximum seconds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For use in temps below -12°C Annex to 6751 200 maximum seconds </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. New ASTM Standards passed June 19, 2008 <ul><li>Inclusion of B5 into the D975 specification for #2 diesel fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion of B5 into the D396 specification for heating oil </li></ul><ul><li>Passage of a blended fuel spec for B6 to B20 </li></ul><ul><li>Addition to D6751 of a cold soak filtration test to eliminate cold filter plugging potential </li></ul><ul><li>Just published October 2008 </li></ul>
    26. 26. B6-B20 ASTM D7467 Specification <ul><li>Property ASTM Method Limits Units </li></ul><ul><li>Acid Number D 664 0.30 maximum mg KOH/g </li></ul><ul><li>Viscosity, 104°F D 445 1.9 - 4.1 mm2/sec. </li></ul><ul><li>Flash Point D 93 125 minimum Degrees F </li></ul><ul><li>Cloud Point D 2500 Report Degrees F </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur </li></ul><ul><li>S 15 Grade D 5453 0.0015 maximum (15) % mass (ppm) </li></ul><ul><li>S 500 Grade D 5453 0.05 maximum (500) % mass (ppm) </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Distillation, T90 D 86 650 maximum Degrees F </li></ul><ul><li>Ramsbottom Carbon Residue D 524 0.35 maximum % mass </li></ul><ul><li>10% residue </li></ul><ul><li>Cetane Number D 613 40 minimum </li></ul><ul><li>One of the following must be met” </li></ul><ul><li>Cetane Index D 976-80 40 minimum </li></ul><ul><li>Aromacity D 1319-03 35 maximum % volume </li></ul><ul><li>Ash D 482 0.01 maximum % mass </li></ul><ul><li>Water & Sediment D 2709 0.05 maximum % vol. </li></ul><ul><li>Copper Strip Corrosion D 130 No. 3 maximum </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus Content D 4951 0.001 maximum % mass </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidation Stability EN 14112 6 minimum hours </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel Content D 7371 6-20% % volume </li></ul><ul><li>Lubricity, HFRR @ 60°C D 6079 520 maximum micron </li></ul>
    27. 27. Materials Compatibility <ul><li>B100 may adversely affect some elastomers such as natural or nitrile rubbers over time. </li></ul><ul><li>Most elastomers used after 1993 are compatible with B100 (Viton/Teflon). </li></ul><ul><li>Blends (B20) effect is less, or non-existent. </li></ul><ul><li>Normal monitoring of hoses and gaskets for leaks is sufficient with B20. </li></ul><ul><li>Consult with your parts supplier or </li></ul><ul><li>mechanical engineering partners. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Materials Compatibility <ul><li>Biodiesel and biodiesel blends will form high sediment levels when in contact with the following metals: </li></ul><ul><li>-Brass, Bronze, Copper, Lead, Tin and Zinc </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel is compatible with: </li></ul><ul><li>-Stainless Steel, Aluminum </li></ul>
    29. 29. Emissions
    30. 30. Biodiesel CO2 Cycle
    31. 31. Reduction in Emissions
    32. 32. Supply and Demand
    33. 33. Biodiesel Demand 700 million 450 million 250 million 75 million 25 million 20 million 15 million 5 million 2 million 500,000 Biodiesel Tax Incentive Gallons
    34. 34. If Every Trucker Used B2 The industry would utilize 761 million gallons of B100 annually
    35. 35. U.S. Biodiesel Market Outlook
    36. 36. Energy Independence & Security Act of 2007 <ul><li>Renewable requirement for diesel must met by biodiesel. </li></ul><ul><li>500 million gallons used in 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>1 billion gallons used in 2012 </li></ul>
    37. 37. Demand For Diesel In The US (In Millions Of Gallons)
    38. 38. Potential Demand For Biodiesel In The US <ul><li>Demand should not be measured by total demand but by the fraction that represents a realistic blend. </li></ul><ul><li>The maximum potential rate is a B20 blend. B2 and B5 are very realistic. </li></ul><ul><li>Even at displacement rates of 2-5% potential demand far exceeds current and 10-yr production rates. </li></ul>
    39. 39. Growth In Diesel Automobile Market <ul><li>According to the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers, there are currently more than 4.8 million diesel cars, pick-ups and SUV’s registered in the US. </li></ul><ul><li>J.D Power and Associates predict diesel sales to approximately triple in the next 10 years, accounting for more than 10% of US vehicles by 2015. </li></ul><ul><li>As of January 2008, 12 auto manufacturers had announced or introduced at least 13 diesel models to the US market. The following brands have diesel models: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acura, Audi, BMW, Chevrolet, Chrysler, Dodge, Ford, General Motors, GMC, Honda, Hyundai, Jeep, Mazda, Mercedes-Benz, Nissan, Toyota, Volkswagen, Volvo </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Increasing Biodiesel Use <ul><li>The National Biodiesel Board has set a goal of replacing 5% of the nation’s on-road diesel with biodiesel by 2015. </li></ul><ul><li>That amount is roughly equal to the amount of diesel currently produced from ¼ of the crude imported from the Persian Gulf. </li></ul>
    41. 41. Minnesota <ul><li>Currently has a mandate of B5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective May 1, 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May 1, 2012 Mandate increases to B10 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May 1, 2015 Mandate increases to B20 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5% of Feedstock must come from biological resources rather than agricultural (algae, waste oils, tallow) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*B10 and B20 mandates are effective from April to October to address cold weather issues. B5 during the rest of the year. </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. B5 Usage in Minnesota <ul><li>Prevents 139 tons of particulate matter </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate 330,000 tons of lifecycle greenhouse gases </li></ul><ul><li>That is Equal to Taking </li></ul><ul><li>55,000 Cars of the Road </li></ul>
    43. 43. Biodiesel Production Capacity
    44. 44. Production Locations (9/29/08) 176 Plants
    45. 45. Production Capacity by State (8/11/08)
    46. 46. Blending ULSD and Biodiesel
    47. 47. Why Blend Biodiesel into ULSD? <ul><li>Compatible with the compression ignition platform and with diesel fuel itself </li></ul><ul><li>Greatly enhances lubricity of ULSD </li></ul><ul><li>Compatible with 2007 diesel engine catalysts </li></ul><ul><li>Aids with ULSD conductivity issues </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces harmful emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Power and performance virtually unchanged </li></ul><ul><li>Seamless & transparent with existing petroleum infrastructure, (liquid not gaseous) </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes national energy security </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable, non-toxic, green blend stock option </li></ul>
    48. 48. ULSD & Lubricity <ul><li>Sulfur compounds are natural lubricants in diesel. </li></ul><ul><li>ULSD regulations are causing major concerns with diesel engine performance. </li></ul><ul><li>ASTM lubricity requirement effective Jan 1, 2005 for diesel fuels. </li></ul><ul><li>ASTM D 6079 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>-Wear Scar Maximum = 520 micrometers </li></ul>
    49. 49. Biodiesel Adds Significant Lubricity to ULSD ULSD Premium Diesel Bio 2.0% Bio 5.0% Bio 11.0% HFRR Average Scar
    50. 50. Properties of ULSD & Biodiesel Blends -20°F (3-4x Additive) -24°F -26°F -26°F CFPP 3°F 1°F 1°F 0°F Cloud Point 44.4 42.8 42.7 42.7 Cetane Index 645°F 614°F 610°F 611°F EBP 638°F 608°F 604°F 605°F 90% 550°F 510°F 510°F 509°F 50% 418°F 404°F 403°F 402°F 10% 336°F 327°F 326°F 326°F IBP Distillation 32.3 33.2 33.4 33.4 API Gravity B20 B5 B2 ULSD
    51. 51. Cold Flow Properties
    52. 52. Cloud & CFPP <ul><li>Cloud Point – The temperature at which the first wax crystals form and are visible to the naked eye. </li></ul><ul><li>CFPP – The temperature under a standard set of test conditions (D6371) at which the filter plugs. </li></ul>
    53. 53. CFPP Testing of ULSD Bio Blends -20 +1 B11 ULSD (3x) -17 +3 B20 ULSD(4x) CFPP °F w/ Additive Cloud Point °F, Base Fuel Sample Description -18 -1 B5 ULSD -22 -2 B2 ULSD -22 -2 ULSD
    54. 54. CFPP Testing of No 1 ULSD with No 2 ULSD CFPP °F Base Fuel w/additive Cloud Point °F Base Fuel Sample Description <-40 -18 ULSD 50/50 -38 -15 ULSD 40/60 -34 -11 ULSD 30/70 -30 -7 ULSD 20/80 -25 -4 ULSD 10/90 (10% No 1 & 90% No 2) -20 0 ULSD
    55. 55. CFPP Testing of B5 with No 1 ULSD -22 0 ULSD CFPP °F Base Fuel w/additive Cloud Point °F Base Fuel Sample Description -38 -9 B5 (30% # 1 / 65% # 2 / 5% bio) -31 -5 B5 (20% # 1 / 75% # 2 / 5% bio) -27 -2 B5 (10% # 1 / 85% # 2 / 5% bio) -20 2 B5
    56. 56. Manufacturers Policies on Biodiesel
    57. 57. Biodiesel Position with OEM’s <ul><li>Original Equipment Manufacturers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B100 Must Meet ASTM D 6751 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most OEM HQ’s have B20 experience: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Won’t void warranty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problems caused by the fuel are the responsibility of the fuel supplier </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Want to see additional experience in the field </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher blends OK’d based on experience of OEM and their technology </li></ul></ul>
    58. 58. Manufacturers Approving B100 <ul><li>Case IH – nearly half of all models </li></ul><ul><li>Fairbanks Morse </li></ul><ul><li>New Holland </li></ul>
    59. 59. Manufacturers Approving B20 <ul><li>Arctic Cat </li></ul><ul><li>Buhler </li></ul><ul><li>Case IH – 90% of all models </li></ul><ul><li>Cummins </li></ul><ul><li>Caterpillar – on several models </li></ul><ul><li>John Deere </li></ul><ul><li>Toro </li></ul>
    60. 60. Manufacturers Approving B5 <ul><li>Ford </li></ul><ul><li>Caterpillar </li></ul><ul><li>General Motors </li></ul><ul><li>Isuzu </li></ul><ul><li>Mack </li></ul><ul><li>Volkswagen </li></ul><ul><li>Detroit Diesel </li></ul><ul><li>Chrysler </li></ul><ul><li>International </li></ul><ul><li>Kubota </li></ul><ul><li>Mercedes Benz </li></ul><ul><li>Volvo </li></ul>
    61. 61. BQ-9000
    62. 62. BQ-9000 Accreditation or Certification <ul><li>Accreditation or Certification given by the National Biodiesel Accreditation Commission under NBB. </li></ul><ul><li>BQ-9000 accredits companies, not fuel. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is no such thing as “BQ-9000 Biodiesel”. BQ-9000 does, however, help ensure the biodiesel being produced and sold will meet D6751 </li></ul></ul>
    63. 63. Quality Control <ul><li>In 2006, 41% of B100 samples tested met ASTM D6751 specification. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2007, 90% of B100 samples tested met ASTM D6751 specification. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2007, 100% of BQ-9000 certified fuel met ASTM D6751 specifications. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, 75% of U.S. biodiesel production is BQ-9000 Certified. </li></ul>
    64. 64. BQ-9000 Information Through the NBB www.bq-9000.org www.biodiesel.org www.nbb.org Find information on the requirements for the program and a list of accredited producers and marketers on the NBB website.
    65. 65. 2007/2010 Engines
    66. 66. 2007 Model Year Engines <ul><li>EPA regulations require reduced sulfur in diesel fuel for 2007 model year engines </li></ul><ul><li>80% of highway diesel fuel must be ULSD (< 15ppm sulfur) beginning June 1, 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters </li></ul><ul><li>can eliminate 99% of solid particles </li></ul><ul><li>(soot & metals) and eliminate </li></ul><ul><li>>90% of semi-volatile </li></ul><ul><li>hydrocarbons. </li></ul><ul><li>Source: EPA </li></ul>
    67. 67. Diesel Particle Filters (DPF) <ul><li>Diesel particle filters (DPF) are found in all 2007 model year diesel vehicles. </li></ul><ul><li>What possible advantages or disadvantages may result from using biodiesel blends in these engines? </li></ul><ul><li>The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has conducting a study in order to define these effects on DPFs. </li></ul>
    68. 68. <ul><li>NEVER Put anything but ULSD into a Diesel Vehicle fitted with a Particulate Filter (2007+)!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>The Sulfur Will poison the catalyst in filter </li></ul><ul><li>Filter Cost: $8,000 </li></ul>ULSD and Particulate Filter
    69. 69. Exhaust Gas Recirculation <ul><li>EGR is a common technology to reduce NOx emissions. Recently cooled EGR has been used to achieve </li></ul><ul><li>further NOx reductions. </li></ul><ul><li>EGR alone cannot meet </li></ul><ul><li>2010 emission </li></ul><ul><li>requirements. </li></ul>
    70. 70. <ul><li>EGR system cycles a </li></ul><ul><li>portion of the engine’s </li></ul><ul><li>exhaust gases back into </li></ul><ul><li>the engine’s cylinders. </li></ul><ul><li>Mixing recirculated exhaust </li></ul><ul><li>with the engine’s intake air </li></ul><ul><li>lowers peak combustion </li></ul><ul><li>temperatures, which, in turn, </li></ul><ul><li>limits the generation of </li></ul><ul><li>nitrogen oxides. </li></ul>
    71. 71. Exhaust Gas Recirculation <ul><li>Cooled EGR Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not require additional onboard hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not require the use of an additional fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No loss of payload </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No impact on service intervals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No driver intervention necessary for compliance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cooled EGR Trade-Offs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases heat rejection, creating need for greater cooling capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreases power density, fuel efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential engine durability and oil degradation issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less combustion efficiency produces increased particulate matter, hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide </li></ul></ul>
    72. 72. NOx Reductions <ul><li>For 2010, the focus </li></ul><ul><li>Shifts back to NOx. </li></ul><ul><li>The regulations set </li></ul><ul><li>maximum NOx emission </li></ul><ul><li>levels at 0.2 gram/brake </li></ul><ul><li>horsepower hour </li></ul>
    73. 73. 2010 Engines Choice Between Two Competing Technologies Selective Catalytic Reduction NOx Absorption System
    74. 74. Selective Catalytic Reduction <ul><li>The appeal of the SCR system is relative simplicity. Nothing else gets added to the vehicle other than a small tank of urea – a liquid compound composed of 34% ammonia and 66% water – along with extra wiring and sensors to manage the injection flow of urea into the truck’s exhaust stream to convert harmful NOx emissions into water vapor. </li></ul>
    75. 75. <ul><li>SCR removes NOx by injecting — or dosing — a non-toxic diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) composed of water and urea into the exhaust before it enters a catalyst. A chemical reaction in the catalyst breaks down the NOx into nitrogen and water vapor. </li></ul>
    76. 76. NOx Absorption <ul><li>NOx absorbers are the major alternative to SCR systems. They work by absorbing NOx from the exhaust and converting it to non-polluting nitrogen during a regeneration cycle. Absorber technology offers considerable NOx reduction capabilities but performance issues related to durability, operating range and decreased fuel economy have so far limited their real world viability. </li></ul>
    77. 77. Filter Plugging Issues
    78. 78. Breakdown of Filter Plugging Sources <ul><li>Filter Plugging Issues Addressed by the Minnesota Diesel Hotline </li></ul><ul><li>Microbial Only 36% 18% </li></ul><ul><li>Water 21% 34% </li></ul><ul><li>High Water & Microbial 21% 8% </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidation 7% 8% </li></ul><ul><li>Paraffin falling out of ULSD 4% 20% </li></ul><ul><li>Too much Additive 4% 2% </li></ul><ul><li>No problem found 3% 8% </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel Contaminants 0% 2% </li></ul>Sept 2007 to Feb 2008 Sept 2008 to Feb 2009
    79. 79. Microbial Growth What Are Microbes? <ul><li>Microbes are bacteria or fungus that live and propagate in fuel. </li></ul><ul><li>They live at the fuel/water interface. </li></ul><ul><li>The hydrocarbons in the fuel provide the food and the water provides the oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>This environment is needed for living, growth, and reproduction. </li></ul><ul><li>The filters with microbial contamination often had an odor different from the normal fuel smell. </li></ul>
    80. 80. Water Concentrations <ul><li>Biodiesel Can Hold More Water than ULSD </li></ul><ul><li>B100 reaches saturation at approximately 1200ppm </li></ul><ul><li>ULSD reaches saturation at approximately 200-300ppm </li></ul><ul><li>A B2 blend has the same saturation as ULSD </li></ul><ul><li>The higher the biodiesel blend, the higher the saturated point </li></ul><ul><li>As temperatures decrease, there is lower solubility which means water will drop out of solution </li></ul>
    81. 81. High Water Concentration
    82. 82. Icing of the filter <ul><li>When there is excess free water in fuel, it can form ice on the filter and cause filter plugging in cold temps. A filter which has been plugged but is clean and new at room temperature indicates that icing is the likely cause. </li></ul><ul><li>Since the temperatures of engines are warm, any moisture picked up within the engine can be brought back to the fuel lines. This moisture can freeze overnight in low ambient temperatures . </li></ul>Free water
    83. 83. Paraffin Wax
    84. 84. Paraffin Wax <ul><li>High level of paraffin material could be from the way ULSD is processed. </li></ul><ul><li>When the temperature of the fuel is at or below its cloud point, paraffin material will precipitate out and collect on the bottom of the tank. </li></ul><ul><li>When warmed to room temperature the paraffin wax will turn back into liquid. </li></ul><ul><li>Paraffin build-up does not come from biodiesel fuel. </li></ul>
    85. 85. Oxidation
    86. 86. Oxidation <ul><li>Filters with a black and shiny surface but no microbial growth odor or gel or sediment indicate they may be plugged by oxidation build-up. </li></ul><ul><li>Because many newer engines run at higher temperatures, there may be a black “asphaltene” type material collecting on the filter. </li></ul><ul><li>This phenomenon has been seen all around the country, often in newer engines. </li></ul>
    87. 87. Engines <ul><li>Hot Fuel Return </li></ul>Hot Hot Coking Fuel New Technology delivers the unused fuel from the engine block back to the fuel tank much faster. This hot fuel will cause degradation and oxidation of the fuel, which in turn can plug filters.
    88. 88. Glycerin
    89. 89. Monoglyceride Build-up <ul><li>This filter tested positive for high concentrations of saturated monoglyceride material. </li></ul><ul><li>Monoglyceride is one substance that can precipitate out of fuel if the glycerin levels are too high in the biodiesel used in the blend. </li></ul><ul><li>Glycerin does not turn back into a liquid until heated to temperatures of 150°F or more. </li></ul>
    90. 90. Sediment/Rust build-up
    91. 91. Sediment/Rust build-up <ul><li>Some of the filters had solid sediment within the folds and solid particles in the filter casing. </li></ul><ul><li>Sediment present in the fuel or rust particles from within the engine can collect over time and plug the filter even when there are not necessarily problems with the fuel. </li></ul>
    92. 92. Troubleshooting Checklist <ul><li>Microbial Growth – Exposure to air and water </li></ul><ul><li>Icing of Filter – Excess water in tank </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidation – Hot fuel return to fuel tank </li></ul><ul><li>Monoglyceride Build Up – Off specification of Total & Free Glycerin </li></ul><ul><li>Paraffin Wax – Temperature at or below cloud point </li></ul>
    93. 93. Steps to Maintaining Fuel <ul><li>Store Fuel in Clean, Dry Dark Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Keep Tank Topped off to eliminate head space </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor hoses, fill/vapor caps, gaskets for leaks </li></ul><ul><li>Storage in on-site tanks should be limited to less than 6 months. </li></ul><ul><li>Once a year send your fuel to lab to be tested for microbial contamination </li></ul>
    94. 94. Useful Information Resources
    95. 95. NBB Resources: www.biodiesel.org <ul><li>Technical Library </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel Bulletin </li></ul><ul><li>Informational Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Videos Available </li></ul><ul><li>On-line Database & Spec Sheets </li></ul>
    96. 96. MN Diesel Hotline <ul><li>Established to: </li></ul><ul><li>Provide triage for fuel problems not adequately addressed by distributors/producers </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnose/analyze/assist with problems from: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>customers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fleets </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fuel distributors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide assistance through chemical analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Through the use of third party Lab </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Help provide assistance to users to ensure the image/integrity of Biodiesel is maintained </li></ul>
    97. 97. Contact Information <ul><li>The MN Diesel Hotline is: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For general guidance issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel related problems </li></ul></ul></ul>763-746-3452 800-929-3437 Email: [email_address]
    98. 98. Questions?

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