Grease Works: Biodiesel for First Time Users and How to Save the Environment
Grease Works! -Corvallis Biodiesel Co-op- New member info packetWelcome to the Grease Works Biodiesel Co-op!!Here’s a bit of history to let you know who we are:Grease Works was co-founded by Mark Kosmerl, Peter Stocking, and JustinSoares in September of 2001. Grease Works was formed with a single goalin mind: Make biodiesel readily available in Corvallis and it’s surroundingareas. To achieve this goal Grease Works has been structured as a Co-op,where members pay dues ($75/year) in order to offset the costs ofoperating/maintaining our fuel-handling infrastructure.Alliances and PartnershipsGrease Works sells brand biodiesel that is certified according toASTM D6751 specifications and fully-insured (in blends up to 20% or B20)by a national biodiesel producer. To guarantee consistent, reliabledistribution, Grease Works has formed an alliance with the fuel distributorSeQuential Fuels located in Eugene.Biofuels ProductsCurrently, Grease Works products include pure biodiesel (B100) and SVO(straight vegetable oil). Our SVO is collected from local restaurants andconsists primarily of high-quality peanut oil. We filter all of our SVO to .5microns to ensure quality and consistency.Please contact Justin@greaseworks.org for current prices.
First Time Biodiesel User GuidelinesClogged Fuel filtersIt is our hope that new members will begin using biodiesel with at least arudimentary understanding of the basic properties of this alternative fuel.By learning about biodiesel before you begin using it (and with a little bit ofluck) you can avert the proverbial “clogged fuel filter”, or, at the very least,make the experience as enjoyable as possible (yes, changing your fuel filtercan be enjoyable).A clogged fuel filter is the most common problem associated with newbiodiesel users. The reason this happens is not because the biodiesel itselfhas filter-clogging particulates in it, but because of a basic chemical propertyof biodiesel: Its propensity as a solvent.When biodiesel is first introduced into the fuel tank it begins to dissolve theaccumulated debris/sediment/particulate matter from years of diesel usefrom the walls of the tank. This murky mixture is then drawn by theinjection pump through the filter where the filter does its predestined job:catching all particles greater than 5 microns. If your car is over 10 years old,chances are you will experience one, maybe two, clogged filters when youbegin using biodiesel (in rare instances, i.e. extremely dirty tanks, severalfilters may clog before all of the murk has passed). If you have a newer caryou may not experience this problem at all, though it is possible, thereforebe prepared: ALWAYS CARRY A SPARE FUEL FILTER!!We recommend that all of our members with water separators in their fuelfilters (if your filter has a drain at the bottom than this means you) drain theirfilters every 1000 miles. These style filters separate out liquids according todensity (heavier liquids fall, such as water, glycerin, etc.). It is common tonotice some visual disparity in the fuel as it is being drained, with waterappearing clearer than biodiesel, and glycerin appearing darker.We also recommend that all of our members change their fuel filters,regardless of performance, every 7,500 miles. The owner manuals for mostvehicles recommend changing the fuel filter every 15,000. However, thelargest maker of diesel injection pumps in the world, Bosch, recommendschanging the filter every 7,500 for injection pump longevity. We subscribe
whole-heartedly to the adage “an ounce of prevention equals a pound ofcure” and hope our members will too.Fuel Hose CompatibilityAnother common issue for biodiesel users is fuel line degradation.Biodiesel, as stated earlier, is an extremely strong solvent inside the fueltank and believe it or not, that doesn’t change one bit as it travels throughthe fuel lines. Certain fuel line materials (natural rubber et al) degrade whenin contact with biodiesel for extended periods of time. Eventually theselines will begin to leak and will need to be replaced with a biodieselcompatible hose such as Viton. Keep your eyes on your hoses and when/ifyou notice them “sweating” do a squeeze test: squeeze the hose betweenyour fingers and check its elasticity. If it collapses listlessly with norebound, then it most likely needs to be replaced. If it feels responsive andrubbery check elsewhere for the origin of the leak.Newer European vehicles (VW, Mercedes) (<10 years old) come equippedwith biodiesel compatible fuel line (Viton is one such brand), and will not bedeleteriously affected by biodiesel. Fuel lines on older vehicles will need tobe monitored periodically to assess the fuel line condition. Interestingly,1980’s circa VW diesel fuel line tends to handle the biodiesel rather well(sometimes >6 months of constant B100 use before noticeable degradation),expect for the small (3mm) injector return line that runs from one injector tothe next. This hose is notorious for degrading with prolonged B100 use andshould be monitored routinely.Biodiesel Blending/Cold Weather PerformanceBiodiesel can be blended with diesel (#2) or kerosene (#1, or “winterdiesel”) in any ratio. To ensure problem free performance, we recommendthat all members use a 50/50 (50% biodiesel/50% #1 or #2, “B50”) ratioduring the winter months, especially if you are traveling to the mountains.The biodiesel we are currently distributing begins to cloud at ~28-32o F andalthough neat biodiesel (B100) will burn well down into the 20’s, cold startsbecome increasingly difficult as temperatures approach freezing. If yourvehicle has a block heater, cold starts will be a non-issue using B100 wellinto the 20’s.
Please be aware that these are merely recommendations and as you becomemore familiar and comfortable using biodiesel we encourage you toexperiment with different blends at different temperatures. As a side note,several Co-op members burn B100 all winter long with no notable issues.Due to restraints imposed by the producers of our biodiesel, we are unable torecommend B100 usage, and must advice our members that the warranty forbiodiesel use is good only in blends of 20% (B20) or less.Bulk Biodiesel StorageIf at all possible, we recommend storing your bulk biodiesel in a garage orsome sort of covered area. We have noticed that when storing biodiesel inambient temperatures <40o F clumps of wax crystals tend to form on the topof the biodiesel. These wax crystals melt when the temperatures climb toabove 40o F and are a normal occurrence in soy-based biodiesel. Biodieselis also hydrophilic and even with drum lids fastened tight, all drums leakslightly, especially if there is standing water over sealing edges. The moreeffort you put into preserving the quality of your fuel, the less issues youwill have when using it.State and Federal Road TaxBy state law, all fuel used in vehicles that use “a maintained road orhighway” in the state of Oregon must pay the state road use tax of 24.4 centsas well as the federal fuels tax of 24 cents. Also, any distributor of fuel inthe state of Oregon is required to pay these taxes if they distribute their fuelinto the tanks of on-road vehicles. Since we are distributing our fuel in 55-gallon drums (or other storage vessels), not into vehicles, the burden of taxesfalls on you—if you decide to use the biodiesel to fuel an on-road vehicle.Whether or not you opt to pay these taxes is completely up to you and wewill be happy to provide the appropriate tax forms upon request.
P.O. Box 10802, Eugene, OR 97440 TEL: 541.485.9711 / FAX: 541.485.1647Biofuels Domestic fuels are made from materials grown and harvested in the U.S. • Biofuels can increase Americas fuel and energy independence. • Biofuel production can create new markets for American farmers. • Biofuels can enable any region to produce its own fuel for transportation, heat and power generation. Renewable fuels are made from present-day plant and animal materials that are produced and processed annually. • Many biofuels can be produced from "waste" materials, such as used restaurant oil or discarded plant material from farms and forests. • Most harmful emissions (like greenhouse gases) produced by burning biofuels are re-absorbed and neutralized by subsequent generations of plants that are cultivated to produce more biofuel. Performance fuels offer high-quality ASTM-certified options to petroleum. • All of SeQuentials biofuels meet rigid ASTM-standards, meaning that they are guaranteed to be of the highest quality. • Many biofuels (like ethanol and biodiesel) offer similar performance characteristics to conventional fuels, while also lowering tailpipe emissions and stimulating the domestic economy.
P.O. Box 10802, Eugene, OR 97440 TEL: 541.485.9711 / FAX: 541.485.1647 Biodiesel Domestic “I believe renewable fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel should be the centerpiece of our future energy strategy, because these fuels are home-grown solutions.” -South Dakota Senator Tim JohnsonBiodiesel is produced from plant and animal materials grown or recycled in the U.S. • Biodiesel can be made from any vegetable oil or animal fat, including waste restaurant oil. • Biodiesel production creates new markets for American farmers and renderers. • Biodiesel enables any region that can grow its own oilseed crop or that has access to used restaurant oil to produce its own fuel for transportation, heat and power generation. • The domestic production of biodiesel creates American jobs and contributes to the local, state and federal tax base, thereby, strengthening the U.S. economy and increasing America’s energy independence.
P.O. Box 10802, Eugene, OR 97440 TEL: 541.485.9711 / FAX: 541.485.1647 Biodiesel Renewable “Renewable fuels play a critical role in shaping our national energy policy and hold great promise for the future. While reducing our dependence on foreign oil, we’ll be boosting our nation’s reliance on the rural economy.” -Arizona Senator Blanche Lambert Lincoln Biodiesel is made from renewable resources like vegetable oil and used restaurant oil.• The U.S. Department of Energy found that biodiesel reduces life cycle carbon dioxide emissions (greenhouse gases) by nearly 80% compared to petroleum diesel.• The U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory have called biodiesel, "the most cost competitive alternative fuel".• Biodiesels ability to reduce combustion-related emissions has made it a common tool in federal programs like the Clean Air Act and the Environmental Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT).
P.O. Box 10802, Eugene, OR 97440 TEL: 541.485.9711 / FAX: 541.485.1647 Biodiesel Performance “We began with B20, we did it as a test and part of that test was to find out if our operators noticed the difference. They didn’t. We had no complaints at all.” -Principal Engineer Richard Harper of Alabama Power Biodiesel is a high-quality, ASTM-certified option to conventional fossil fuels.• Biodiesel has performed flawlessly in more than 40 million miles of road testing. Current biodiesel fleets report consistent engine performance, equal payload power and similar range over extended periods of use.• More than 100 major fleets currently use biodiesel, including the U.S. military, the U.S. Postal Service, several public transit systems, federal, state and public utilities, national parks, school districts, private recycling companies and the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA).• Biodiesel delivers superior engine lubricity without the addition of sulfur. Stanadyne Automotive, the leading independent U.S. manufacturer of diesel fuel injection equipment, supports replacing the sulfur in petroleum diesel with biodiesel.• Biodiesel has a higher cetane number than petroleum diesel, meaning that it qualifies as a “premium-grade” diesel fuel.
P.O. Box 10802, Eugene, OR 97440 TEL: 541.485.9711 / FAX: 541.485.1647 Biodiesel PropertiesFuel Property BiodieselFuel Standard ASTM 6751-02Fuel composition C12-C22 FAMELower Heating Value, Btu/gal 117,093Kinetic Viscosity, @ 40°C 1.9-6.0Specific Gravity kg/1 @ 60°F 0.88Density, lb/gal @ 15° 7.0328Water, ppm by wt. .05% maxCarbon, wt % 77Hydrogen, wt % 12Oxygen, by dif. Wt % 11Sulfur, wt % 0.0-0.0024Boiling Point, °C 182-338Flash Point, °C 100-170Cloud Point, °C -3 to 12Pour Point, °C -15 to 10Cetane Number 48-65Stoichiometric Air/Fuel Ratio 13.8BOCLE scuff, grams wt >7,000HFRR, microns 314
P.O. Box 10802, Eugene, OR 97440 TEL: 541.485.9711 / FAX: 541.485.1647 Biodiesel Material Safety Data Sheet1. Chemical Product General Product name: Biodiesel Synonyms: Rapeseed Methyl Ester Methyl Soyate Methyl Tallowate Product Description: Methyl Esters from lipid sources CAS Number: 67784-80-92. Composition/Information On Ingredients This product contains no hazardous materials.3. Hazards Identification Potential Health Effects: Inhalation: Negligible unless heated to produce vapors. Vapors or finely misted materials may irritate the mucous membranes and cause irritation, dizziness, and nausea. Remove to fresh air. Eye Contact: May cause irritation. Irrigate eyes with water for at least 15 to 20 minutes. Seek medical attention if symptoms persist. Skin Contact: Prolonged or repeated contact is not likely to cause significant skin irritation. Material is sometimes is encountered at elevated temperatures. Thermal burns are possible. Ingestion: No hazards anticipated from ingestion incidental to industrial exposure.4. First Aid Measures Eyes: Irrigate eyes with a heavy stream of water for at least 15 to 20 minutes. Skin: Wash exposed areas of the body with soap and water. Inhalation: Remove from area of exposure, seek medical attention if symptoms persist. Ingestion: Give one or two glasses of water to drink. If gastro-intestinal symptoms develop, consult medical personnel. (Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.)5. Fire Fighting Measures Flash point: 100.0°C Flammability Limits: None known Extinguishing Media: Dry chemical, foam, halon, CO2, water spray (fog). Water stream may splash the burning liquid and spread fire. Special fire Fighting Procedures: Use water spray to cool drums exposed to fire. Unusual Fire And Explosion Hazards: Oil soaked rags can cause spontaneous combustion if not handled properly. Before disposal, wash rags with soap and water and dry in a well ventilated area. Firefighters should use self-contained breathing apparatus to avoid exposure to smoke and vapor.6. Accidental Release Measures Spill Clean-Up Procedures Remove sources of ignition, contain spill to smallest area possible. Stop leak if possible. Pick up small spills with absorbent materials such as paper towels, “oil dry”, sand or dirt. Recover large spills for salvage or disposal. Wash hard surfaces with safety solvent or detergent to remove remaining oil film. Greasy nature will result in a slippery surface.
7. Handling And Storage Store in closed containers between 50°F and 120°F. Keep away from oxidizing agents, excessive heat, and ignition sources. Store and use in well ventilated areas. Do not store or use near heat, spark, or flame, store out of sun. Do not puncture, drag, or slide this container. Drum is not a pressure vessel; never use pressure to empty.8. Exposure Control/Personal Protection Respiratory Protection: If vapors or mists are generated, wear a NIOSH approved organic vapor/mist respirator. Protective Clothing: Safety glasses, goggles, or face shield recommended to protect eyes from mists or splashing. PVC coated gloves recommended to prevent skin contact. Other Protective Measures: Employees must practice good personal hygiene, washing exposed areas of skin several times daily and laundering contaminated clothing before re-use.9. Physical And Chemical Properties Boiling Point, 760 mm Hg:>200°C Specific Gravity (H2O=1): 0.88 Solubility in H2O, % by volume: insoluble Volatiles, % by Volume:<2 Vapor Pressure, mm Hg:<2 Evaporation Rate, Butyl Acetate=1:<1 Vapor Density, Air=1:>1 Appearance and Odor: pale yellow liquid, mild odor10. Stability And Reactivity General: This product is stable and hazardous polymerization will not occur. Incompatible Materials and Conditions To Avoid: Strong oxidizing agents. Hazardous Decomposition Products: Combustion produces carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide along with thick smoke.11. Disposal Considerations Waste Disposal: Waste disposed of by a licensed waste disposal company. Contaminated absorbent material may be disposed of in an approved landfill. Follow local, state and federal disposal regulations.12. Transport Information UN Hazard Class: N/A NMFC (National Motor Freight Classification): Proper Shipping Name: Fatty Acid Ester Identification Number: 144920 Shipping Classification: 6513. Regulatory Information: OSHA Status: This product is not hazardous under the criteria of the federal Osha Hazard Communication Standard 29 CFR 1910.1200. However, thermal processing and decomposition fumes, from this product may be hazardous as noted in sections 2 and 3. TSCA Status: This product is listed on TSCA. SARA Title 111 (Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act): Section 312 Extremely hazardous Substances: None Section 311/312 Hazard Categories: Non-Hazardous under Section 311/312 Section 313 Toxic Chemicals: None RCRA Status: If discarded in its purchased form, this product would not be hazardous waste either by listing or by characteristic. However, under RCRA, it is the responsibility of the
product user to determine at the time of disposal, whether a material containing the product or derived from the product should be classified as a hazardous waste. (40 CFR 261.20-24)14. Other Information: This information relates only to the specific material designated and may not be valid for such material used in combustion with any other materials or in any other process. Such information is to the best of the company’s knowledge and believed to be accurate and reliable as of the date indicated. However, no representation, warranty or guarantee of any kind, express or implied, is made as to its accuracy, reliability or completeness and we assume no responsibility for any loss, damage or expense, direct or consequential, arising out use. It is the user’s responsibility to satisfy himself as to the suitableness and completeness of such information for his own particular use.
Biodiesel Health and Emissions Benefits “We were careful to select a fuel with a proven track record and with definite health and environmental benefits. We have had a wonderful experience with the fuel, and I would recommend it highly to anyone thinking about cleaning up their school buses for the safety of our children.” -Paul Cochran, President of the School Bus Fleet Managers Association of Arizona • Biodiesel is the only alternative fuel to complete EPA Tier I and Tier II health effects testing which provide the most thorough inventory of environmental and health effects that current technology will allow. These tests concluded that biodiesel posed no increased risk to human health at any exposure level. • Biodiesel is 10 times less toxic than salt and biodegrades more rapidly than table sugar. Mixing biodiesel with petroleum diesel accelerates the rate at which petroleum diesel biodegrades. For this reason, biodiesel is used to clean up oil spills. • The use of biodiesel in a conventional diesel engine results in a substantial reduction in tailpipe emissions compared to emissions from petroleum diesel fuel Emission Type B100 B20 Total Unburned -56% -11% Hydrocarbons Carbon Monoxide -43% -13% Particulate Matter -55% -18% NOx +6% +1% Sulfates -100% -20% PAH -80% -13% NPAH -90% -50% Mutagenicity -80% to -90% -20% Ozone Potential of -50% -10% Speciated Hydrocarbons Carbon Dioxide* -78% -16% *life cycle emissions
Biodiesel ProductsFor transportation, heat and power generation Biodiesel (pure biodiesel) • Warranted and insured to ASTM D6751 specifications • May be blended with petroleum diesel in any ratio