Bio 3A: Biodiesel fleet engine performance


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Bio 3A: Biodiesel fleet engine performance

  1. 1. Biodiesel  Technical   Training  Course     BIO  3A:  Biodiesel   Engine  and  Fleet   Performance   Presented by the National Biodiesel Board
  2. 2. Learning  Objec-ves   •  Provide  access  to  industry  experts  for  more   detailed  ques-ons  and  answers  about  biodiesel  •  Introduce  the  Na-onal  Biodiesel  Board’s  Diesel   Technician  Training  program  and  the  program   resources  to  the  audience  •  Provide  informa-on  regarding  engine  performance   and  fleets  using  biodiesel  and  biodiesel  blends   across  the  US 2  
  3. 3. Learning  Outcomes    •  Be  able  to  iden-fy  which  public  and  private  fleets  use   biodiesel  and  why  •  Be  able  to  explain  the  key  changes  made  to  a  fleet   preventa-ve  maintenance  program  when  switching  to   biodiesel.  •  Be  able  to  properly  diagnose  and  make  recommenda-ons   regarding  biodiesel  use  and  vehicle  performance     3  
  4. 4.  Key  Resources  • Department of Energy (DOE)• B100 & Blends• Material Compatibility• Engine Performance• Diesel and Biodiesel Emissions
  5. 5. Fleet  Management     Experiences  
  6. 6. Fuel  proper-es  effects  on  Common  Rail  FIE   Specified Fuel properties: chemical, contamination, physical Density Aromatics Flash Pt Viscosity Cetane # Sulfur & Volatility •  Leakage control •  Startability •  Corrosion •  Fire Hazard •  Pressure •  Accurate SOI control •  Elastomeric •  Acid oxidation •  Spill •  Pressure control compatibility Hazard •  Controlled HR •  Quantity •  Catalyst poisoning •  Durability/Fatigue control •  Cavitation •  Spark damage •  Smoke & Particulates Hazard •  Filter pluggingHard Particle and ash Water Oxidation Fatty Acid Lubricity contamination contamination Stability Methyl Esters •  Wear •  Abrasive Wear •  Rough running •  Gumming, sticking •  Gumming, sticking (misfire) •  Scuffing •  Deposits •  Deposits •  Filter plugging •  Corrosion •  Seizure •  Filter plugging •  Filter pluggingOTC and Refiner Additives •  Wear •  Corrosion & Wear •  Corrosion / Wear•  Anticorrosion•  Cetane improvers Refining process Distribution and storage process contaminants contaminants•  Cold flow improvers •  Catalysts •  tank bottoms * pumps, pipes•  Lubricity improvers •  Desulfurization agents •  microbial * corrosion•  Conductivity improvers •  Cross contamination •  algae *varnish/sludge
  7. 7. Biodiesel  Delivers  Important  Diesel  Proper-es  •  Auto-­‐igni-on  =  Cetane  Number  over  50  •  BTU  Content  =  Similar  to  #1,  less  than  #2  •  Viscosity  =  Values  in  diesel  fuel  range  •  Cloud  Point  =  Current  biodiesel  higher  than  #2  •  Lubricity  =  Naturally  high  in  lubricity  •  Sulfur  =  Naturally  less  than  15  ppm  •  Cleanliness  =  ASTM  specs  same  as  petrodiesel    •  Stability  =  Spec  set  for  6  month  min.  shelf  life    •  Emissions  significantly  less  for  PM,  HC,  CO  
  8. 8. Biodiesel  and  Engine  Manufacturers  •  A]er  the  first  passage  of  ASTM  D6751  in  2001,  even  though  engine  manufacturers   voted  posi-ve  at  ASTM  most  were  not  yet  willing  to  put  their  name  behind  B20  •  Na-onal  Biodiesel  Board  set  forth  on  intensive  effort  to  work  with  OEM’s  to   address  any  issues  and  concerns  •  B20  Fleet  Evalua-on  Team  Formed:  Internaonal,  John  Deere,  Naonal  Biodiesel   Board,  Naonal  Renewable  Energy  Lab,  Parker  –  Racor,  Siemens  Diesel  Systems,   Stanadyne  Corp,  Volkswagen  AG,  Volvo  Truck,  Fleetguard,  Bosch,  Case  New   Holland,  Caterpillar,  Cummins,  DaimlerChrysler,  Delphi  Diesel  Systems,  Department   of  Defense,  Engine  Manufacturers  Associaon,  Ford  Motor  Co,  General  Motors    •  Develop  fact  based  informed  posi-on  on  B20  •  B20  Failure  Mode  and  Effects  Analysis  (FMEA)   •  Detailed  iden-fica-on  of  everything  that  can  go  wrong  when  using  B20   •  Rank:    Severity,  Occurrence,  Detec-on  modes   •  Develop  RIN:    Risk  Iden-fica-on  Number   •  Develop  plan  to  address  high  RIN  areas    
  9. 9. B20 FET - Technical Guidance and Recommendations•  Ensure  the  B20  blend  meets  proper-es  for  ASTM  D  975,  Standard   Specifica-on  for  Diesel  Fuel  Oils  or  the  ASTM  specifica-on  for   B20  once  it  is  approved.  •  Ensure  your  B20  supplier  provides  a  homogenous  product.    Avoid   long  term  storage  of  B20  to  prevent  degrada-on.  Biodiesel   should  be  used  within  six  months.  •  Prior  to  transi-oning  to  B20,  it  is  recommended  that  tanks  be   cleaned  and  free  from  sediment  and  water.  Check  for  water  and   drain  regularly  if  needed.  Monitor  for  microbial  growth  and  treat   with  biocides  as  recommended  by  the  biocide  manufacturer.  See   the  NREL  Biodiesel  Storage  and  Handling  Guidelines  for  further   informa-on.  
  10. 10. B20 FET - Technical Guidance and Recommendations•  Fuel  filters  on  the  vehicles  and  in  the  delivery  system  may   need  to  be  changed  more  frequently  upon  ini-al  B20  use.   Biodiesel  and  biodiesel  blends  have  excellent  cleaning   proper-es.  The  use  of  B20  can  dissolve  sediments  in  the   fuel  system  and  result  in  the  need  to  change  filters  more   frequently  when  first  using  biodiesel  un-l  the  whole  system   has  been  cleaned  of  the  deposits  le]  by  the  petrodiesel.  •  Be  aware  of  B20’s  cold  weather  proper-es  and  take   appropriate  precau-ons.  When  opera-ng  in  winter   climates,  use  winter  blended  diesel  fuel.  If  B20  is  to  be  used   in  winter  months,  make  sure  the  B20  cloud  point  is   adequate  for  the  geographical  region  and  -me  of  year  the   fuel  will  be  used.  
  11. 11. B20 FET - Technical Guidance and Recommendations•  Perform  regularly  scheduled  maintenance  as  dictated  by  the   engine  opera-on  and  maintenance  manual.  If  using  B20  in   seasonal  opera-ons  where  fuel  is  not  used  within  6  months,   consider  storage  enhancing  addi-ves  or  flushing  with  diesel  fuel   prior  to  storage.  •  These  recommenda-ons  on  use  of  B20  are  preliminary  and  are   not  provided  to  extend  or  supplant  warranty  limita-on  provided   by  an  individual  engine  or  equipment  supplier.  Use  of  B20   blends  is  solely  at  the  discre-on  and  risk  of  the  customer  and   any  harm  effect  caused  by  the  use  of  B20  are  not  the   responsibility  of  the  engine  or  equipment  maker.  
  12. 12. B20 FET - Technical Guidance and Recommendations•  Biodiesel  is  the  pure,  or  100  percent,  biodiesel  fuel.  It  is  referred   to  as  B100  or  “neat”  biodiesel.  •  A  biodiesel  blend  is  pure  biodiesel  blended  with  petrodiesel.   Biodiesel  blends  are  referred  to  as  BXX.  The  XX  indicates  the   amount  of  biodiesel  in  the  blend  (i.e.,  a  B20  blend  is  20  percent   by  volume  biodiesel  and  80  percent  by  volume  petrodiesel  ).  •  Ensure  the  biodiesel  meets  the  ASTM  specifica-on  for  pure   biodiesel  (ASTM  D  6751)  before  blending  with  petrodiesel.   Purchase  biodiesel  and  biodiesel  blends  only  from  companies   that  have  been  registered  under  the  BQ-­‐9000  fuel  quality   program.  
  13. 13. Today’s Fleet examples  B20  Fleet  Evalua-on  Team   NREL/NBB  B20  Bus  Fleet  Evalua-on   B20  Cummins  1000  hr.  Durability  Test   US  Postal  Service,  St.  Louis  Bus  System   Denver  Regional  Transit  Bus  System   Las  Vegas  Valley  Water  District   Clark  County,  NV  School  District   Connec-cut  DOT;  Keene,  NH;  NC  DOT;  Cedar  Rapids,  IA  Buses,  etc.  etc.  etc.      
  14. 14. Cummins  1000  Hour   Durability  B20  Study      The  objec-ve  was  to  operate  the  engine  for  1000  hr   using  B20  biodiesel  fuel,  and  do  a  compara-ve  analysis   with  engines  that  have  operated  under  the  same  type  of   condi-ons  using  #2D  diesel  fuel.     Accelerated, high-load durability cyclehr 0 25 50 125 1000
  15. 15. Test  Engine    Cummins  prototype  2007  ISL    Six  cylinder  8.9  liter    Rated  power  of  330  BHP    Peak  torque  of  1150  ]•lb  at  1300  rpm    Diesel  Oxida-on  Catalyst  (DOC)    Diesel  Par-culate  Filter  (DPF)    Post  injec-on  (in-­‐cylinder)  for  ac-ve  regenera-on    Variable  geometry  turbocharger    Exhaust  gas  recircula-on  (EGR)  with  cooler    Cummins  fuel  injec-on  system  
  16. 16. Test  Cycles  Durability  Tes-ng    Accelerated   High Idle  High-­‐load   Peak Low Idle Power  Transient  cycle      Varying  load  and  speed   Peak Torque  Cycle  repeated  for  1000  hr   >70% of durability cycle at full load  Emissions  Tes-ng    Federal  Test  Procedure  (FTP)    One  cold  start  transient  FTP  test    Three  hot  start  transient  FTP  test    One  SET  Ramped  Modal  Cycle  
  17. 17. Durability  &  Emission  Results    Approximately  17,000  gallons  of  B20  biodiesel  fuel  was  used  during  the   durability  test.    Test  went  well  and  was  successful.    There  were  no  biodiesel  related  failures   during  the  test,  and  no  reported  significant  changes  in  performance  of  the   engine.    Engine  performance  was  essen-ally  the  same  when  tested  at  125  &  1000   hr  of  accumulated  durability  opera-on.    Emission  results  indicate  that  THC,  CO,  and  PM  levels  were  not  significantly   different  between  the  B20  and  ULSD.       ~The  emission-­‐grade  B20  test  resulted  in  ≈6%  higher  NOx  (within  expected   range)    Fuel  consump-on  was  observed  to  be  ≈3%  higher  than  the  2007  cer-fied   ULSD  test  (within  expected  range).  
  18. 18. Overhead   Components   Top of cylinder head No Bottom of cylinder head sludge deposits Deposits comparable to #2D Results are typical for this type of test with #2D diesel fuelIntake Valves Exhaust Valves
  19. 19. Power  Transfer  Components  Component   Comments  Crancksha]  Gear   Meets  rebuild  spec  Cam  Gear   Meets  rebuild  spec  Cam  Bushing   Meets  rebuild  spec  Fuel  Pump  Gear   Meets  rebuild  spec  Crancksha]   Meets  rebuild  spec   During teardown, the crankshaft was foundLower  &  Upper   Normal  wear   to be in very good condition, and resultsBearings   were comparable to #2D diesel fuel test.Connec-ng  Rod   Meets  rebuild  spec  Connec-ng  Rod   Meets  rebuild  spec  Bushing  
  20. 20. Power  Cylinder  Components   Crosshatch visible in all six cylinders.Component   Comments   Minor stainingPiston   Normal  light  wear  and   deposits.  Cylinder  Liners   Normal  light  wear.   Ring Grooves Anti-Thrust SideTop  rings   Normal  uniform  face  wear.     Cylinder 1 Top  and  booom  side  look   typical.      Middle  rings   Normal  face  wear.    Top  and   booom  sides  OK,  and  light   Top Piston carboning.   Piston Bowl Front Cylinder 1Oil  rings   Looked  good.    Very  liole   wear.   Results comparable to #2D diesel fuel test.
  21. 21. Cooling  and  Lube   Components   Cylinder 1 TopComponent   Comments   Cylinder 6 BottomOil  pump   No  issues  Oil  cooler  head   No  issues  Oil  cooler  cover   No  issues   Bottom (Oil) Piston RingsOil  pressure   No  issues  regulator/bypass   There were no failures found on thePiston  cooling   No  problems  due  to   cooling and lube components. Thenozzles   B20.   wear and deposits found on the parts were normal and consistent withOil  Pan   Normal   findings found on parts that ran with #2Oil  suc-on  tube   Gasket  showed  good   diesel fuel in similar tests. imprint  of  seal  Turbo  coolant/oil   Normal  lines  
  22. 22. Air  Handling  Components  Component   Comments  Exhaust  Manifold   No  issues.  EGR  Cooler   No  cracks,  light  coa-ng   of  soot  on  inlet  and   outlet  tubes.  No  soot  in   inlet  diffuser.  Findings   good  overall.  EGR  Valve   Looked  good.    Normal   soot  accumula-on.      EGR  gaskets,  hoses,   No  issues  found  due  to   Carbon deposit layer was generated on thetubes,  shield,  moun-ng   running  with  B20.   passage and inside parts of the EGR valve, butplate,  crossover   thickness was very thin and condition was dry which is normal for this durability test.
  23. 23. A]ertreatment  Components  Component   Comments  Diesel  Oxida-on   Looked  good.    No  face  plugging.  Catalyst  (DOC)   Blockages  found  appeared  like  debris  and  substrate  material.       Debris  was  analyzed  under  Electron  Dispersive  Spectroscopy  (EDS),   and  all  debris  found  is  expected  in  a  typical  DOC  a]er  1000  hr  of   opera-on,  whether  fueled  with  ULSD  or  biodiesel.    Diesel  Par-culate   Inlet  face  showed  signs  of  ash  build  up,  but  similar  to  diesel  fuel  for  Filter  (DPF)   this  type  of  test.     Outlet  looked  good  with  no  signs  of  soot.   No  failure  found.  Inlet  and  outlet   Looked  good.  sec-on  Gaskets   Looked  good.  
  24. 24. Fuel  System  Pictures   Stage 1 Plunger Needle Plunger Needle – Top View No marks on needle surface or the edge. Some slight staining. Plunger Orificenot clogged with oilsludge or deposits Stage 2 Plunger Needle has some wear, but normal for this type of aggressive test.
  25. 25. Fuel  System   Components  Rail  and  fuel  lines   Rail  –  No  abnormal  wear.     End  Fi?ng  –  No  unusual  wear.     HP  Fuel  Lines  –  No  visible  structural  deteriora-on  or  cracks  observed.  Mechanical  Dump   No  unusual  wear,  deteriora-on  or  sludge  buildup  observed  on  plungers,  Valve  (MDV)   plunger  seats  or  orifice.   1)  Stage  One  Plunger  –  No  wear  visible  on  the  needle  surface  or  the  edge.     Some  slight  staining  seen  on  plunger  base.   2)  Stage  Two  Plunger  –  Some  wear,  but  normal.    Plunger  orifice  not  clogged   with  oil  sludge  or  deposits.  Injectors   Injector  performance  test  and  photos  indicate  that  the  injectors  were   consistent  with  injectors  that  ran  with  #2D  diesel  fuel.    So]  Lines   No  visible  damage  to  any  sec-on  of  the  internal  wall  of  the  used  fuel  tubes   indica-ng  that  the  tubing  liner  material  is  resistant  to  the  B20  temperatures   and  pressures  during  the  engine  performance  test.    Overall   There  were  no  signs  of  severe  or  aggressive  corrosion  pirng  damage  on  any   of  the  surfaces.  
  26. 26. Summary    A  Cummins  2007  prototype  8.9  liter  ISL  diesel  engine  equipped  with  DOC,  DPF,   VGT,  and  EGR  with  cooler  was  operated  successfully  at  SwRI  using  a  high-­‐load   accelerated  durability  cycle  for  1000  hr  with  a  B20  blend  of      soy-­‐based   biodiesel  and  ULSD.    During  the  durability  tes-ng,  no  biodiesel  related  failures  occurred.    Engine  performance  was  essen-ally  the  same  when  tested  at  125  and  1000  hr   of  accumulated  durability  opera-on.    Emissions  measurements  indicate  the  HC,   CO,  and  PM  were  not  significantly  different  between  the  B20  and  ULSD  tests,   and  NOx  increased  with  B20  fuel.    Fuel  consump-on  also  increased  with  B20   fuel.    A  thorough  engine  teardown  evalua-on  of  the  overhead,  power  transfer,   cylinder,  cooling,  lube,  air  handling,  gaskets,  a]ertreatment,  and  fuel  system   parts  was  performed.    There  were  no  failures  found  on  the  engine  components  that  were  directly   aoributable  to  running  biodiesel  B20.    The  wear  and  deposits  found  were  normal  and  consistent  with  findings  from   parts  that  ran  with  #2  diesel  fuel  in  similar  tests.  
  27. 27. Biodiesel  Resources     • Biodiesel  Training  Toolkit     • News  Releases  &  Informa-on  Resources   • Technical  Library,  Spec  Sheets  &  Videos   • OEM  Warranty  Posi-ons  on  Biodiesel   •   U.S.  Diesel  Vehicle  List   www.BQ-­‐     Rachel  Burton   NBB  Diesel  Technician  Training    Prog • Lis-ng  of  BQ-­‐9000  Cer-fied  Companies   Tel:  919-­‐444-­‐3495       Call  NBB  at  1-­‐800-­‐841-­‐5849   • Lis-ng  of  BioTrucker  retail  sites     Visit           36   • Dedicated to information exchange for biodiesel & diesel technicians