Biodiesel 101


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  • Btu/lb Btu/gal No. 2 Diesel 18,300 129,050 B100 16,000 118,170 (12.5% less) (8% less)
  • Biodiesel 101

    1. 1. Biodiesel 101 & Technical Overview National Biodiesel Board Technician Outreach Program June 2008
    2. 2. Today’s Topics <ul><li>Driving Forces—Why Biodiesel? </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel Basics </li></ul><ul><li>Production Process and ASTM Spec </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Attributes </li></ul><ul><li>OEM Support </li></ul><ul><li>Demand and Availability </li></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul>
    3. 3. Biodiesel Driving Forces <ul><li>Reduce dependence on imported crude oil and petrodiesel from unstable parts of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce global warming by using a renewable fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce harmful emissions from diesel engines </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used in any diesel engine without modifications, existing fueling stations can be used </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to use--drop in substitute for petroleum diesel fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Produces over 3 times more energy than it takes to grow and process the fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Engine and vehicle companies approve the fuel for use </li></ul><ul><li>Over 100 million miles of on-road trouble-free use both here and abroad </li></ul>
    4. 4. Why make biodiesel? Diesel fuel injectors are not designed for viscous fuels like vegetable oil Glycerin (thick) Biodiesel
    5. 5. Biodiesel Defined <ul><li>Biodiesel , n. -- a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, meeting ASTM D 6751, designated B100. </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel Blend , n. -- a blend of biodiesel fuel with petroleum-based diesel fuel designated BXX, where XX is the volume percent of biodiesel. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This tight definition was needed in order to secure vehicle, engine and fuel injection equipment company support for biodiesel, as well as to secure ASTM specs </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Biodiesel (B100) Definition <ul><li>Eliminates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal Slurries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raw Vegetable Oils and Fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Esterified Oils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partially Esterified Oils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blends With Diesel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non Ester Renewable Diesel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adequate engine testing has not been thoroughly performed in some of these fuels </li></ul>
    7. 7. Biodiesel Raw Materials <ul><li>Oil or Fat Alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Soybean Methanol </li></ul><ul><li>Corn Ethanol </li></ul><ul><li>Canola </li></ul><ul><li>Cottonseed Catalyst </li></ul><ul><li>Sunflower Sodium hydroxide </li></ul><ul><li>Beef tallow Potassium hydroxide </li></ul><ul><li>Pork lard </li></ul><ul><li>Used cooking oils </li></ul>
    8. 8. Transesterification (the biodiesel reaction) Fatty Acid Chain Glycerol Methanol (or Ethanol) One triglyceride molecule is converted into three mono alkyl ester (biodiesel) molecules Biodiesel Triglyceride
    9. 9. Biodiesel Reaction <ul><li>Vegetable Oil or </li></ul><ul><li>Animal Fat </li></ul><ul><li>(100 lbs.) </li></ul><ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Methanol or </li></ul><ul><li>Ethanol </li></ul><ul><li>(10 lbs.) </li></ul>Biodiesel (100 lbs.) + Glycerin (10 lbs.) In the presence of a catalyst Combining Yields
    10. 10. Important Biodiesel Parameters <ul><li>Complete Reaction/Removal of Glycerin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insured through total/free glycerin spec </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Removal of Catalyst </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insured through sulfated ash spec </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Removal of Alcohol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insured through flash point spec </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Absence of Free Fatty Acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insured through acid value spec </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All these insured through ASTM D 6751 </li></ul>
    11. 11. Specification for Biodiesel (B100) – ASTM D6751-07b (Dec. 2007)
    12. 12. ASTM Current Status <ul><li>ASTM D 6751 is the approved standard for B100 to be used for blending in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>If B100 meets D 6751 and petrodiesel meets D 975, the two can be blended up to 20% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to how #1 and #2 diesel are managed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The MOST important factor is B100 meeting ASTM D 6751 prior to blending </li></ul>
    13. 13. ASTM Current Status <ul><li>ASTM is in the process of formally approving specifications for finished blends of biodiesel </li></ul><ul><li>For these blends, all biodiesel used must meet D 6751 prior to blending </li></ul><ul><li>Allowance of up to 5% biodiesel into ASTM D 975, the specification for petrodiesel, has been approved at the ASTM subcommittee level. Final vote expected in June 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>A new ASTM spec for B6-B20 blends has been approved at the ASTM subcommittee level, with final vote expected in June 2008 </li></ul>
    14. 14. Quality, Quality, Quality <ul><li>B100 must meet D 6751 prior to blending to insure trouble-free use of B20 and lower blends </li></ul><ul><li>BQ-9000 fuel quality program helps to promote high quality fuel from producers and marketers </li></ul><ul><li>B20 and lower blends are recommended since most of the research and successful use of the fuel has been with these blends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See NBB Toolkit document “Use of Biodiesel Blends Up to B20” for more information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blends over B20 require special precautions and should only be used by knowledgeable and experienced users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See NBB document “Guidance on Biodiesel Blends Above B20” for more information: </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. BQ-9000 Program <ul><li>Biodiesel Industry’s “Good Housekeeping” TM seal of approval for biodiesel production & distribution companies </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Control System covers biodiesel manufacturing, sampling, testing, blending, storage, shipping, distribution </li></ul><ul><li>ASTM Grade Fuel, BQ-9000 Companies </li></ul>
    16. 16. Biodiesel (B100) Attributes <ul><li>High Cetane (avg. over 50) </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra Low Sulfur (avg. ~ 2 ppm) </li></ul><ul><li>High Lubricity, even in blends as low as 1-2% </li></ul><ul><li>High Energy Balance (3.5 to 1) </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable, Sustainable, Domestically Produced </li></ul><ul><li>Increases overall fuel production capacity in USA </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces HC, PM, CO in existing diesel engines </li></ul>
    17. 17. Enhanced Lubricity <ul><li>Equipment benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Superior lubricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B2 has up to 66% more lubricity than #2 Diesel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EPA required sulfur reduction in 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>No overdosing concerns vs. other lubricity additives </li></ul>
    18. 18. Biodiesel and Global Warming <ul><li>Closed Carbon Cycle: CO 2 Used to Grow Feedstock is Put Back Into Air </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>78% Life Cycle Decrease In CO 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Energy Balance 3.5 to 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Compression Ignition Platform (i.e. diesel) 30% More Efficient Than Spark Ignition (i.e. gasoline, CNG, propane) </li></ul>
    19. 19. Economic Development: Biodiesel <ul><li>Creates Manufacturing Jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Creates Expanded Markets for Agricultural Products </li></ul><ul><li>Improves Balance of Trade </li></ul>
    20. 20. Energy security <ul><li>Increases Domestic Fuel Production Capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Putting renewable feeds through existing refineries doesn’t do this </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduces Energy Imports and Dependence on Foreign Oil Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Good Fit as ‘Distributed Energy’ for Energy Security </li></ul>
    21. 21. 2002 EPA HD Emissions Averages FTP Engine Dyno Summary - Higher % reductions occur at the lower blends - EPA is re-evaluating NOx data +2% -12% -12% -20% B20 +.2% -1.3% -1.3% -2.2% B2 +10% Oxides of Nitrogen (NO X ) -47% Particulate Matter -48% Carbon Monoxide -67% Total Unburned Hydrocarbons B100 Emission Type
    22. 22. Cold Weather Performance <ul><li>Pure biodiesel does freeze faster than most petrodiesel </li></ul><ul><li>Your B20 supplier should provide blends of B20 that will not cause any cold flow issues in the winter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exactly the same way they do with #2 diesel fuel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There are a variety of tools at the disposal of distributors to improve the cold flow operability of #2 petrodiesel and biodiesel blends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blending with #1, cold flow additives, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B20 has been used successfully in climates below -20 º F </li></ul>
    23. 23. Biodiesel Fuel Stability <ul><li>The biodiesel specification contains parameters for insuring adequate fuel stability for normal applications </li></ul><ul><li>The shelf life of biodiesel blends is recommended by NBB as 6 months </li></ul>
    24. 24. Fuel Filters and Solvency <ul><li>B20 & Under </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor filters, less than 2% need to be changed </li></ul><ul><li>Mild cleaning effect </li></ul><ul><li>Storage tanks may need to be cleaned, or keep extra filters on hand at start up </li></ul><ul><li>Housekeeping protocols for generic diesel equally important prior to blending </li></ul>
    25. 25. Solvency <ul><li>B100 </li></ul><ul><li>When switching old fuel tanks or vehicles to biodiesel, there may be some loosening of deposits. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel tanks should be cleaned. If not possible, use finer filters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan to change fuel filters once or twice after fuel changes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel is an excellent paint remover – don’t be sloppy when refueling. </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel will dissolve concrete – stop drips. </li></ul>
    26. 26. OEM Warranty Statements and Biodiesel <ul><li>All major U.S. OEMs support B5 and lower blends, provided they are made with biodiesel meeting ASTM D 6751, the existing ASTM International standard for pure biodiesel (B100) </li></ul><ul><li>Many are progressing toward support for B20 pending approval of a new ASTM standard for B20 blends </li></ul><ul><li>Use of blends higher than B5 will not necessarily void existing warranties </li></ul><ul><li>For a complete listing of OEM position statements on biodiesel , visit: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Major OEMs’ Biodiesel Positions Accepts up to B20 in ISX, ISM, ISL, ISC and ISB engines; require BQ-9000 supplier Accepts up to B5 Cummins Detroit Diesel Case IH accepts up to B20 for most equipment; nearly half of all Case IH equipment also approved for B100. New Holland approves B100 in all equipment with New Holland diesel engines. Case IH New Holland Accepts up to B5 in most vehicles; B5 factory fill in Jeep Grand Cherokee and Dodge Ram; B20 approved for fleet use in Dodge Ram Chrysler Tiered acceptance for B30 / B20 / B5 depending upon equipment type and model Caterpillar
    28. 28. Major OEMs’ Biodiesel Positions Accepts up to B20; Recommends B5; Utilizes B2 factory fill for all U.S. diesels John Deere Accepts up to B5 produced from Soy (SME) Mack Accepts up to B5 Isuzu Accepts up to B5; working toward B20 VW Accepts up to B5 Volvo Truck Accepts up to B5 Mercedes Accepts up to B5 International Accepts up to B5; B20 offered as Special Equipment Option for fleets on select vehicles General Motors Accepts up to B5; working toward B20 Ford
    29. 29. Disadvantages of biodiesel <ul><li>Lower Energy Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8% fewer BTU’s per gallon, but also higher cetane #, lubricity, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Poor cold weather performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This can be mitigated by blending with diesel fuel or with additives, or using low gel point feedstocks such as rapeseed/canola. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stability Concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel is less oxidatively stable than petroleum diesel fuel. Old fuel can become acidic and form sediments and varnish. Additives can prevent this. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scalability </li></ul><ul><li>Solvency </li></ul>
    30. 31. Fuel Energy Content <ul><li>Biodiesel has less energy content (lower heating value) than diesel fuel. </li></ul><ul><li>Btu/lb Btu/gallon </li></ul><ul><li>No. 2 diesel fuel 18,300 129,050 </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel 16,000 118,170 </li></ul><ul><li>(12.5% less) (8% less) </li></ul><ul><li>Diesel fuel is injected volumetrically, so energy per unit volume is important. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel will cause 8% power loss. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dense fuels provide more energy per gallon. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specific gravities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No. 1 diesel fuel = 0.81 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No. 2 diesel fuel = 0.84 -0.855 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel = 0.878-0.88 </li></ul></ul>
    31. 32. Operational issues <ul><li>Low energy content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not harmful, but may cause power loss and increased fuel consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cold flow – fuel filter plugging </li></ul><ul><li>Microbial growth – fuel filter plugging </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete reaction – fuel filter plugging </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel oxidation – fuel filter plugging </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel filter plugging is the most common operational issue </li></ul>
    32. 33. Engine Wear Issues <ul><li>Biodiesel only contacts the fuel system so use should not affect bearings, turbo, oil/water pumps, and other wear-related parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel improves fuel lubricity and thus can be used as a lubricity additive for poor quality diesel fuels. </li></ul><ul><li>In Europe, there have been some claims of crankcase oil dilution and oil thickening. This has not been observed in the U.S. </li></ul>
    33. 34. Handling and Storage
    34. 35. Material Compatibility <ul><li>Some older fuel lines (Buna, natural rubbers) are not compatible with biodiesel and will degrade. </li></ul><ul><li>Viton and Teflon hoses and seals are widely used today and are compatible with biodiesel. </li></ul><ul><li>No copper, brass, bronze, zinc, or other galvanized surfaces </li></ul>
    35. 36. Filter Biodiesel plant Filter Filter Oil Filter Filter
    36. 38. Distribution Locations 2007 Type of Seller Both Retail & Bulk (343) Bulk Distribution (1515) Retail Outlets (760)
    37. 39. Production Locations Current Production Capacity = 2.24 Billion Gallons/Year
    38. 40. Plants Under Construction & Expansion New Capacity = 1.11 Billion Gallons/Year Total Capacity (Existing + New) = 3.35 Billion Gallons/Year
    39. 41. NBB Resources <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical Library </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel Bulletin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational Videos Available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informational Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-line Database & Spec Sheets </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel Quality Certification Program for Accredited Producers and Certified Marketers </li></ul></ul>