Biodiesel	  Technical	     Training	  Course	              	  BIO3B:	  Exhaust	  A:er-­‐   Treatment	  and	        Biodies...
Today’s	  Topics                                                            	  	  •  Changes	  in	  diesel	  engine	  emis...
Learning	  Objec4ves                                                           	  •  Provide	  access	  to	  industry	  ex...
Learning	  Outcomes                                                	  •  Be able to answer general questions about biodies...
US	  On	  Highway	  Emissions	  Standards                                                                           	     ...
Diesel	  Emission	  Reduc4ons                              	  
Emission Reduction in Diesel EnginesFuel system                             Better understandingtechnology                ...
Exhaust	  &	  Emissions	  Controls                                                         	  •    EGR:	  Exhaust	  Gas	  ...
2010	  standards                                                      	  •  Introduction of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel i...
Diesel	  Par4cle	  Filters                                                                                            	  •...
Diesel	  Par4culate	  Filter	  (DPF)	  Maintenance	  •  Carbon	  par?culates	  are	  burned	  off	  with	  on-­‐board	     ...
Catalyzed	  Diesel	  Par4culate	  Filter	  (CDPFs)                                                                        ...
DPF	  Regenera4on	  
SCR	  Performance	  
Biodiesel	  Tes4ng	                                                          	  Cummins ISB 300•  2002 Engine, 2004 Certif...
B20 Testing B20 results in substantial PM reduction even with DPF (data for 2003 Cummins ISB with Johnson Matthey CCRT on ...
Superb Results    BPT      • BPT is 40ºC lower for B20ULSD 360ºC   • Soot is more easily burned off of filterB20  320ºC   ...
NOx	  Adsorber	  Technology                                                                                          	    ...
SCR	  Performance	  
NOx	  Controls                                                                                           	  • NOx	  Adsorb...
Biodiesel	  Tes4ng	  with	  LD	  Emission	  Systems                                                                       ...
ULSD vs B20 – SCRNo statistical difference in NOx Conversion with B20
Selec4ve-­‐Catalysts	  Reduc4on	  (SCR)                                                                  	                ...
Selec4ve-­‐Catalysts	  Reduc4on	  (SCR)                                                                                   ...
How	  Does	  Biodiesel	  Effect	                                                                	                          ...
What	  Will	  Be	  in	  the	  Marketplace?	  •  All	  of	  the	  above!	  •  Par?culate	  Traps	  (or	  Soot	  Filters)	  ...
Biodiesel	  and	  A>ertreatment	  Systems	      Biodiesel	  is	  compa4ble	  with	  Diesel	  Par4culate	  Filters,	  and	...
Conclusion	  	  •    NBB,	  the	  US	  Department	  of	  Energy,	  and	  the	  engine	  and	       vehicle	  manufacturers...
Biodiesel	  Resources	   www.biodiesel.org	     • Biodiesel	  Training	  Toolkit	  	     • News	  Releases	  &	  Informa4...
Thank You!                                     Questions…? 	  	          	                                                ...
Bio 3B: Biodiesel exhaust aftertreatment
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Bio 3B: Biodiesel exhaust aftertreatment

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Bio 3B: Biodiesel exhaust aftertreatment

  1. 1. Biodiesel  Technical   Training  Course    BIO3B:  Exhaust  A:er-­‐ Treatment  and   Biodiesel     Presented by the National Biodiesel Board
  2. 2. Today’s  Topics    •  Changes  in  diesel  engine  emissions  regula4ons  •  Basics  of  diesel  engine  emissions   –  Changes  in  hardware  required  by  emissions  regula4ons   –  Interac4ons  of  fuels  and  fuel  systems  •  Methods  of  exhaust  a>ertreatment  •  Exhaust  a>ertreatment  &  biodiesel  •  Resources  
  3. 3. Learning  Objec4ves  •  Provide  access  to  industry  experts  for  more  detailed   ques4ons  and  answers  about  biodiesel  •  Introduce  the  Na4onal  Biodiesel  Board’s  Diesel  Technician   Training  program  and  the  program  resources  to  the   audience  •  Provide  quality  informa4on  about  biodiesel  and  diesel   emissions  •  Provide  quality  informa4on  about  biodiesel  usage  and   today’s  diesel  exhaust  emissions  a>ertreatment
  4. 4. Learning  Outcomes  •  Be able to answer general questions about biodiesel that you may be asked as a technician •  Be able to answer questions about biodiesel emissions •  Be able to answer questions about biodiesel usage and today’s diesel exhaust emissions aftertreatment •  Be able to make recommendations regarding biodiesel use and vehicle maintenance
  5. 5. US  On  Highway  Emissions  Standards   14.4 16 14 8.05 12 6.7 6.7NOx, g/kW-Hr 10 5.4 8 3.3 6 1988 4 1990 1.5 1991 2 0.27 1994 0 0.013 1998 0.134 2000 0.33 2002 2007 0.80 2010
  6. 6. Diesel  Emission  Reduc4ons  
  7. 7. Emission Reduction in Diesel EnginesFuel system Better understandingtechnology of combustion EGR technologyRate controlHigh pressure Others CombustionMulti-injection technology Control technology PM trap Aftertreatment Fuel technology technology DOC Alternate Fuels De-NOx Low sulfur (Biodiesel)
  8. 8. Exhaust  &  Emissions  Controls  •  EGR:  Exhaust  Gas  Recircula4on  •  Cataly4c  converters  •  DPF:  Diesel  Par4culate  Filters  •  DOC:  Diesel  Oxida4on  Catalyst  •  SCR: Selective Catalytic Reduction (Urea)  •  Emissions  regula4ons  dicta4ng  changing   engine  and  fuel  injec4on  design  
  9. 9. 2010  standards  •  Introduction of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel in October 2006•  EPA emissions standard for 2007:•  Diesel particle filters (DPF)•  Increased levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and higher fuel injection pressures•  Full EPA emissions standard in 2010:•  DPF, EGR, high pressure fuel injection•  Exhaust catalysts for NOx reduction • NOx adsorber catalysts, unburned diesel fuel for operation • Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) • Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) needed for SCR operation
  10. 10. Diesel  Par4cle  Filters  •  Exhaust  flows  through  porous  wall-­‐flow  elements   –  PM  is  trapped  on  the  walls  of  the  filter  •  When  exhaust  temperature  is  high  enough,  PM  is  burned  off   –  In  most  cases,  unburned  diesel  fuel  is  injected  to  accomplish  this  •  Precious  metal  is  loaded  onto  filter  walls  to  lower  the  temperature   required  for  regenera4on  •  Issues:   –  Regenera4on  at  low  temperatures/duty  cycles   –  Plugging  with  incombus4ble  materials  like  lube  oil  ash  
  11. 11. Diesel  Par4culate  Filter  (DPF)  Maintenance  •  Carbon  par?culates  are  burned  off  with  on-­‐board   regenera?on  •  Ash  remains  in  the  DPF  and  must  be  removed  periodically   –  This  requires  removal  from  vehicle  
  12. 12. Catalyzed  Diesel  Par4culate  Filter  (CDPFs)  Exhaust Gas Platinum Catalyst Soot Filter Converts NO2 Oxidizes Soot in Filter NO  2NO2 2NO2 + C  CO2 + 2NO•  Uses  chemicals  in  exhaust  to  con?nuously  burn  carbon  in   Soot  Filter  •  Must  s?ll  be  removed  to  clean  ash  
  13. 13. DPF  Regenera4on  
  14. 14. SCR  Performance  
  15. 15. Biodiesel  Tes4ng    Cummins ISB 300•  2002 Engine, 2004 Certification•  Cooled EGR, VGTJohnson Matthey CCRT•  12 Liter DPF•  Passively Regenerated System•  Pre Catalyst (NO2 Production) •  ReFUEL Test Facility •  400 HP Dynamometer •  Transient & Steady State Testing •  Cummins •  Soot Characterization •  Significant financial support for testing•  Fuels: ULSD, B100, B20, B5
  16. 16. B20 Testing B20 results in substantial PM reduction even with DPF (data for 2003 Cummins ISB with Johnson Matthey CCRT on HD FTP) Reduction with DPF ranges from 20% to 70%, depending on basefuel, test cycle, and other factors •  Reduction in sulfate emissions •  Increased PM reactivityWilliams, et al., “Effect of Biodiesel Blends on Diesel Particulate FilterPerformance” SAE 2006-01-3280
  17. 17. Superb Results BPT • BPT is 40ºC lower for B20ULSD 360ºC • Soot is more easily burned off of filterB20 320ºC • B20 can be used for lower temperature duty cycleB100 250ºC • Regeneration rate increases with increasing biodiesel content • Even at 5%, biodiesel PM measurably oxidizes more quickly
  18. 18. NOx  Adsorber  Technology   Diesel Injector DOC LNA Filter NOx Sensor DOC Diesel Valves Oxidation Bypass Catalyst Reference: Volvo•  Filter  removes  par?cles  •  LNA  absorbs  NOx  on  lean  opera?on  •  Controls  switch  to  rich  opera?on  to  NOx  to  harmless  Nitrogen  •  Filter  regenera?on  and  LNA  regenera?on  are  separate  •  Complex;  costly;  &  fuel  economy  loss  
  19. 19. SCR  Performance  
  20. 20. NOx  Controls  • NOx  Adsorber  Catalyst/Lean  NOx  trap   – Catalyst  converts  all  NOx  to  NO2,  adsorbent  bed   “traps”  NO2   – When  bed  is  saturated,  exhaust  forced    rich   – NO2  is  released  and  converted  to  N2   – Bed  also  traps  SO2,  but  doesn’t  release  it   NOx adsorber catalyst (NAC) is also •  Near  sulfur  free  exhaust  is  needed   known as a lean-NOx trap (LNT) •  Higher  temps,  longer  4me  needed  to  release   sulfur   – 90%+  conversion  is  possible   NOx + NH3• Selec4ve  Cataly4c  Reduc4on  (SCR)   Sensor – Used  for  industrial  NOx  control  for  years   – Requires  a  supplemental  “reductant”   – Typically  ammonia,  derived  from  urea   SCR •  “Diesel  Exhaust  Fluid”   – 80-­‐90%  reduc4on  efficiency   Injection – Generally  sulfur  tolerant   Urea
  21. 21. Biodiesel  Tes4ng  with  LD  Emission  Systems  •  Includes  two  emission  control  systems  and  two  fuel  blends  on  a   light-­‐duty  placorm   –  NAC/DPF  and  SCR/DPF   –  5%  and  20  %  biodiesel  blends  •  Performance,  op4miza4on  and  durability   –  Aging  to  represent  2100  hours  of  opera4on  (approximately  120,00  miles  or   full  useful  life)  for  B20   –  Emissions  evalua4ons  over  UDDS,  US06,  and  HFET–  tes4ng  by  EPA   –  Perform  engine  and  fuel  component  teardown  at  end  of  aging   Engine: DCX Vehicle: Mercedes OM646 C200 CDI
  22. 22. ULSD vs B20 – SCRNo statistical difference in NOx Conversion with B20
  23. 23. Selec4ve-­‐Catalysts  Reduc4on  (SCR)   Air Induction Aqueous NO EGR UreaAir to Air Cooler Solution Pump and Tank Injector 1 Turbo-Charge Atomized 2 Urea C Solution 3 T 4 5 6 Catalyzed SCR Catalyst Ammonia Particulate Slip Engine Filter Catalyst Reference: DDC
  24. 24. Selec4ve-­‐Catalysts  Reduc4on  (SCR)  •  Uses  aqueous  Urea  instead  of  fuel  to  convert  NOx  to   Nitrogen   –  Requires  extra  tank  etc.   –  Must  add  Urea  distribu?on  system  to  supply  chain  •  Reduced  EGR  or  no  EGR  •  Fuel  economy  gains  compared  to  NOx  Adsorber  •  Proven  durability  for  European  applica?ons  •  Favored  by  some  for  large  truck  and  sta?onary  applica?ons  
  25. 25. How  Does  Biodiesel  Effect     Emissions  &  A>ertreatment  ?  •  Fuel  System   –  Concern  over  deposits  and  corrosion   –  Addressed  by  ASTM  specifica?ons  •  Engine  Emissions   –  Lower  HC  and  Par?culate   –  NOx  emissions  depend  on  duty  cycle    •  A:ertreatment  hardware  /  durability   –  Easier  DPF  regenera?on   –  Studies  at  NREL  /  ORNL  show  no  adverse  effects  on  hardware   durability  
  26. 26. What  Will  Be  in  the  Marketplace?  •  All  of  the  above!  •  Par?culate  Traps  (or  Soot  Filters)  were  across  the   board  in  2007  •  NOx  Adsorbers  are  on  some  pick-­‐up  truck   applica?ons  •  SCR  is  favored  for  many  HD  truck  and  sta?onary   applica?ons  
  27. 27. Biodiesel  and  A>ertreatment  Systems    Biodiesel  is  compa4ble  with  Diesel  Par4culate  Filters,  and  has   some  dis4nct  advantages:   •  Lowers  regenera4on  temperatures   •  Less  engine  out  par4culate  maher   •  May  provide  increased  performance  and  decreased  maintenance  vs.   ULSD  alone   •  May  provide  increased  fuel  economy      Regenera4on  mode  is  important   •  Late  in-­‐cylinder  injec4on  may  cause  increased  fuel  dilu4on  of  engine   oil  and  limit  the  level  of  biodiesel  that  can  be  used  (i.e.  B20  or  B5)   •  Most  US  heavy  duty  applica4ons  use  exhaust  stream  fuel  injec4on   which  is  compa4ble  with  B20,  perhaps  higher  blends   •  Some  light  duty  OEMs  recommend  max  B5  at  present   28  
  28. 28. Conclusion    •  NBB,  the  US  Department  of  Energy,  and  the  engine  and   vehicle  manufacturers  are  expending  significant   resources  to  understand  how  biodiesel  blends  interact   with  new  diesel  emission  controls  •  Detailed  tes4ng  thus  far  indicates  B20  and  lower   blends  are  compa4ble  with  both  diesel  and  NOx  a>er   treatment   –  Provides  benefits  in  some  cases  •  B5  is  now  just  part  of  normal  D975  diesel  fuel    •  Addi4onal  study  is  underway   –  Quan4fy  long  term  benefits  of  biodiesel  blends   –  Late  in-­‐cylinder  injec4on  impact  on  fuel  dilu4on   –  NBB  is  encouraging  OEM’s  to  publicly  support  B20  
  29. 29. Biodiesel  Resources   www.biodiesel.org   • Biodiesel  Training  Toolkit     • News  Releases  &  Informa4on  Resources   • Technical  Library,  Spec  Sheets  &  Videos   • OEM  Warranty  Posi4ons  on  Biodiesel   •   U.S.  Diesel  Vehicle  List   www.BQ-­‐9000.org     • Lis4ng  of  BQ-­‐9000  Cer4fied  Companies   www.biotrucker.com   • Lis4ng  of  BioTrucker  retail  sites     www.biodieselautomo?ve.org   30   • Dedicated to information exchange for biodiesel & diesel technicians
  30. 30. Thank You! Questions…?                  Rachel  Burton   Call  NBB  at  1-­‐800-­‐841-­‐5849    OEM  Diesel  Technician  Training     Visit  www.biodiesel.org   Program    wrenchwench@blast.com    Tel:  919-­‐444-­‐3495           31  

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