bio diesel


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presentation on Bio Diesel: the most extensively used in modern time all around the world

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  • National High-ways, State high-ways and Railway tracks of India
    totaling about 270,000Km.; having at least 10M side strips on both
    sides of the tracks as the property of respective Departments. Out of this total length only 50% side strips are considered for the
    plantation of Pogamia Pinnata[Local Indian names:- Karanj, Ponnu Unnu, Honge, Punnai, Pungu etc.]. The Pongamia Pinnata seed oil is a not edible oil but very suitable substitute to the diesel with a simple additive of 15% ethanol or with some explosives of very small quantities by volume. As per my own experiments fuel consumption per Liter is almost at par value of diesel. After the gesture period of about 4-5 years each tree is in a position to yield about 10 Liter of oil per year and will increase to 35 Liter in next 5 years, where the
    life of the tree is about 70 years. The tree is in a position to grow
    in any type of soil and even in semiarid zone where initial care of
    watering may be needed for the first five years. With spacing may not
    be more than 10sq. M.; after 5 years the yield is about 5.4 Trillion
    Liters. In addition to the diesel substitute this is main source 108
    Trillion Kg. of quality manure of very reach of organic carbon and 27
    Trillion Kg. of quality fertilizer never the less there is a bonus to
    honey bees from flowers a quality and high food value of Pollens.
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bio diesel

  1. 1. Policy Considerations In large scale utilisation of biodiesel as a traction fuel for Indian Railways Government of India – Ministry of Railways Ministry of Railways
  2. 2. Introduction Approx two billion litres of diesel fuel are consumed annually by nearly 4,000 freight and passenger locomotives in the Indian Railway fleet The annual expenditure of Indian Railways on diesel fuel is approx Rs.4400 Crore Biodiesel blended with petrodiesel can serve as an alternate fuel Ministry of Railways
  3. 3. Diesel Loco fleet of Indian Railways • Indian Railways operate around 4000 Diesel Locomotives. LOCO HORSE POWER NO. OF LOCOS 4000 57 3300 12 3100 885 2600 2304 BELOW 2600 694 • Around 100-120 locos are added to the fleet every year Ministry of Railways
  4. 4. Biodiesel : Key Advantages Renewable - vegetable oil derived Mainstream Alternative Carbon Neutral : 78% life cycle decrease in CO2 Simple to make Non-toxic Used directly in unmodified diesel engines Less noxious - fuel & exhaust emissions Used neat or blended in any ratio with petroleum diesel Biodegradable Higher Lubricity - can prolong engine life Dramatically reduced emissions High flashpoint - safer to store & transport Ministry of Railways
  5. 5. Policy Map Ministry of Railways
  6. 6. Annual requirement of Biodiesel Annual consumption of HSD in million litres Savings in HSD (in million litres) as a result of blending bio diesel 5% 10% 20% Thus if B10 blend is used by IR, then 200 million 2000 100 200 liters of diesel shall be required annually. 400 Ministry of Railways
  7. 7. Land requirement For 200 million liters/year requirement Biodiesel Biodiesel Total Per Hectare Oil yield Conversion production production in Hectarge tonnage in % efficiency in tons Litres/Hectare required 5 30 90 1.4 1588.2 125926 10 33 95 3.1 3688.2 54226 12 40 97 4.7 5477.6 36512 • Land availability with Indian Railways – 44000 ha • Ministry of Rural development plans for large scale plantation of Jatropha curcas – 4 Lakh ha of wastelands • Land availability through Intercropping Ministry of Railways
  8. 8. Raw material Non-edible oils Jatropha Curcas (Ratanjyot),Pongamia Pinata (Karanj), Shorea Robusta (Sal), Mahua, Neem, Rubber, Tree Seed Oil, etc. etc. Production of non-edible oils(Linseed, Castor) in India – 400 thousand tons Waste vegetable oils Lard/ Other waste animal fats Imported oils Surplus edible oils(??) Biomass - BTL Ministry of Railways
  9. 9. Quality Standards IS 15607:2005 ASTM D 6751 EN 14214 Test Laboratories IOC(R&D) RDSO IIP IICT Others Private Sector Problems Long term stability Compatibility with natural rubber, plastics Purity is process dependent Pour point is high Special equipments for certain parameters Ministry of Railways
  10. 10. American Initiative UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GOALS  Dramatically reduce, or even end,dependence on foreign oil.  Speed the creation of a domestic Bio-Industry  To establish commercial Bio-refinery technology by 2010  Biomass oils can displace upto 10 billion gallons of petroleum by 2030. Incentives and mandates likely.  R & D Product Schedule in 6 areas - Bio- distillation process optimisation 2006 - 2008 - Improved oil extraction technology 2006 - 2008 - Develop industrial products from meal 2007 - 2011 - Improved glycerine refinery technology 2009 - 2011 - Co-products from glycerin 2011 - 2015 Ministry of Railways
  11. 11. European Scenario European Union is the world leader in Biodiesel production 1.4 million tons of biodiesel is produced in EU Directive 2003/30 on the promotion of biofuels, setting a target of 2% market penetration in 2005 and a 5.75% in 2010 Directive 2003/96 on biofuels detaxation Energy Crops scheme under the Common Agricultural policy Sweden, Spain, Poland and Germany have new legislations for biodiesel Legislative drafts in Netherlands, Belgium, UK etc. Investment is increasing and the average size of the biodiesel production units is getting larger Ministry of Railways
  12. 12. Government of India policies required in areas of Financial and fiscal incentives Tax and duties structure Subsidies Knowledge banks Financial assistance Micro-credit National Biofuels Development Board Core groups on Technology development Ministry of Railways
  13. 13. Research & Development Plantation methods Generative Propagation Vegetative Propagation Drip Irrigation High yield plants – 160 types of Genus Jatropha Heterogeneous transesterification, 2nd generation conversion methods Quality Control Engine Studies/ Optimisation Field trial Engine Development Experiments New Raw Materials Algae, Fungi etc. Biomass Ministry of Railways
  14. 14. Contract Management Public Private Partnership Vendor selection procedures ISO TS 16949 Juran’s 16-step vendor development procedure, etc. Market friendly contract conditions Reduction of delay points In synchronisation with International practices Ministry of Railways
  15. 15. Business Process Management Steering Committee Project monitoring committee Identification of processes Reengineering of processes Process Owners Adequate Financial powers Obsolescence of departmental working Project Management Ministry of Railways
  16. 16. MoU with IOC - salient features Signed in February 2003 for a period of 15 years Railways has offered about 500 hectare land to IOC for plantation of jatropha curcas 81 hectares are under plantation and normal yield expected from 2008 IOC will take up plantation, extraction, transesterification IR will use bio diesel supplied by IOC Starting with 1-5 % bio diesel Indian Railways will go upto 20 % depending on field experience Ministry of Railways
  17. 17. Current Status  MOU with IOC signed  Engine experimentation with imported Soya based biodiesel completed  Limited Field trials with imported soya based biodiesel undertaken  Two Diesel Multiple units being run on B5 blend in Southern Railway  Large scale Field trials under progress in Northern Railway  Two biodiesel production plants set-up in Southern Railway and South-Eastern Railway  Plantation of Jatropha taken up in Kharagpur division of South-Eastern Railway Ministry of Railways
  18. 18. Testing in RDSO Bio diesel was tested on the test bed at Engine Development Directorate of RDSO 3100 hp engine under test at RDSO Ministry of Railways
  19. 19. Engine development studies Brake Specific Fuel Consumption with biodiesel blends Thermal Efficiency with biodiesel blends NOx emissions with biodiesel blends Ministry of Railways
  20. 20. Shatabdi Express Trial • Indian Railways tried a 5% blend of bio diesel on a WDM2C locomotive to haul the prestigious Shatabdi express (2013) from New Delhi to Amritsar on 31st Dec, 2002. • Hauling Capacity: No adverse effect was observed during the run in terms of haulage capacity etc. • Filters: No unusual deposits were noticed on the filter surface. • Fuel Injection System: The fuel injection pumps and injector nozzles were also found in satisfactory condition. Ministry of Railways
  21. 21. Future Setting up of pilot biodiesel plant at RDSO with heterogeneous catalyst technology Biodiesel plants in Zonal Railways Well to wheel project for biodiesel at RDSO Transesterification with multiple stocks Engine studies and optimisation with multi-stock biodiesel, Jatropha, Karanja, etc. Development of Industry for production of biodiesel Implementation of B10/B20 blended biodiesel on whole fleet of diesel locomotives Ministry of Railways
  22. 22. Expectations from the Industry  Participate in biofuel plantation, Indian Railways have already called for Expression of Interest for 44000 ha land with IR  Extraction, storage and logistics facilities development  Import of cheaper non-edible oils without adversely impacting the local agricultural interests  Quality control facilities development under a central monitoring body  Develop heterogeneous & other 2nd generation biodiesel production facilities  Annual requirement of IR is 400 m liters of biodiesel per year with B20 blend and expected to go up if higher blends are used  Supply of biodiesel at a reasonable cost  Supply the IS 15607 quality biodiesel to IOC who shall supply blended biodiesel to IR, a tripartite contract between IR, IOC and Industry  Ensure sustained supply of biodiesel Ministry of Railways
  23. 23. Conclusion Bio diesel can be used in medium-speed diesel engines – Optimisation might be required Use of bio diesel can reduce the amount of harmful emissions A blend of 10 percent bio diesel and 90 percent petrodiesel (B10) to be implemented to start with Biodiesel Industry required to develop in India For price competitiveness Fiscal and Financial incentives by the Government required Raw material planning critical to success Development of second generation conversion process essential The associated agencies should actively monitor the initiatives underway in India to promote and financially facilitate commercial supply of bio diesel Ministry of Railways
  24. 24. Thank You Ministry of Railways