Bio 2B: biodiesel maintenance

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Bio 2B: biodiesel maintenance

  1. 1. Biodiesel  Technical   Training  Course     BIO  2B:  Biodiesel  Vehicle  Maintenance   Presented by the National Biodiesel Board
  2. 2. Learning  Objec-ves    •  Provide  access  to  industry  experts  for  more   detailed  ques-ons  and  answers  about  biodiesel  •  Introduce  the  Na-onal  Biodiesel  Board’s  Diesel   Technician  Training  program  and  the  program   resources  to  the  audience  •  Provide  technical  instruc-on  on  biodiesel’s  impact   towards  engine  and  vehicle  maintenance  &   troubleshoo-ng  •  Provide  instruc-on  on  diesel,  biodiesel  fuel  and  fuel   filtra-on   2  
  3. 3. Learning  Outcomes     •  Be  able  to  discern  issues  between  normal   diesel  problems  and  poor  quality  biodiesel   imposters  or  out-­‐of-­‐spec  biodiesel  when  they   hit  the  shop  •  Be  able  to  properly  diagnose  and  make   recommenda-ons  regarding  biodiesel  use  and   vehicle  maintenance  •  Be  able  to  describe  how  fuel  proper-es  affect   fuel  quality  and  fuel  filtra-on   3  
  4. 4. Today’s  Topics  •  Vehicle  maintenance   •  Troubleshoo-ng   Fuel  System      Out-­‐of-­‐spec  fuel     Air  Intake    Handling  &  Use   Lubrica-on  Oil      Performance     Star-ng  &  Charging,    Fuel  filter  contaminants   Computer  controls   Cooling,  &  Vacuum   systems   Exhaust  &  Emissions   Controls  
  5. 5.  Key  Resources  
  6. 6. Biodiesel  Delivers  Important  Diesel  Proper-es  •  Auto-­‐igni-on  =  Cetane  Number  over  50  •  BTU  Content  =  Similar  to  #1,  less  than  #2  •  Viscosity  =  Values  in  diesel  fuel  range  •  Cloud  Point  =  Current  biodiesel  higher  than  #2  •  Lubricity  =  Naturally  high  in  lubricity  •  Sulfur  =  Naturally  less  than  15  ppm  •  Cleanliness  =  ASTM  specs  same  as  petrodiesel    •  Stability  =  Spec  set  for  6  month  min.  shelf  life    •  Emissions  significantly  less  for  PM,  HC,  CO  
  7. 7. Engine  to  Fuel   Biodiesel  only  contacts  the  fuel  system  so  use  should   not  affect  bearings,  turbo,  oil/water  pumps,  and  other   wear-­‐related  parts.   Ultra-low Sulfur Diesel •  Equipment  benefits   800 –  Superior  lubricity  HFRR WSD (micron) 700 600 500 –  B2  has  up  to  66%   400 300 more  lubricity  than  #2   200 100 Diesel   0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 •  No  overdosing  concerns   Biodiesel Blend (%)
  8. 8. Fuel  System  •  Material  compa-bility  is  key  for  blends  above  B20  •  Repair  Fuel  leaks  to  prevent  impact  to  other  systems!    From  the  fuel  sending  unit  in  tank  to  injectors    primary  &  secondary  fuel  filters    Fuel  lines  (sending  &  return)    High  pressure  or      low  pressure  injectors    O-­‐rings    Transfer  &  injec-on  pumps    
  9. 9.  Solvency  &  Stability    B20  &  Under  •  Monitor  filters,  less  than  2%  need  to  be  changed  •  Mild  cleaning  effect  •  Storage  tanks  may  need  to  be  cleaned,  or  keep  extra  filters  on   hand  at  start  up  •  Housekeeping  protocols  for  generic  diesel  equally  important   prior  to  blending  •  The  biodiesel  specifica-on  contains  parameters  for  insuring   adequate  fuel  stability  for  normal  applica-ons  •  The  shelf  life  of  biodiesel  blends  is  recommended  by  NBB  as  6   months    
  10. 10.  Fuel  Filter:Service  Intervals  •  Ford:  Special  Opera-ng  Condi-ons  •  Cummins  and  John  Deere:  “half the standard interval for the next two fuel filter changes… Afterwards, revert to the intervals specified in O & M manual.”•  Refer to OEM recommendations
  11. 11. Lubrica-on  System  •  Change  oil  as  recommended  by  Engine   manufacturer  •  Use  OEM  recommended  engine  oil  •  API,  CI  ra-ng  •  Regular  oil  analysis  maintenance  program  •  Inspect  dips-ck  for  biodiesel  smell  
  12. 12. Lube  Oil  Contamina-on  •  Current  ongoing  research,  SAE  CI  Engine  Performance  with   Alterna-ve  Fuels,  2008  •  A  concern  of  engine  manufacturers.  •  Same  mechanism  for  the  oil  dilu-on  for  heavier  frac-ons  of   diesel  fuel  as  for  biodiesel.  •  Due  to  high  boiling  point  of  biodiesel,  the  fuel  is  slower  to   vaporize  ager  injec-on  into  the  cylinder.  •  Remaining  compounds  will  be  deposited  on  the  cylinder  wall   where  they  can  be  pulled  into  the  crankcase  by  the  normal   scraping  ac-on  of  the  pistons  oil  control  rings.    •  Light  Duty  issue,  2009+  
  13. 13. Cold  Weather  Performance        B20  has  been  used       Cold weather can cloud and even gel anysuccessfully  in  climates         diesel fuel, including biodiesel.below  -­‐20ºF   Users of a B20 with #2 diesel will usually experience an increase of the cold flow properties (cold filter plugging point, cloud point, pour point) approximately 2 to 10° Fahrenheit. Similar precautions employed for petroleum diesel are needed for fueling with 20 percent blends. •  blending with #1 diesel (kerosene) •  using fuel heaters and parking indoors •  and using a cold-flow improvement additive
  14. 14. Lower  Emissions    U.S.  biodiesel  reduces  lifecycle  carbon  emissions  by  over  50%   compared  to  petrodiesel,  qualifying  it  as  an  Advanced  Biofuel   under  RFS-­‐2  and  making  it  the  best  carbon  reduc-on  tool  of  any   liquid  fuel  commercially  available.     Emission  Type   B20   B2    Total  Unburned  Hydrocarbons   -­‐20%   -­‐2.2%    Carbon  Monoxide   -­‐12%   -­‐1.3%    ParHculate  MaIer   -­‐12%   -­‐1.3%    Oxides  of  Nitrogen  (NOX)   +/-­‐2%   +/-­‐.2%  
  15. 15. Diesel  Emission  Reduc-ons  
  16. 16. Technology PathwayFuel system Better understandingtechnology of combustion EGR technologyRate controlHigh pressure Others CombustionMulti-injection technology Control technology PM trap Aftertreatment Fuel technology technology DOC Alternate Fuels De-Nox Low sulfur (Biodiesel) SCR
  17. 17. DPF:    Balance  Point  Temp  -­‐    Regenera-on  Rate   Results  • BPT is 40ºC lower for B20 •  Regeneration rate increases• Soot is more easily burned off of filter with increasing biodiesel• B20: lower temperature duty cycle OK content •  Even at 5%, biodiesel PM measurably oxidizes more quickly BPT ULSD 360ºC B20 320ºC B100 250ºC
  18. 18. Biodiesel  and  Agertreatment  Systems     Regenera-on  mode  is  important    Biodiesel  is  compa-ble  with  Diesel   •  Most  US  heavy  duty   Par-culate  Filters,  and  has  some   applica-ons  use  exhaust   dis-nct  advantages:   stream  fuel  injec-on  which  is   •  Lowers  regenera-on   compa-ble  with  B20,  perhaps   temperatures   higher  blends   •  Less  engine  out  par-culate   •  Some  light  duty  OEMs   mamer   recommend  max  B5  at   present   •  May  provide  increased   performance  and  decreased   maintenance  vs.  ULSD  alone   •  May  provide  increased  fuel   economy     18  
  19. 19. Are  you  Smoking?  •  Black  smoke:  injectors,  air  inlet  restric-on,  engine   -ming,  internal  engine  -ming,  injec-on  pump  failure  •  Blue  Smoke:    insufficient  fuel,  contaminated  fuel,    High  or  low  oil  consump-on,  air  in  the  fuel  •  White  smoke:  bad  glow  plugs,  plugged  return  fuel   line,  insufficient  fuel  supply,  low  compression,  air  in   fuel,  injector  or  pump  problem,  engine  -ming  •  White  smoke  can  be  normal  in  cold  weather  before   engine  warms    
  20. 20. SCR  Performance  
  21. 21. B20  vs.  Diesel:    In  the  shop  •  With  in-­‐spec  B20  and  lower,  the  issues  you  can   expect  to  see  in  your  shop  are  the  same  as  you  will   see  with  petrodiesel  •  Except:   –  Expect  to  see  fewer  lubricity  related  issues   –  Expect  to  see  fewer  problems  with  ager-­‐treatment   –  Filter  related  issues  may  be  related  to  cleaning  effect  upon   first  use,  or  are  likely  normal  diesel  issues  or  out  of  spec  or   imposter  biodiesel   –  Less  black  smoke  from  exhaust!     21  
  22. 22. Fuel  Filter  TroubleshooHng:   Petrodiesel  &  Biodiesel    
  23. 23. What  does  a  Fuel  Filter  catch?     Paraffin WaxOff-spec fuel Rust
  24. 24. Exposure  to  Air:  Fuel   Storage  •  Enters  through  vent  pipes  and   contains  large  amounts  of   moisture.  •  Generally  displaces  the  fuel  as   tank  is  emp-ed.  •  It  is  not  prac-cal  to  keep  air   from  entering  the  tank.  •  Will  increase  the  oxida-on  of   fuel.  •  Do  not  store  fuels  for  long   periods  of  -me  in  par-ally   empty  tanks  without  stabilizers.  •  Consider  desiccant  dryers.  
  25. 25. Microbial  Growth  •  Microbes are bacteria or fungus that live and propagate in fuel at the fuel/water interface.  •  Water needed to live—no water, no bugs.  •  Hydrocarbons in petrodiesel or biodiesel provide the food and the water provides the oxygen.  •  This environment is needed for living, growth, and reproduction.  •  The filters with microbial contamination often had an odor different from the normal fuel smell.
  26. 26. Water  Contamina-on  •  ULSD reaches water saturation at approximately 200-300 ppm. More settles to the bottom.  •  NREL B20 survey data: same water saturation level as petrodiesel. More settle to the bottom  •  B100 can hold more water, up to 1200 ppm  •  Still very small—0.12%, on the same order as gasoline can hold water. Un-dissolved water settles to the bottom like it does in petrodiesel tanks.  •  While higher than petrodiesel, biodiesel is not water loving (i.e. hygroscopic) like ethanol is. Most people do not understand this fact.
  27. 27. Water  in  Fuel  is  a  Problem  All  non-­‐dissolved  water  can  cause  problems:  •  Serves  as  growth  medium  for  organisms  that   Effect of Water on Injector Life plug  filters  •  Concentrates  acids  and  ionic  species  that   300 cause  corrosion  and  deposits   Injector Life 250•  Freezes  at  cold  temperatures  and  reduces  fuel   200 flow     (%) 150•  Reacts  with  some  addiHves  to  form   100 precipitates  and  deposits   50•  Plugs  injector  nozzles  at  extreme  condiHons   0 25 100 200 400 500 750 1000 5000 10000•  Reduces  fuel  lubricity  when  in  emulsified  form   Amount of Water in Fuel (ppm)
  28. 28. Fuel-­‐Water  Removal  More  Difficult  in  Future  •  ULSD  addiHve  package  lowers  interfacial   120 original or tension  making  removal  more  difficult   clay treated 100 additized fuel•  Biodiesels  have  lower  interfacial  tension   time weighted efficiency, % and  hold  more  water,  again  adversely   80 impacHng  removal   more –  FWS  more  challenging  as  biodiesel   60 additized percentage  in  blends  increase   ULSD 40•  Solvency  of  biodiesel  blends  makes   Biodiesel coated  cellulose  media  opHon  less   20 B20 50 effecHve   0 0 10 20 30 40 interfacial surface tension, dynes/cm
  29. 29. Sediment/Rust  build-­‐up    •  Some of the filters had solid sediment within the folds and solid particles in the filter casing.  •  Sediment present in the fuel or rust particles from within the engine can collect over time and plug the filter even when there are not necessarily problems with the fuel.  
  30. 30. Paraffin  Wax    •  High level of paraffin material could be from the way ULSD is processed.  •  When the temperature of the fuel is at or below its cloud point, paraffin material will precipitate out and collect on the bottom of the tank.  •  When warmed to room temperature the paraffin wax will turn back into liquid.  •  Paraffin build-up does not come from biodiesel fuel.
  31. 31. Fuel  Stability  •  Chemical  degrada-on  occurs  with   contact  with  oxygen  for  long  periods  or   at  high  temperatures.  •  Oxida-on  of  fuel  can  form  insolubles   and  peroxides    •  Peroxides  increase  deposits  and   gumming  on  fuel  pumps  and  injec-on   systems  •  Filter  plugging  will  also  occur  •  Filters with a black and shiny surface but no microbial growth odor or gel or sediment indicate they may be plugged by oxidation build-up.  •  This may be a black “asphaltene” petrodiesel type material collecting on the filter.  •  ASTM  D975  now  specifies  a  stability   parameter  
  32. 32. Monoglyceride  Build-­‐up  •  The next filter tested positive for high concentrations of saturated monoglyceride material—an out of spec or ‘imposter’ biodiesel.  •  Monoglyceride is one substance that can precipitate out of fuel if not within spec  •  Monoglycerides do not turn back into a liquid at room temperature  •  Can be distinguished from diesel by its brownish, butterscotch pudding type of appearance
  33. 33. Troubleshoo-ng    &  Maintenance   Checklist    Microbial Growth – Exposure to   Store Fuel in Clean, Dry Dark air and water   Environment    Icing of Filter – Excess water in   Keep Tank Topped off to tank   eliminate head space    Oxidation – Hot fuel return to   Monitor hoses, fill/vapor caps, fuel tank   gaskets for leaks    Monoglyceride Build Up – Off   Storage in on-site tanks should specification   be limited to less than 6  Paraffin Wax – Temperature at months.   or below cloud point   Once a year send your fuel to lab to be tested for microbial contamination
  34. 34. Biodiesel  Resources   www.biodiesel.org   • Biodiesel  Training  Toolkit     • News  Releases  &  Informa-on  Resources   • Technical  Library,  Spec  Sheets  &  Videos   • OEM  Warranty  Posi-ons  on  Biodiesel   •   U.S.  Diesel  Vehicle  List   www.BQ-­‐9000.org     Rachel  Burton   NBB  Diesel  Technician  Training    Program   • Lis-ng  of  BQ-­‐9000  Cer-fied  Companies   wrenchwench@blast.com   Tel:  919-­‐444-­‐3495   www.biotrucker.com     Call  NBB  at  1-­‐800-­‐841-­‐5849   • Lis-ng  of  BioTrucker  retail  sites     Visit  www.biodiesel.org   www.biodieselautomoHve.org     • Dedicated to information exchange for biodiesel & diesel     34   technicians

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