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Intro to computer system


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Intro to computer system

  1. 1. What is a SYSTEM ? • A system is a combination of components working together.
  2. 2. What is a COMPUTER SYSTEM ? • A computer system is a group of elements performing together to process data. INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT
  3. 3. What is a COMPUTER ? •A computer is a programmable electronic device that can store, retrieve, and process data.
  4. 4. Why do we USE computers ? • For convenience • Can process voluminous data efficiently • More accurate (e.g. calculations) • Increased productivity • Capable of routine & dangerous tasks • Faster, thus saves TIME
  5. 5. Where are computers used? • Business industry – financial management • Hospitals – document management • Educational Institutions – student records database management
  6. 6. CATEGORIES OF COMPUTER MAINFRAME • started its implementation during • • 1940s were number-crunching machines that took up whole building and cost huge sums of money. requires highly skilled people to operate
  8. 8. MINICOMPUTER • closet-sized • enabled multiple simultaneous users to access an expanded range of applications and did so at a substantially reduced size, complexity and price compared to mainframe computers.
  10. 10. MICROCOMPUTER • fitted on a desktop • can be use by one person at a time, but could run many different types of applications Informatics Computer Institute
  13. 13. HARDWARE • the tangible objects used with programs in the computer system • refers to the physical components of the computer system, like chips, disk drives, monitors, keyboards, printers, & ports.
  15. 15. PERIPHERAL DEVICES • Any external device attached to the central portion of the computer. TYPES of PERIPHERAL DEVICES • Input – used to put data into your computer. (e.g. keyboard & mouse) • Output – used to display & generate information. (e.g. monitor & printer) • Input/Output (I/O) – used for BOTH entering data into & extracting data from a computer. (e.g. touch screen)
  16. 16. Major Components of Computer System
  17. 17. System Unit the box that contains the essence of the computer contain the computer’s brain, its short and long term memory and the wiring that links all the pieces together. Peripheral devices attach to it using special connectors, usually on the back of the box
  18. 18. System Unit – provides secure mountings for circuit boards & storage devices – protects delicate circuitry from the outside – protects you from interference & dangerous voltage
  19. 19. System Unit
  20. 20. Keyboard - the typewriter component of a PC. It enables you to enter letters, numbers, and special characters into the computer.
  21. 21. Keyboard
  22. 22. Mouse - a primary input device on a modern computer. It enables you to interact with images on the monitor screen by controlling an on-screen icon called a cursor.
  23. 23. Mouse
  24. 24. Monitor - the computer’s primary output device. Over the years, monitors have progressed from small, black screens with crudely formed glowing green or orange characters to large, flat-panel screens that display photographic-quality images in over 4 billion colors.
  25. 25. Monitor
  26. 26. Speakers - provide the audio output for your system. The first PC speaker systems often consisted of two rather cheap speakers, but today’s computer sound systems may have up to six speakers, including a subwoofer.
  27. 27. Speakers
  28. 28. Internal Components of a Personal Computer
  29. 29. Central Processing Unit (CPU) • that part of the computer that performs calculations and controls the other parts of the computer. • is an integrated circuit, contains I/O bus driver, ALU (arithmetic logic unit), registers, & an instruction decoder or control unit to direct the operation of other parts.
  30. 30. Central Processing Unit (CPU) Informatics Computer Institute
  31. 31. • MOTHERBOARD – is the printed circuit board in the computer that holds the microprocessor, expansion slots, additional processor chips, & wires that compose the bus.
  32. 32. • MOTHERBOARD
  33. 33. • MEMORY – is the internal storage area in the computer. - Measured in megabytes (MB) for most PCs or gigabytes (GB) for high-end systems.
  34. 34. MEMORY • RANDOMACCESS MEMORY (RAM) – also considered as the main memory – can BOTH write and read into it – is volatile; thus, dependent on electricity to maintain its contents. • READ-ONLY MEMORY (ROM) – is the type of memory which permits you to read data only. – thus, cannot be written to – e.g. contains instructions for starting up PC Informatics Computer Institute
  35. 35. MEMORY
  36. 36. MEMORY TYPES SDRAM SDRAM , which is short for Synchronous DRAM is a type of DRAM that runs in synchronization with the memory bus.
  37. 37. MEMORY TYPES DDR RAM DDR RAM, which stands for Double Data Rate, which is a type of SDRAM and appeared first on the market around 2001 but didn’t catch on until about 2001 when the mainstream motherboards started supporting it.
  39. 39. • CO-PROCESSORS – is an integrated circuit which holds additional computer processing units which handle specific tasks in conjunction with the CPU. – e.g. MATH CO-PROCESSOR, GRAPHICS CO-PROCESSOR, COMPRESSION CO-PROCESSOR
  40. 40. • CO-PROCESSORS
  41. 41. • CO-PROCESSORS
  42. 42. • EXPANSION SLOTS – are portals that allow new signals to enter the computer & directly read its circuitry. – any device that snaps into an expansion slot is known generically as an expansion card. – e.g. VIDEO ADAPTERS, JOYSTICK ADAPTERS, etc.
  44. 44. • BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT SYSTEM (BIOS) – set of programs used by the operating system & application programs to activate hardware.
  47. 47. • POWER SUPPLY – aims at regulation, maintaining the voltage as close as possible to the ideal that’s desired by the circuits inside your PC. - As it operates, the power supply of your PC attempts to make the direct current that’s supplied to your computer as pure as possible, as close to the ideal DC power as produced by batteries.
  48. 48. • POWER SUPPLY Informatics Computer Institute
  49. 49. • POWER SUPPLY
  50. 50. • PORTS – enables the flow of information, into and out of a computer.
  51. 51. MASS STORAGE SYSTEMS • FLOPPY DISKS – is the premier data exchange medium for computers & most popular back up system. DISK 5¼” 3½” CAPACITY 160KB, 180KB, 320KB, 360KB, 1.2MB 720KB, 1.44MB, 2.88MB Informatics Computer Institute
  52. 52. • FLOPPY DISKS Informatics Computer Institute
  53. 53. • HARD DISKS – is the principal mass storage system in most computers – holds all of your programs & data/files – no other peripheral device can approach the usefulness of hard disks in terms of speed, capacity, & straightforward user installation. Informatics Computer Institute
  54. 54. • HARD DISKS Informatics Computer Institute
  55. 55. • TAPE – magnetically coated strip of plastic on which data can be encoded. – similar to music cassette tapes
  56. 56. • TAPE
  57. 57. • OPTICAL STORAGE – promises unique mixture of performance, removable cartridges, & high capacities. Two Basic Optical-Based Storage CD-ROM CompactSystem Disc – Read-Only Memory WORM Write Once Read Many
  59. 59. SOFTWARE • • • • is a computer program pure information may be downloaded using phone lines may be temporarily stored in a physical medium (e.g. diskette, hard disk, etc.) Classification of Software: SYSTEM SOFTWARE APPLICATION SOFTWARE PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES Informatics Computer Institute
  60. 60. SYSTEM SOFTWARE • controls the application processing and hardware resources such as memory, disk space, & peripheral devices. Categor Examples y Operating DOS, OS/2, Windows 95 & 98, System Windows NT, UNIX, Novell Norton, PC Tools, Anti-Virus, Editor, Utilities Disk Scanner, Debugger Informatics Computer Institute
  61. 61. APPLICATION SOFTWARE • created to assist users with a specific task • some of the popular applications: – – – – perform word processing manipulate spreadsheets manage database communicate with other computers Informatics Computer Institute
  62. 62. Application Software Category Examples Word processor Word, WordStar, WordPerfect, Ami-Pro Spreadsheet Lotus 123, Excel, Quattro Database Mgt. System Dbase, FoxPro, FoxBASE, Access, Paradox Graphics Harvard, AutoCAD, 3D Studio, Corel Desktop Publisher PageMaker, Ventura, Publisher Games Chess master, DOOM, Basketball Educational MathCAD Accounting Package ACCPAC, DAC-Easy Informatics Computer Institute
  63. 63. PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES • is nothing more than a list of instructions used to compose a step-by-step algorithm, the computer program. • a recipe for a microprocessor or the step-bystep instructions in a how-to manual. • representation of the instructions in humanrecognizable form Informatics Computer Institute
  64. 64. Informatics Computer Institute
  65. 65. PEOPLEWARE Category Technician Examples of IT Careers Computer Technician Encoder Data Encoder Programmer Database Programmer, System Programmer, Application Programmer, Game Programmer Analyst Programmer Analyst, System Analyst Administrator Database Administrator, Network Administrator Manager EDP/MIS/ITS Manager, Project manager Informatics Computer Institute
  66. 66. PC Start-up Sequence • When you turn on your PC, it starts itself automatically. All modern computers can boot themselves. They are built to run a permanently installed programs as the very first thing when “waking up”. That program usually is designed to load an operating system, but first it can do a number of useful tests. Informatics Computer Institute
  67. 67. PC START-UP SEQUENCE • POST (Power On Self Test) – is the first program executed when a PC is turned on or reset • MS-DOS • WINDOWS XP – – – – Windows-based components start to load an automatic process with Windows XP device drivers & OS components loaded Windows desktop is then initialized Informatics Computer Institute
  68. 68. BOOT & REBOOT PROCEDURE • BOOT – the process of turning the power on for your PC to start up. • WARM REBOOT Ctrl Alt Del • COLD REBOOT – turn off your PC, wait for at least 5 seconds before turning it on again. Informatics Computer Institute
  69. 69. INTRODUCTION TO Informatics Computer Institute
  70. 70. COMPUTER NETWORK • is an arrangement in which two or more computers are connected so that they can share data or peripheral devices, or both. • can contain a few or up to hundreds of nodes (computer units). Informatics Computer Institute
  71. 71. Reasons to Networking • Peripheral Sharing – multiple users can access same printer, modem, scanner, etc. • File Sharing – files can be shared among different types of computers. • Security – sensitive data can be kept centrally and accessed only by users with the proper authority. Informatics Computer Institute
  72. 72. LAN, MAN, & WAN • Local Area Network (LAN) • It is a local area network is a data communications network spanning a limited geographical area, a few miles at most. Informatics Computer Institute
  73. 73. A LAN is made up of the following: • FILE SERVER • A powerful computer with a large hard disk and a lot of memory. Its job is to store the network’s programs and data files, to handle requests for peripheral sharing, to respond to requests from users and to generally mediate network traffic and Informatics Computer Institute operations.
  74. 74. A LAN is made up of the following: • WORKSTATIONS or CLIENTS • Computers of lesser capacity that are depend on the file server. • NETWORK INTERFACE CARDS • To connect the PC to the cables. • CABLE • To connect the computers. Informatics Computer Institute
  75. 75. A LAN is made up of the following: • NETWORK SOFTWARE • To connect the user and the network. • OPERATING SYSTEM SOFTWARE • To service user’s needs for resources like files and printers. Informatics Computer Institute
  76. 76. LAN, MAN, & WAN • Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) • Once a network spans more than a few miles or campus environment, or such as city. • Wide Area Network (WAN) • Brings companies into the sphere of networking by connecting computers in the entire enterprise, which may span over several cities, states and countries. Informatics Computer Institute
  77. 77. E-MAIL & E-MAIL ADDRESS • E-MAIL (Electronic Mail) – is a method used to send & receive messages over a network – use an e-mail program to compose & send a message, & it is sent to a remote mailbox, where it can be retrieved and read by the addressee. • E-MAIL ADDRESS – is the location where email messages can be sent to a user. – consists of a username & an internet address, separated by an @ sign. – e.g. Informatics Computer Institute
  78. 78. INTERNET • is called the network of networks • largest collection of interconnected computer networks in the world • connected through an ISP (Internet Service Provider) Informatics Computer Institute