2Outcomes:Define and articulate the metacognitive strategiesUnderstand the gradual release of responsibilitymodelIncrease repertoire of teaching strategiesUnderstand how to incorporate metacognition intoany content teachingExplore a variety of resources
3Metacognition…What Is It, Really?A person’s conscious awareness and control of his/herthinking processThe difference between a passive and an active learnerWhen done strategically, metacognitive processesoccur before, during, and afterThe center of meaning constructionAccording to Merriam-Webster’s Online Dictionary,metacognition is the “awareness or analysis of one’sown learning or thinking processes”
4Strategies of Proficient Readers:Make ConnectionsPose QuestionsVisualize and Create ImagesDraw InferencesDetermine ImportanceSynthesize InformationMonitor UnderstandingRepair Faulty Comprehension
5Your Turn:In triads, your assignment is toprocess the strategies of proficientreaders using the activity provided toyour team. I will check in with yourteam as you complete this cooperativetask to determine how much time isneeded. Please select a reporter and beprepared to share out both content andprocess with the group.
6Gradual Release of Responsibility Model(Created by Claire Mognaga, 2010; Adapted from the work of Pearson and Gallagher, 1983)Responsibility for Task CompletionTeacher Think-Aloud and ModelingShared ExperiencesMore Explicit Guided ExperiencesCooperative ExperiencesIndependentExperiencesAllStudentJointResponsibilityAllTeacher
7Effective Metacognitive InstructionalPractices:Thinking aloudModelingCreating anchor experiencesConferringPosting and strategically using students’ thinkingaround the classroom to direct instructionConnecting comprehension strategies throughout allcontent areasProviding a variety of experiences for student practiceProviding opportunities for student response andreflection
adapted from Keene, PEBC, 1999 8Think-AloudsOne way to model the metacognitive processes we wantto help our students engage with is to make ourinternal thinking “public” through a think-aloudWhen embarking on this strategy, remember to:Select and preview text with attention tomodeling optionsBe precise about why you’re thinking aloudBe precise about when you’re thinking aloudversus reading aloudBe clear about how being metacognitive helpsyou to comprehend
9Incorporating Metacognition into anycurricular area…some examplesWhile we engage in theactivities, you may chooseto copy and use one of theorganizers on the wall torecord your thoughts.
adapted from The Major Point Interview forReaders, Keene, 199510Key Questions to use across the curriculum:• Did ___ remind you of anything you know about? (Making Connections)• What did you wonder about ___? What questions do you have about ___ now?(Questioning)• What images did you create in your mind? (Visualizing)• What prediction can you make about ___? What conclusion can you draw from ___?(Inferring)• Are there some parts of ___ that are more important than others? Which parts? Why?(Determining Importance)• If you could tell another person about ___, what would you tell them?(Synthesizing)• What challenges did you have in learning ___? How did you fix them?(Monitoring Comprehension)An essential follow-up question to all those posed above:What do you understand now that you didn’t understand before?
11In Closing -Word Toss…Take a moment to think of one word thatdescribes/summarizes/connects with our worktoday and write it on a post-it. We will usethese to complete a “word toss” activity.Thank you!
12References:Harvey, Stephanie, and Anne Goudvis. 2000. Strategies That Work: TeachingComprehension to Enhance Understanding. Portland, ME: Stenhouse.Harvey, Stephanie. 1998. Nonfiction Matters: Reading, Writing, and Researchin Grades 3-8. York, ME: Stenhouse.Hyde, Arthur. 2006. Comprehending Math: Adapting Reading Strategies to TeachMathematics, K-6. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Keene, Ellin, and Susan Zimmermann. 1997. Mosaic of Thought: TeachingComprehension in a Reader’s Workshop. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Miller, Debbie. 2002. Reading with Meaning: Teaching Comprehension in thePrimary Grades. Portland, ME: Stenhouse.
13One last lingering thought…The experiences we have thatdevelop our intellect as matureadults need to be duplicated in theeveryday lives of our students.Ellin KeeneFebruary 22, 2000Denver, Colorado