TEACHING STRATEGYQUESTIONING FOR CRITICAL AND CREATIVE THINKING(PENYOALAN UNTUK PEMIKIRAN KRITIS DAN KREATIF)
GROUP MEMBERS NAME1. NUR ADIBAH BINTI MD AZMAN L201120073522. NORAZLINA BINTI KAMBALI L201120073583. SYAZANA AKMA BINTI KARIM L201120073664. NORDIANA BINTI NOR AINI L201120073655. SHAIDAH BINTI MAZLAN L201120073836. NUR AZIDA BINTI ZAHID L201120073647. RABI’ATUL ‘ADAWIAH BINTI IBRAHIM L20112007362
QUESTIONS AND QUESTIONING1. Introduction for Questions and Questioning2. Importance of Questioning in P & P3. Principle for Preparing and Using Questions4. Objectives for Questioning5. Teacher Questioning Techniques6. Component of Questioning Skills7. Types of Questions8. Level of Questioning9. Critical and Creative Questions
INTRODUCTIONQuestioning help us to think deeply andwisely.Enable to create question and use iteffectively in teaching and learningsituation.Good question should look at all aspectswhich are level of students, scope andfocus.
IMPORTANCE OF QUESTIONING IN P & P Questioning as Active student expansion and participation upgrading activity and for student thinking, interaction understanding Feedback and reinforcement occur Expansion of critical and creative skills.
PRINCIPLE FOR PREAPARING AND USING QUESTIONS Level questions should suitable with student background – age, ability and experience Question should be plan before we teach student Word, term and intonation should easy to understand by student Diversify the question from time to time to attract interest of student Question should encourage student to think Question must be brief, precise and clear.
CONTINUE…• According to the procedure, teacher ask student, stop for a while to give them to think first, teacher mention student name to answer the question.• Ask question to the entire class clearly and loudly(not to smart student only) and make sure all students heard and understood the question. Then, ask question to the selected student.• Teacher can repeat the question if have any student who are not understand/not clear.• Teacher can ask other student to add or correct the wrong or inaccurate answer.
CONTINUE…• Mention student name when questioning. Don’t ask generally.• Avoid students answering the question in a mass.• Give a compliment to student if the answer is correct & good and correct the wrong/inaccurate answer.
OBJECTIVES OF QUESTIONING To test student knowledge and understanding. To stimulate and dig student thinking. To guide student to use method for make a conclusion or to solve a problem. To attract student attention toward lesson activity. To evaluate the effectiveness of teaching and fulfilment of P&P’s objectives To establish a good relationship between teachers and students. To help students reinforce the concept and understanding.
CONTINUE…To help students to do revision in preparation for the test.To raises curiosity through challenging and attractive question.To share idea and experience.To give self-confidence, lessen shyness and fear among students.To gain students interest and focus on studies.
TEACHER QUESTIONING TECHNIQUES Follow various levels of cognitive – based on Bloom’s Taxonomy (from easy to difficult) Converge and diverge question Question clearly defined or understood Ask question to the entire class Give time to students to think Getting students to answer the question Ask other students Give suitable respond toward students answer.
COMPONENT OF QUESTIONING SKILLS • Formation of Questions Clear, accurate and concise • Focus Single focus : Focus on an idea - convergent Various focus: Focus on more than one idea - divergent • Spread Question out to the entire class • Pause Give time to students to listen, understand and think the answer before answering the question.
CONTINUE…• Serve answers Give compliment, To complete the answer, To correct the answer.• Give clue Help students with clue Give tips/guidance• Digging thinking Trigger, generate, expand Ask question to dig student thinking.
TYPES OF QUESTIONS• Two basic types : • Convergent questions • Divergent questions• Convergent questions: Need an exactly answer, low level ( understanding and knowledge) and high level (application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation)• Divergent questions: need variety and alternative answer, different avenues and variations.
CONVERGENT QUESTIONS• Convergent thinking is an ability of thinking in a way of logical integration to create new solutions for any problems based on principles, theoretical, law or instants experience (Guilford 1967)• Mostly labeled as – comprehensions, application, critical and analytical thinking.
CONVERGENT QUESTIONS (EXAMPLES) What is Teacher’s Day theme for this year? (Only one answer)
DIVERGENT QUESTIONS• Open minded thinking which not only focus on theoretical, law or experience to gain various alternative ways to create solutions for any problems.• This type of thinking almost called as lateral thinking which turns an ability of creativity and need open minded thinking, imagination, intuition and etc.
DIVERGENT QUESTIONS (EXAMPLES) What is your opinion about clusters school? (various answer) Shows an evident that What is your opinionsmake Hang Tuah known about Hang Jebat’s as loyal hero. (reasoning thinking) character? (open/broad) What will happen to student if UPSR and PMR have been annulled ? (subjective)
LEVEL OF QUESTIONING• Based on Taxonomy’s Bloom Objective, there are six levels: • Knowledge • Understanding • Application • Analysis • Synthesis • Evaluation
KNOWLEDGE LEVEL• Recall fact, the meaning of law, place, date. For example – name, state, list, who, where, when : • Name the three major nutrients in fertilizer. • Who invented the plane?
UNDERSTANDING LEVEL• Ability to translate, interpreting the facts, principle, law etc. For example - explain, describe, summarize, tell : • Explain the meaning of a balanced diet. • Describe the meaning of asexual reproductive.
APPLICATION LEVEL• Ability to use concept, principle etc to other situation for problem solving. For example - calculate, estimate, how : • Calculate how much NPK fertilizer needed for a hectare corn crops. • How do teachers handle classes which are consist of mixed abilities students?
ANALYSIS LEVEL• Ability to split answer to small component based on principle, law. For example - differentiate, compare, choose, separate, select, do the sequence, do assumption : • Differentiate the meaning of cloth and textile. • Choose the best fertilizer for crop rooting.
SYNTHESIS LEVEL• Ability to combine, merge, interpret and summarize what has been analysed. For example - plan, design, outline, conceptualize : • Design a master plan of this program. • Design a special dress for brides and grooms for this wedding ceremony. • Plan a curriculum for special education students.
EVALUATION LEVEL• Ability to evaluate, prove, validate, arguing or commenting. For example - criticize, detect, support, asses : • Give your comment on the storyline of this drama. • Why do you support the proposal? • How to detect bacterial disease that attacks the tree?
CRITICAL AND CREATIVE QUESTION• Critical – reflective thinking, productive and evaluate the evidences to obtain a logical and accurate results.• Creative – a situation where an individual or a group of people or an organization understand, know and be able to apply their creativity and create something new.