By: Avery Thompson Mass Communications and its Effects on Society
Early Major Events in Mass Communications <ul><li>3300 B.C. Egyptians perfect hieroglyphics </li></ul><ul><li>1500 B.C. Semites devise the alphabet </li></ul><ul><li>1000 B.C. Egyptian papyrus, early form of paper </li></ul><ul><li>60 B.C. Acta Diurna , forerunner of the newspaper </li></ul>
Gutenberg, Franklin, and Poor Richard’s Almanack 1446 A.D. Johannes Gutenberg introduces the moveable type printing press in Germany. 1731/1732 Ben Franklin founds the first public library and Poor Richard’s Almanack helps create popular culture in America. The Almanack was a reflection of the norms and society of Franklin’s times, contrary to the philosophical documents setting a path for new-freedoms, as the works of Franklin's colleagues Jefferson, Adams, and Paine were. Napoleon Bonaparte considered the Almanack significant enough to translate it into Italian, along with the Pennsylvania State Constitution (which Franklin also helped draft), when he established the Cisalpine Republic in 1797. The Almanack also had a strong cultural and economic impact in the years following publication. In Pennsylvania, changes in monetary policy in regards to foreign expenses were evident for years after the issuing of the Almanack . The King of France named a ship given to John Paul Jones after the Almanack's author – Bonhomme Richard , or "Good man Richard." A later almanack by Noah Webster, The Old Farmer’s Almanac , was inspired in part by Poor Richard's . The immediate effect of the printing press was to multiply the output and cut the costs of books. It made information available to a much larger section of the population who were eager for information of any variety. Printing also facilitated the distribution and preservation of knowledge in standardized form; this was most important in the advance of science, technology and academic. The printing press certainly initiated an "information revolution.” Printing stimulated the literacy of people and eventually came to have a deep and lasting impact on their private lives. Although most of the earliest books dealt with religious subjects, students, businessmen, and upper and middle class people bought books on all subjects. Printers responded with moralizing, medical, practical and travel manual.
Lincoln, Bell, and Edison 1865: Abraham Lincoln’s assassination is reported by telegraph and print. 1876: Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone. With the invention of the phonograph (record player) music became a force in American culture to an even greater degree. While sheet music publication during the 1800's meant that Americans were playing and singing much the same music on the pianos in their parlors, Thomas A. Edison's phonograph meant that Americans from coast to coast were sharing the same sounds in the same way. Lincoln’s assassination was the first one reported by telegraph and print. It was the first presidential assassination ever publicized As the assassination and death of Lincoln took place late Friday, April 14th, most newspapers up and down the east coast put out their black-bordered editions of their papers to spread the news. Many had Extra editions with large-type, bold headlines. The southern newspapers were slow to receive the news. The Richmond Whig announced the assassination in its April 17th edition in bold-face type. Probably no means of communication has revolutionized the daily lives of ordinary people more than the telephone. The telephone is the most popular and widely used means of communication, and has literally changed the world and made it smaller. There have been numerous modifications in the structure and design of the telephone and today you find it in attractive designs and colors. Even though cell phones and wireless technology are more applicable nowadays, a wired telephone can still be found in many households. The invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell has proven a benefit to the entire mankind. There is no clear evidence of the origin of the word 'telephone'. It is believed that the word telephone is from the two Greek words, 'tele' meaning 'far' and 'phone' meaning 'sound'. 1877: Thomas Edison invents the phonograph.
The Jazz Singer , Near vs. Minnesota, and FDR 1927: The Jazz Singer , first talkie The 1927 introduction of "talkies" in The Jazz Singer with Al Jolson causes movie attendance to double from 40+ million in 1922 to over 85 million in 1929. The Jazz Singer was the first feature length motion picture with synchronized dialogue sequences, its release heralded the commercial ascendance of the “talkies" and the decline of the silent film era. 1931: Case of Near vs. Minnesota Near v. Minnesota was a Unites States Supreme Court decision that recognized the freedom of the press by roundly rejecting prior restraints on publication, a principle that was applied to free speech. The Court ruled that a Minnesota law that targeted publishers of “malicious" or "scandalous" newspapers violated the First Amendment to the United States Constitution (as applied through the 14 th Amendment). It was later a key precedent in New York Times Co. vs. United States (1971), in which the Court ruled against the Nixon administration's attempt to enjoin publication of the Pentagon Papers. 1935: FDR debuts fireside chats on radio On Sunday, March 12, 1933 newly inaugurated President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave the first of a series of what became known as fireside chats. By coming into American's living rooms through the medium of the radio, FDR inserts himself into the American peoples’ lives in a way never before experienced in a President. By breaking down his policies, and explaining them thoroughly Roosevelt makes international relations and politics accessible to the American people. By invoking religious imagery, and relying on devout language, Roosevelt establishes himself not only as a national leader, but also as a national religious leader. This adds an element of intimacy to his relationship with the people; they have not only a shared country, they have a shared spirituality.
JFK, New York Times vs. Pentagon Papers, and Microsoft 1963: John Kennedy’s assassination is reported by television. 1971: New York Times publishes the Pentagon Papers Kennedy’s assassination was the first televised murder of a president. The nation was shocked to see their “Camelot” be quickly snapped from existence. No one who saw the video could ever forget Mrs. Kennedy’s desperate attempt to flee the vehicle after her husband was shot. Kennedy’s assassination brought about hundreds of conspiracies theories surrounding the true culprit of his murder. The foundation of Microsoft was the beginning of a technological revolution across the globe. Microsoft is everything our world has to thank for concerning technology advances. From Microsoft to the iPad, technology has come a long way since 1975 and its influence on the media cannot be measured. 1975: Bill Gates and Paul Allen co-found Microsoft. The papers revealed that the U.S. had deliberately expanded its war with carpet bombing of Cambodia and Laos, coastal raids on North Vietnam, and Marine Corps attacks, none of which had been reported by media in the US. The revelations widened the credibility gap between the U.S. Government and the people, hurting President Nixon's war effort. But the most damaging revelations in the papers revealed that four administrations, from Truman to Johnson, had misled the public regarding their intentions. For example, Johnson had decided to expand the war while promising "we seek no wider war" during his 1964 presidential campaign.
Thriller , Internet Explorer, and 9/11 1983: Thriller redefines the concept of the music video on MTV 1995: Microsoft Internet Explorer is launched 2001: 9/11 attacks are reported immediately throughout the media Michael Jackson moon-walked his way into music history, with "Thriller" setting a new benchmark for blockbusters that changed how the music business promoted and marketed superstar releases. It also changed MTV, breaking down the cable network's racial barriers and raising the bar for video quality. Internet Explored welcomed the globe to the world wide web. Over the next decade, societies everywhere began sharing countless information over the internet. The internet has become the norm for day to day society. Our world depends on the internet for almost every aspect of our lives. On September 11, 2001, the world watched moment by moment as planes crashed into the World Trade Center in New York City. The public watched in utter awe as people leapt from the burning buildings and ran through ash covered streets desperate to escape. At the same time, planes crashed into the Pentagon and in Pennsylvania. Our generation will never forget where they were that day.
American Idol, iTunes, and Google 2002: American Idol premieres its first season on Fox 2003: iTunes online music store is launched 2005-present: Google Reality TV made its debut with American Idol. Society watched as first season contenders Kelly Clarkson and Justin Giurani battled it out for the title of American Idol. Since American Idol’s first season, television has been captivated by reality TV. Once iTunes hit the scene, no one looked at music the same way again. Forget records and CD’s, online music became a way of life for people around the world. iTunes only increased the online frenzy in the 2000’s. Google has become the most famous search engine. For most of us, it is the first thing we see when launching the internet. Whenever you need information, one goes to Google. Today, Google is taking over the internet as we know it.