Unit 12.1Unit 12.1
American Society in theAmerican Society in the
1920s1920s
Labor Unrest
Boston police Strike
Calvin Coolidge
Steel Mill strike
Coal Miners Strike
Labor Movement loses
Appeal accuse ...
A disillusioned America turned
away from idealism after World War I
and toward social conservatism, a
new mass-consumption...
Intro: Political philosophies
A. radical
B. conservative
C. reactionary
D. liberal/progressive
Radical
(communists,
anarch...
Americans Struggle
with Postwar Issues
Objectives
Reaction to “communist” threat=red scare
Cause and effect of Quota syste...
I. “Americanism” in the 1920s Seeing Red
A. “Red Scare” (1919-1920)
1. October 1917, Bolshevik
Revolution in Russia result...
Palmer Raids “Fighting Quaker”
Criminal syndicalism laws
Palmer Raids, 1919-1920
a. Anarchist bombings
b. Attorney General A. Mitchell
Palmer received $500,000 from
Congress to cr...
Fear of “Communism”
What is communism according to your book?
This is a car bomb on Wall Street in New York City
The blast...
d. January 2, 1919, 5,000 suspected
communists were arrested in 33
cities
-- 550 Russians were deported;
many were U.S. ci...
“The Gauntlet
Flung Down”
Outlook,
5/21/19.
Originally from
the Brooklyn
Eagle
(Harding).
Sacco and Vanzetti
B. Sacco and Vanzetti case
1. Two Italian-atheist-anarchist-draft
dodgers were convicted of murder in
1921
Bartolomeo Vanz...
2. The jury and judge appeared to have
nativist prejudices against the two
men although the evidence was not
conclusive
3....
Is this the Emblem? August 11, 1927
Limiting Immigration
Klan rises again
The Ku Klux Klan marches down
Pennsylvania Avenue in 1925
C. Ku Klux Klan
1. Resurgence began in the South but
spread into the Southwest and
Midwest (Illinois, Ohio, Indiana)
a. To...
2. The KKK was strongly nativist (like
the “Know-Nothings” of the 1850s”
a. Opposed immigration, Catholics,
Jews, communis...
D. Nativism in the 1920s
 Historical Review
a. “Know-Nothings” in 1850s
b. Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882
c. APA in 1880s & ...
Limiting Immigration
Quota system
favored old immigrants
Stemming the Foreign Tide
1. Many in America, especially rural
areas, believed immigration was
eroding traditional American values
2. 1921 Immigrati...
3. 1924 National Origins Act
a. 152,000 per year; no more than 2%
of an ethnic group already in U.S.
b. Based on 1890 cens...
Foreign Born Immigrant Population in the U.S., 1900-2007
Per Capita Consumption of Alcoholic
Beverages (Gallons of Pure Alcohol)
1910-1929.
created a nation of
“lawbreakers”
Prohi...
Prohibition/
Speakeasies
Bootleggers
2. Problems with enforcement
a. Approximately half of Americans
were opposed to prohibition
b. Lack of enforcement officia...
F. Prohibition
1. One of last Progressive reforms (18th
Amendment)
a. Supported heavily by churches and
women, the South a...
3. Results
a. Rise of organized crime:
 Huge profits from bootlegging
 Al Capone was the most
powerful gangster of the 1...
Rise of Organized Crime Golden age of
Gangsterism
Al Capone # 1 gives rise to F.B.I.
b. Rise of speakeasies
 Middle-class havens for drinking
Women were welcome (compared to
saloons)
c. Saloons disappeared...
Absolute Alcohol Consumption per Capita, U.S. 1900-1995
Per Capita Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages
(Gallons of Pure Alcohol) 1910-1929
Science and Religion Clash
Fundamentalism (Billy Sunday revival
preaching, and radio)
vs.
Darwinism
Scopes Trial (“Monkey Trial”): 1925,
Tennessee
1. Fundamentalists challenged
Darwinism
2. John Scopes was indicted for
tea...
3. Clarence Darrow defended Scopes
4. William Jennings Bryan led the
prosecution
Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan
America’s mass-consumption economy
A. Glorification of business in the ‘20s
1. Bruce Barton: The Man Nobody
Knows (1926)
a...
Modern Advertising
B. Booming U.S. Economy
1. U.S. became world’s largest creditor
nation after WWI
a. A brief post-war recession (1920-
1921...
C. Continued consolidation of trusts
1. By 1929, the top 200 corporations
held ½ of the country’s wealth
2. Chain stores
b...
Installment Plan was not just
for Automobiles.
Superficial Prosperity
Chain stores
five and dimes
Woolworths
Great Quantit...
2. 70% rise in industrial productivity
3. Wages at an all-time high
4. Electric power increased 19-fold
between 1912 & 192...
Yankee
slugger,
Babe Ruth
World
Heavyweight
Champion,
Jack Dempsey
(1921-26)
Tunney Dempsey fight
Sept. 22, 1927 fight
150,000 spectators and
over 50 million listened
on the radio
Up
F. Scientific Management: Frederick
W. Taylor
1. Developed the assembly line to
increase productivity and profits
2. The P...
Putting America on Rubber Tires
1. Detroit emerged as the automobile
capital of the world
2. Ford realized workers were al...
Automobile Impact Henry Ford
c. Ford was called a “traitor to his
class” by some wealthy
Americans due to his generosity
toward the working class
3. Fo...
b. The Model T became the staple car
in America for many years
-- By 1930 Americans owned 30
million cars, 2/3 of which we...
Final Assembly of Model Ts
4.Ford’s anti-Semitism became
controversial in the 1920s and 1930s
This book contained a series of
anti-Semitic articles f...
Advent of Gasoline Age
a. Replaced the steel industry as king of
American industry
b. Supporting industries: rubber, glass...
Route 66
E. Advertising emerged as a new
industry
1. Manufacturers tapped mass
markets for their goods
-- Advertisers were largely ...
Humans Develop Wings
1. 1903, Wright Brothers flew the first
flight (12 seconds) at Kitty Hawk, NC
2. Airplanes were later...
4. Charles Lindbergh flew the first solo
flight across the Atlantic in 1927
-- Amelia Earhart furthered the cause
of women’s liberation by repeating
Lindbergh’s feat in 1932.
5. Impact of the airplane
a.Civilization became more closely
linked
b.Railroads received another setback
c.Airplanes used ...
Airplane Industry
Lindbergh’s Flight
Solo flight across
Atlantic=$25,000 prize
I. Radio Revolution
1. Radio had been invented in the
1890s and used during WWI
2. 1920, KDKA in Pittsburg carried
the fir...
Electrical Conveniences
5. Impact of radio on American culture
a. Employed thousands
b. Entertained millions during their
leisure time
c. Created ...
Changing ways of life section 1
Urban differencesRural vs.
Hollywood’s Film Fantasies
Movies become a way to
escape
First talkie “The Jazz singer
George Gershwin famous
composer.
Fi...
J. Movies
1. Emergence of the movie industry
a. 1890s, peep-show penny arcades
b. 1903, Great Train Robbery
was the 1st re...
c. First full-length feature was D. W.
Griffith’s Birth of a Nation (1915)
that glorified the Ku Klux Klan
d. Movies got a boost from anti-
German propaganda during WWI
e. Hollywood became the movie
capital of the world
 Silent ...
Al Jolson, a
Jewish
entertainer,
donned blackface
while doing a
minstrel show
2. Impact of Movies in America
a. Eclipsed all other new forms of
amusement (radio, music, theater)
b. Employed 325,000 pe...
America Chases “new” Heroes
(What makes a person a hero?)
Babe Ruth
Jim Thorpe
“Lucky Lindy:
Charles Lindberg
Dynamic Decade
1. Reduction of work hours
2. Welfare capitalism
a. Some owners believed that
if workers are taken care of,...
IV. Social life and culture
A. 1920, a majority of Americans now
lived in urban areas
B. Sexual revolution
1. Freudian psy...
The Flapper
Young Women Change the Rules
The Flapper
new fashions, attitudes
silk stockings, pumps,
make up, dresses above the
knees
s...
Double
Standard!
Is it still around
today?
1920’s bathing suite ad.
Flappers
City is the place to “go
to” “ Culture and
excitement
jobs, movies,
theater, vaudeville houses
cities tolerated
drinking, ...
4. Margaret Sanger: birth control
a. Her pamphlets violated the
Comstock Laws of the 1870s
b. 1916, she established the na...
5. Women continued to organize
a. Alice Paul’s National Women’s
Party began to demand an
Equal Rights Amendment
-- It fina...
Alice Paul’s amendment was first
introduced in 1923
b. League of Women Voters, 1920
c. Divorce laws were liberalized in
many states
d. Many women stayed in the work
force aft...
Women Shed Old Roles at
home and at work
New work Opportunities
teaching, clerical work
assembly line,
Discrimination in w...
Langston Hughes best known poet
C. Jazz
1. The term “jazz” became popular after
WWI
2. Pre-WWI development of jazz
a. African-influenced slave spirituals
...
Harlem Renaissance
1. Development
a. Harlem, a black enclave in
Manhattan, grew rapidly due to
WWI
b. Significance: Harlem...
Harlem Renaissance
2. Poets and writers: Langston Hughes,
Claude McKay, Countee Cullen,
Zora Neal Hurston.
3. Duke Ellington and the Cotton C...
4. Marcus Garvey
a. Leader of the United Negro
Improvement Association
(UNIA)
“Back to Africa Movement”: promoted
the res...
African-American Voices
NAACP: fight for equality
Marcus Garvey wanted a
separate society
E. The “Lost Generation”
1. After WWI, a new generation of
writers emerged
-- Their works conveyed
resentment of ideals be...
Writers of the 20’s
Sinclair Lewis (First Nobel Prize in literature)
and
F Scott Fitzgerald ( The Great Gatsby)
Many write...
3. F. Scott Fitzgerald
a. This Side of Paradise (1920)
b. Great Gatsby (1925)
4. Theodore Dreiser: An American
Tragedy (19...
Louis Armstrong
Duke Ellington
Jazz performers and composers
3. New Orleans Dixieland Jazz
eventually spread to the North
a. Included group improvisation,
syncopation, instrumental so...
Schools and Mass Media
School Enrollments
high school graduation rates rise
College graduation rates rise
standard of livi...
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LOAPUSH CH 31

  1. 1. Unit 12.1Unit 12.1 American Society in theAmerican Society in the 1920s1920s
  2. 2. Labor Unrest Boston police Strike Calvin Coolidge Steel Mill strike Coal Miners Strike Labor Movement loses Appeal accuse some one of being a communist
  3. 3. A disillusioned America turned away from idealism after World War I and toward social conservatism, a new mass-consumption economy, and exciting new forms of popular culture that undermined many traditional values. 1920s Theme
  4. 4. Intro: Political philosophies A. radical B. conservative C. reactionary D. liberal/progressive Radical (communists, anarchists) Progressive/ Liberal Conservative Reactionary
  5. 5. Americans Struggle with Postwar Issues Objectives Reaction to “communist” threat=red scare Cause and effect of Quota system conflict between labor and management Nativism and Isolationism
  6. 6. I. “Americanism” in the 1920s Seeing Red A. “Red Scare” (1919-1920) 1. October 1917, Bolshevik Revolution in Russia resulted in fears that communism would spread to the U.S. ( 2. Strikes after WWI were seen as “radical” a. Result of inflation during WWI b. Many Americans thought large- scale labor strikes were the result of the spread of Bolshevism Billie Sunday fire and brimstone preacher
  7. 7. Palmer Raids “Fighting Quaker” Criminal syndicalism laws
  8. 8. Palmer Raids, 1919-1920 a. Anarchist bombings b. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer received $500,000 from Congress to crack down on “radicals” -- Several cities required teachers sign loyalty oaths c. 249 “radicals” were deported to Russia in November, 1919 -- The American Legion took the lead in going after “dangerous” foreigners
  9. 9. Fear of “Communism” What is communism according to your book? This is a car bomb on Wall Street in New York City The blast killed 38 and seriously injured 143.The bombing was never solved, historians think it likely bombing was carried out by Galleanists (Italian anarchists). The attack was related to postwar social unrest, labor struggles and anti-capitalist agitation in the United States. The previous year 38 “mail” bombs were sent and eight other large bombs were detonated through out the U.S.
  10. 10. d. January 2, 1919, 5,000 suspected communists were arrested in 33 cities -- 550 Russians were deported; many were U.S. citizens e. Most Americans condoned Palmer’s actions f. “Red Scare” ended in summer of 1920 g. Conservatives used the scare to break fledgling unions -- AFL lost 25% of its members
  11. 11. “The Gauntlet Flung Down” Outlook, 5/21/19. Originally from the Brooklyn Eagle (Harding).
  12. 12. Sacco and Vanzetti
  13. 13. B. Sacco and Vanzetti case 1. Two Italian-atheist-anarchist-draft dodgers were convicted of murder in 1921 Bartolomeo Vanzetti and Niccolo Sacco
  14. 14. 2. The jury and judge appeared to have nativist prejudices against the two men although the evidence was not conclusive 3. Sacco and Vanzetti were executed in 1927 -- The case attracted world attention
  15. 15. Is this the Emblem? August 11, 1927
  16. 16. Limiting Immigration Klan rises again
  17. 17. The Ku Klux Klan marches down Pennsylvania Avenue in 1925
  18. 18. C. Ku Klux Klan 1. Resurgence began in the South but spread into the Southwest and Midwest (Illinois, Ohio, Indiana) a. Total membership eventually reached 5 million b. Resurgence inspired by D.W. Griffith’s movie, Birth of a Nation (1915)
  19. 19. 2. The KKK was strongly nativist (like the “Know-Nothings” of the 1850s” a. Opposed immigration, Catholics, Jews, communists, and blacks, as well as bootleggers, gamblers, adulterers, and birth control advocates b. Extreme pro-WASP values 3. Demise of the KKK a. KKK leader in Indiana was arrested for murder in 1925 of a woman he kidnapped and sexually abused b. Federal gov’t investigated Klan embezzlement activities
  20. 20. D. Nativism in the 1920s  Historical Review a. “Know-Nothings” in 1850s b. Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882 c. APA in 1880s & 1890s d. “Gentleman’s Agreement”, 1908 e. World War I f. KKK in the 1910s and 1920s
  21. 21. Limiting Immigration Quota system favored old immigrants Stemming the Foreign Tide
  22. 22. 1. Many in America, especially rural areas, believed immigration was eroding traditional American values 2. 1921 Immigration Act a. 350,000 per year; no more than 3% of a specific ethnic group already in the U.S. b. Based on 1910 census: aimed at eastern and southern Europeans
  23. 23. 3. 1924 National Origins Act a. 152,000 per year; no more than 2% of an ethnic group already in U.S. b. Based on 1890 census: eastern and southern European immigration was reduced dramatically c. Asians were banned completely d. Canadians and Hispanics exempted 4. 1929 immigration act cut immigration in half a. By 1931, more foreigners left than arrived b. Congress ended the quota system in 1965
  24. 24. Foreign Born Immigrant Population in the U.S., 1900-2007
  25. 25. Per Capita Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages (Gallons of Pure Alcohol) 1910-1929. created a nation of “lawbreakers” Prohibition Experiment 1920 Supporters from rural south and West; fundamentalist protestants Volstead act created agency to enforce law underfunded understaffed
  26. 26. Prohibition/ Speakeasies Bootleggers
  27. 27. 2. Problems with enforcement a. Approximately half of Americans were opposed to prohibition b. Lack of enforcement officials c. Alcohol could be sold by doctors’ prescription d. Alcohol was necessary for industrial uses e. Home-made alcohol was rampant
  28. 28. F. Prohibition 1. One of last Progressive reforms (18th Amendment) a. Supported heavily by churches and women, the South and Midwest b. The Volstead Act of 1920 enforced the 18th Amendment c. Prohibition was opposed in the larger eastern cities with “wet” immigrants
  29. 29. 3. Results a. Rise of organized crime:  Huge profits from bootlegging  Al Capone was the most powerful gangster of the 1920s  Increased gang violence  Bribery at all gov’t levels was rampant  Organized crime spread to prostitution, gambling, and narcotics
  30. 30. Rise of Organized Crime Golden age of Gangsterism Al Capone # 1 gives rise to F.B.I.
  31. 31. b. Rise of speakeasies  Middle-class havens for drinking Women were welcome (compared to saloons) c. Saloons disappeared, cutting off immigrant access to alcohol d. Americans became used to casually breaking law 4. Prohibition was repealed in 1933 with the 21st Amendment
  32. 32. Absolute Alcohol Consumption per Capita, U.S. 1900-1995
  33. 33. Per Capita Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages (Gallons of Pure Alcohol) 1910-1929
  34. 34. Science and Religion Clash Fundamentalism (Billy Sunday revival preaching, and radio) vs. Darwinism
  35. 35. Scopes Trial (“Monkey Trial”): 1925, Tennessee 1. Fundamentalists challenged Darwinism 2. John Scopes was indicted for teaching evolution a. A Tennessee law barred the teaching of evolution b. The American Civil Liberties Union challenged the law c. The case attracted national attention
  36. 36. 3. Clarence Darrow defended Scopes 4. William Jennings Bryan led the prosecution Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan
  37. 37. America’s mass-consumption economy A. Glorification of business in the ‘20s 1. Bruce Barton: The Man Nobody Knows (1926) a. Called Jesus the first modern businessman 2. Calvin Coolidge: “The man who builds a factory builds a temple; The man who works there worships there.”
  38. 38. Modern Advertising
  39. 39. B. Booming U.S. Economy 1. U.S. became world’s largest creditor nation after WWI a. A brief post-war recession (1920- 1921) preceded a massive economic expansion b. Andrew Mellon’s “trickle down” tax policies favored the rapid expansion of capital investment c. Buying on credit: “buy now, pay later”
  40. 40. C. Continued consolidation of trusts 1. By 1929, the top 200 corporations held ½ of the country’s wealth 2. Chain stores became common (e.g. Woolworth, Sears & Roebuck) A cover of a pamphlet commemorating Woolworth’s 50- year anniversary
  41. 41. Installment Plan was not just for Automobiles. Superficial Prosperity Chain stores five and dimes Woolworths Great Quantity of Goods
  42. 42. 2. 70% rise in industrial productivity 3. Wages at an all-time high 4. Electric power increased 19-fold between 1912 & 1929 5. New technology: electric motor, assembly line 6. New industries: light metals, synthetics, movies, radio, automobile 7. Construction industry (e.g. skyscrapers) 8. Medical breakthroughs resulted in increased life expectancies
  43. 43. Yankee slugger, Babe Ruth
  44. 44. World Heavyweight Champion, Jack Dempsey (1921-26)
  45. 45. Tunney Dempsey fight Sept. 22, 1927 fight 150,000 spectators and over 50 million listened on the radio Up
  46. 46. F. Scientific Management: Frederick W. Taylor 1. Developed the assembly line to increase productivity and profits 2. The Principles of Scientific Management (1911) was influential in the mass production movement a. Henry Ford and other auto makers were the first to adopt Taylor’s practices b. Workers hated Taylorism
  47. 47. Putting America on Rubber Tires 1. Detroit emerged as the automobile capital of the world 2. Ford realized workers were also consumers a. In 1914, he raised wages from $2 to $5 if workers adopted “thrifty habits” b. Ford paid good benefits, hired handicapped workers, convicts and immigrants
  48. 48. Automobile Impact Henry Ford
  49. 49. c. Ford was called a “traitor to his class” by some wealthy Americans due to his generosity toward the working class 3. Ford’s assembly line produced a car in 1.5 hours compared to 14 hours for his pre- assembly line methods a. One car every 10 seconds! A 1913 assembly line in Ford’s Detroit factory
  50. 50. b. The Model T became the staple car in America for many years -- By 1930 Americans owned 30 million cars, 2/3 of which were Model Ts 1913 Model T
  51. 51. Final Assembly of Model Ts
  52. 52. 4.Ford’s anti-Semitism became controversial in the 1920s and 1930s This book contained a series of anti-Semitic articles from Ford’s company newspaper
  53. 53. Advent of Gasoline Age a. Replaced the steel industry as king of American industry b. Supporting industries: rubber, glass, fabrics, gas stations, garages, highway construction c. U.S. standard of living improved  Increased leisure time of Americans spent on the road  Suburbs emerged increasing home ownership d. Railroad industry decimated by cars, buses and trucks
  54. 54. Route 66
  55. 55. E. Advertising emerged as a new industry 1. Manufacturers tapped mass markets for their goods -- Advertisers were largely white college-educated men 2. Magazines, newspapers, radio 3. Sports became big business a. Babe Ruth and Jack Dempsey became famous through the “image making” of advertising
  56. 56. Humans Develop Wings 1. 1903, Wright Brothers flew the first flight (12 seconds) at Kitty Hawk, NC 2. Airplanes were later used in WWI 3. In the 1920s passenger lines emerged
  57. 57. 4. Charles Lindbergh flew the first solo flight across the Atlantic in 1927
  58. 58. -- Amelia Earhart furthered the cause of women’s liberation by repeating Lindbergh’s feat in 1932.
  59. 59. 5. Impact of the airplane a.Civilization became more closely linked b.Railroads received another setback c.Airplanes used in WWI on cities
  60. 60. Airplane Industry
  61. 61. Lindbergh’s Flight Solo flight across Atlantic=$25,000 prize
  62. 62. I. Radio Revolution 1. Radio had been invented in the 1890s and used during WWI 2. 1920, KDKA in Pittsburg carried the first public broadcast 3. Broadcasts grew exponentially 4. National radio networks emerged: NBC & CBS A 1920s Crosley Harko radio
  63. 63. Electrical Conveniences
  64. 64. 5. Impact of radio on American culture a. Employed thousands b. Entertained millions during their leisure time c. Created nationally a more closely- knit culture d. Advertisers used radio extensively e. Sports events were more profitable f. Politicians campaigned on the radio g. Newscasts brought news to millions h. Classical music on the radio enhanced American culture
  65. 65. Changing ways of life section 1 Urban differencesRural vs.
  66. 66. Hollywood’s Film Fantasies Movies become a way to escape First talkie “The Jazz singer George Gershwin famous composer. First animated cartoon
  67. 67. J. Movies 1. Emergence of the movie industry a. 1890s, peep-show penny arcades b. 1903, Great Train Robbery was the 1st real moving picture Justus D. Barnes fires point blank at the audience
  68. 68. c. First full-length feature was D. W. Griffith’s Birth of a Nation (1915) that glorified the Ku Klux Klan
  69. 69. d. Movies got a boost from anti- German propaganda during WWI e. Hollywood became the movie capital of the world  Silent movies until 1927 f. The Jazz Singer became the first “talkie” in 1927
  70. 70. Al Jolson, a Jewish entertainer, donned blackface while doing a minstrel show
  71. 71. 2. Impact of Movies in America a. Eclipsed all other new forms of amusement (radio, music, theater) b. Employed 325,000 people in 1930 c. Some actors and actresses became more popular than America’s political leaders d. Standardized American culture e. Provided education through newsreels and travelogues f. Tabloids and cheap movie magazines emerged
  72. 72. America Chases “new” Heroes (What makes a person a hero?) Babe Ruth Jim Thorpe “Lucky Lindy: Charles Lindberg
  73. 73. Dynamic Decade 1. Reduction of work hours 2. Welfare capitalism a. Some owners believed that if workers are taken care of, labor unions or strikes would no longer be needed -- Union membership declined b. Unions could not compete with industrial prosperity and wages did not increase significantly
  74. 74. IV. Social life and culture A. 1920, a majority of Americans now lived in urban areas B. Sexual revolution 1. Freudian psychology seemed to promote sexual activity 2. Sexual promiscuity, drinking, and erotic dancing were popular among many in the younger generation -- The flapper expressed the new freedom of women
  75. 75. The Flapper
  76. 76. Young Women Change the Rules The Flapper new fashions, attitudes silk stockings, pumps, make up, dresses above the knees smoking drinking dating, dancing the Charleston Wanted Equality
  77. 77. Double Standard! Is it still around today? 1920’s bathing suite ad.
  78. 78. Flappers
  79. 79. City is the place to “go to” “ Culture and excitement jobs, movies, theater, vaudeville houses cities tolerated drinking, gambling and casual dating  Shocking behavior in small towns 
  80. 80. 4. Margaret Sanger: birth control a. Her pamphlets violated the Comstock Laws of the 1870s b. 1916, she established the nation’s first family planning clinic c. Founded the American Birth Control League in 1921
  81. 81. 5. Women continued to organize a. Alice Paul’s National Women’s Party began to demand an Equal Rights Amendment -- It finally passed in 1972 but failed to get ¾ ratification by the states in the early 1980s
  82. 82. Alice Paul’s amendment was first introduced in 1923
  83. 83. b. League of Women Voters, 1920 c. Divorce laws were liberalized in many states d. Many women stayed in the work force after WWI
  84. 84. Women Shed Old Roles at home and at work New work Opportunities teaching, clerical work assembly line, Discrimination in work place established Changing Family lower birth rate simplified housework marriage was for love juggling family and work
  85. 85. Langston Hughes best known poet
  86. 86. C. Jazz 1. The term “jazz” became popular after WWI 2. Pre-WWI development of jazz a. African-influenced slave spirituals grew into jubilees and the blues in the rural South b. Black folk music contained a common body of sound c. Ragtime works of the 1890s are considered by some as the first “jazz” (e.g. Scott Joplin) d. Blues developed simultaneously with ragtime
  87. 87. Harlem Renaissance 1. Development a. Harlem, a black enclave in Manhattan, grew rapidly due to WWI b. Significance: Harlem produced a wealth of African American poetry, literature, art, and music expressing the pain, sorrow, and discrimination blacks felt at this time
  88. 88. Harlem Renaissance
  89. 89. 2. Poets and writers: Langston Hughes, Claude McKay, Countee Cullen, Zora Neal Hurston. 3. Duke Ellington and the Cotton Club -- Pianist, band leader, composer/arranger who formed one of the most famous bands in jazz history
  90. 90. 4. Marcus Garvey a. Leader of the United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) “Back to Africa Movement”: promoted the resettlement of U.S. blacks to Africa Advocated black racial pride and separatism from whites rather than integration b. His views later became the basis for the Nation of Islam in the 1960s
  91. 91. African-American Voices NAACP: fight for equality Marcus Garvey wanted a separate society
  92. 92. E. The “Lost Generation” 1. After WWI, a new generation of writers emerged -- Their works conveyed resentment of ideals betrayed by society; criticized the materialism of the 1920s 2. H. L. Mencken: American Mercury magazine -- Attacked traditional conservative values
  93. 93. Writers of the 20’s Sinclair Lewis (First Nobel Prize in literature) and F Scott Fitzgerald ( The Great Gatsby) Many writers ripped on American culture as materialistic and shallow. Formed a club in Paris called the lost Generation Ernest Hemingway best known American author
  94. 94. 3. F. Scott Fitzgerald a. This Side of Paradise (1920) b. Great Gatsby (1925) 4. Theodore Dreiser: An American Tragedy (1925) 5. Ernest Hemingway: Farewell to Arms (1929) 6. Sinclair Lewis a. Criticized midwestern life b. Mainstreet (1920) c. Babbitt (1922)
  95. 95. Louis Armstrong Duke Ellington Jazz performers and composers
  96. 96. 3. New Orleans Dixieland Jazz eventually spread to the North a. Included group improvisation, syncopation, instrumental solos, and moderate to fast tempos b. Louis Armstrong was perhaps the first master improviser c. Great Migration northward during WWI meant jazz moved north as well.
  97. 97. Schools and Mass Media School Enrollments high school graduation rates rise College graduation rates rise standard of living rise News Coverage Mass media spreads mass culture ( radio, magazines, and movies) Radio comes of age start of “soap operas” World Series/baseballs popularity explodes

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