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LIFE &LIFE &
CULTURE INCULTURE IN
AMERICA INAMERICA IN
THE 1920STHE 1920S
THETHE
ROARINGROARING
TWENTIESTWENTIES
America at theAmerica at the
Start of the DecadeStart of the Decade
 Victorious inVictorious in
World War IWorld War I
 ...
The Election of 1920The Election of 1920
 GOP nominated Ohio Sen.GOP nominated Ohio Sen.
Warren G. HardingWarren G. Hardi...
The 1920 Election
Wilson’s idealism and
Treaty of Versailles led
many Americans to
vote for the
Republican, Warren
Harding...
WarrenWarren
G.G.
HardingHarding
Pres. Warren G. Harding-Pres. Warren G. Harding-
19201920
Vice-President: Calvin CoolidgeVice-President: Calvin Coolidge
G...
Harding appointed someHarding appointed some
very qualified people tovery qualified people to
his administration.his admin...
The Ohio Gang: President Warren Harding (front row, third from
right), Vice-President Calvin Coolidge (front row, second f...
The Teapot Dome Scandal
• In the early part of the 20th
century large oil reserves
were discovered in Elk Hills, Californi...
• In 1912 President William Taft
decided that the government owned
the land and its’ oil reserves should
be set aside for ...
• In March of 1921, President Warren Harding appointed
Albert Fall as Secretary of the Interior.
Pres. Warren Harding Secr...
Secretary of the
Interior Albert Fall
Harry
Sinclair
(Mammoth
Oil Corp.)
Edward L.
Doheny (Pan-
American
Petroleum)
Yo, Al...
• Later that year Fall decided that two of his friends,
Harry F. Sinclair (Mammoth Oil Corporation) and Edward L.
Doheny (...
• In 1927, Fall was found guilty of accepting a $100,000 bribe
from Doheny. He was forced to resign from office and spent
...
The 1924 Election
Calvin Coolidge served
as President from 1923
to 1929.
“Silent Cal”.
Republican president
Pres. Calvin CoolidgePres. Calvin Coolidge
Harding’s death in 1923Harding’s death in 1923
brought Coolidge to thebrought C...
BUSINESS – FRIENDLYBUSINESS – FRIENDLY
GOVERNMENTGOVERNMENT
 Calvin CoolidgeCalvin Coolidge
 ““The business ofThe busine...
““Silent Cal”Silent Cal”
The business of America
is….
BUSINESS!!!!
 The new president,The new president,
Calvin CoolidgeCalvin Coolidge , fit, fit
thethe pro-businesspro-business spiritspi...
Americans on the MoveAmericans on the Move
 Urbanization stillUrbanization still
accelerating.accelerating.
 More Americ...
URBAN VS. RURALURBAN VS. RURAL
 Farms started to struggle post-Farms started to struggle post-
WWI.WWI.
 6 million moved...
Demographical ChangesDemographical Changes
 Demographics:Demographics:
statistics that describestatistics that describe
a...
Black Population, 1920Black Population, 1920
Immigration, 1921-1960Immigration, 1921-1960
SOCIAL & CULTURAL
CONFLICTS:
ImmigrationImmigration
Emergency Quota Act - 1921Emergency Quota Act - 1921
3% of total number people in ethnic group pe...
SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS:SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS:
Xenophobia and Racial UnrestXenophobia and Racial Unrest
Nationa...
Other MigrationOther Migration
Post-WWI: European refugees toPost-WWI: European refugees to
AmericaAmerica
Limited immig...
SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS:SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS:
Xenophobia and Racial UnrestXenophobia and Racial Unrest
 Commun...
•Red Scare, 1919 to 1921, was a
time of great upheaval…U.S.
“scared out of their wits".
•"Reds”"Reds” as they were called,...
SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS:SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS:
Xenophobia and Racial UnrestXenophobia and Racial Unrest
SaccoSa...
Sacco and Vanzetti CaseSacco and Vanzetti Case
2 shoe-factory workers were murdered and2 shoe-factory workers were murder...
SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS:SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS:
Xenophobia and Racial UnrestXenophobia and Racial Unrest
 Birth ...
Ku Klux KlanKu Klux Klan
 Colonel William J SimmonsColonel William J Simmons
 Revived organization in 1915Revived organi...
Ku Klux KlanKu Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan parade inKu Klux Klan parade in
Washington, D.C., Sept. 13, 1926Washington, D.C., Se...
CONSUMERISMCONSUMERISM
 ((electric)electric) appliancesappliances
 automobilesautomobiles
 advertisingadvertising (imag...
CONSUMERISM:CONSUMERISM:
Impact of the AutomobileImpact of the Automobile
 Replaced the railroad asReplaced the railroad ...
Automobiles &Automobiles &
Industrial ExpansionIndustrial Expansion
 Henry FordHenry Ford
 ‘‘fordism’fordism’
Ford Highl...
Impact of the Automobile:Impact of the Automobile:
Trains and Automobiles, 1900-1980Trains and Automobiles, 1900-1980
Jone...
AutomobilesAutomobiles &&
ConsumerismConsumerism
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved
<< Ford ad:Ford...
July 4, Nantasket Beach, Massachusetts, early 1920sJuly 4, Nantasket Beach, Massachusetts, early 1920s
THE TWENTIES WOMANTHE TWENTIES WOMAN
 After the tumult ofAfter the tumult of
World War I, AmericansWorld War I, Americans...
THE FLAPPERTHE FLAPPER
 Challenged theChallenged the
traditional ways.traditional ways.
 Revolution ofRevolution of
mann...
“Flappers” sought
individual freedom
Known for their
short “bobbed” hair
Ongoing crusade for
equal rights
Most women r...
Characteristics of
the “Flapper”:
• Short hair (ear bob)
• Legs showing with
shorter skirts
• Single women
entertained mal...
NEW ROLES FORNEW ROLES FOR
WOMENWOMEN
Many women entered the workplace asMany women entered the workplace as
nurses, teac...
THE CHANGINGTHE CHANGING
AMERICAN FAMILYAMERICAN FAMILY
 American birthratesAmerican birthrates
declineddeclined for seve...
                                                         
"When motherhood becomes the
fruit of a deep yearning, not the r...
MODERNMODERN
FAMILYFAMILY
EMERGESEMERGES
 Marriage was basedMarriage was based
onon romantic loveromantic love..
 Women ...
PROHIBITIONPROHIBITION
PROHIBITIONPROHIBITION
 One example ofOne example of
the clash betweenthe clash between
city & farm wascity & farm was
th...
SUPPORT FORSUPPORT FOR
PROHIBITIONPROHIBITION
 Reformers had longReformers had long
believed alcohol ledbelieved alcohol ...
Poster
supporting
prohibition
SPEAKEASIES ANDSPEAKEASIES AND
BOOTLEGGERSBOOTLEGGERS Many Americans did notMany Americans did not
believe drinking was a...
ORGANIZEDORGANIZED
CRIMECRIME
 Prohibition contributed toProhibition contributed to
the growth of organizedthe growth of ...
RacketeeringRacketeering
Illegal business scheme to make profit.Illegal business scheme to make profit.
Gangsters bribed...
St. Valentine’s Day MassacreSt. Valentine’s Day Massacre
 Valentines Day –Valentines Day –
February 14, 1929February 14, ...
GOVERNMENT FAILSGOVERNMENT FAILS
TO CONTROL LIQUORTO CONTROL LIQUOR
 Prohibition failed:Prohibition failed:
 Why? Govern...
SUPPORT FADES,SUPPORT FADES,
PROHIBITION REPEALEDPROHIBITION REPEALED
 By the mid-1920s, onlyBy the mid-1920s, only
19% o...
SCIENCE ANDSCIENCE AND
RELIGION CLASHRELIGION CLASH
 Fundamentalists vs. Secular thinkersFundamentalists vs. Secular thin...
SCOPES TRIALSCOPES TRIAL
 In March 1925,In March 1925,
TennesseeTennessee
passed thepassed the
nation’s first lawnation’s...
SCOPES TRIALSCOPES TRIAL
 The ACLU hiredThe ACLU hired
Clarence Darrow,Clarence Darrow,
the most famousthe most famous
tr...
SCOPES TRIALSCOPES TRIAL
 Trial opened on July 10,1925 and became a nationalTrial opened on July 10,1925 and became a nat...
William Ashley “Billy” SundayWilliam Ashley “Billy” Sunday
 1862-19351862-1935
 Father served and died inFather served a...
Billy SundayBilly Sunday
 SermonsSermons
 Supported prohibitionSupported prohibition
 Forced towns to build himForced t...
EDUCATION ANDEDUCATION AND
POPULARPOPULAR
CULTURECULTURE
 During the 1920s,During the 1920s,
developments indevelopments ...
Mass MediaMass Media
Increases in Mass media during the 1920sIncreases in Mass media during the 1920s
Print and broadcas...
EXPANDING NEWSEXPANDING NEWS
COVERAGECOVERAGE
 Literacy increased in theLiteracy increased in the
1920s…1920s…
as a resul...
RADIO COMESRADIO COMES
OF AGEOF AGE
 Although print mediaAlthough print media
was popular, radio waswas popular, radio wa...
MASSMASS
CULTURE: RadioCULTURE: Radio
New massNew mass
mediummedium
1920: First1920: First
commercial radiocommercial ra...
•Radio sets, parts
and accessories
brought in $60$60
millionmillion in 1922…
• $136 million$136 million in
1923
•$852 mill...
ENTERTAINMENT ANDENTERTAINMENT AND
ARTSARTS
 Even before sound,Even before sound,
movies offered amovies offered a
means ...
Icons of 1920sIcons of 1920s
LINDBERGH’SLINDBERGH’S
FLIGHTFLIGHT Charles LindberghCharles Lindbergh
 Nickname: “Lucky Lindy”Nickname: “Lucky Lindy”
...
Amelia EarhartAmelia Earhart
 1932: First female to1932: First female to
fly solo across thefly solo across the
AtlanticA...
AMERICAN HEROES OFAMERICAN HEROES OF
THE 20sTHE 20s
 In 1929, AmericansIn 1929, Americans
spent $4.5 billion onspent $4.5...
MUSIC OF THE 1920sMUSIC OF THE 1920s
 Famed composerFamed composer
George GershwinGeorge Gershwin
merged traditionalmerge...
EDWARD KENNEDY “DUKE”EDWARD KENNEDY “DUKE”
ELLINGTONELLINGTON
 In the late 1920s,In the late 1920s,
Duke Ellington,Duke E...
LOUISLOUIS
ARMSTRONGARMSTRONG
 Jazz was born in theJazz was born in the
early 20early 20thth
centurycentury
 In 1922, a ...
BESSIEBESSIE
SMITHSMITH
 Bessie Smith, bluesBessie Smith, blues
singer, was perhapssinger, was perhaps
thethe most outsta...
BILLIE HOLIDAYBILLIE HOLIDAY
 Born Eleanora FaganBorn Eleanora Fagan
GoughGough
 One of the most recognizableOne of the ...
1920s DANCING1920s DANCING
 CharlestonCharleston
 Swing DancingSwing Dancing
 Dance MarathonsDance Marathons
Walt DisneyWalt Disney
 Walt Disney onlyWalt Disney only
attended one year ofattended one year of
high school.high school...
ART OF THE 1920sART OF THE 1920s
 Georgia O’ KeeffeGeorgia O’ Keeffe
captured thecaptured the
grandeur of Newgrandeur of ...
WRITERS OFWRITERS OF
THE 1920sTHE 1920s
 Writer F. ScottWriter F. Scott
FitzgeraldFitzgerald coinedcoined
the phrase “Jaz...
WRITERS OF THEWRITERS OF THE
19201920
 Ernest Hemingway,Ernest Hemingway, becamebecame
one of the best-known authorsone o...
THE HARLEM RENAISSANCETHE HARLEM RENAISSANCE
 Great MigrationGreat Migration sawsaw
hundreds ofhundreds of
thousands ofth...
HARLEM, NEW YORKHARLEM, NEW YORK
 Harlem, NYHarlem, NY
became thebecame the largestlargest
black urbanblack urban
communi...
LANGSTONLANGSTON
HUGHESHUGHES
 Missouri-bornMissouri-born LangstonLangston
HughesHughes was thewas the
movement’s best kn...
AFRICANAFRICAN
AMERICAN GOALSAMERICAN GOALS
 Founded in 1909,Founded in 1909,
thethe NAACPNAACP urgedurged
African Americ...
MARCUS GARVEY -MARCUS GARVEY -
UNIAUNIA
 Marcus Garvey believedMarcus Garvey believed
that African Americansthat African ...
Roaring 20s
Roaring 20s
Roaring 20s
Roaring 20s
Roaring 20s
Roaring 20s
Roaring 20s
Roaring 20s
Roaring 20s
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Roaring 20s

  1. 1. LIFE &LIFE & CULTURE INCULTURE IN AMERICA INAMERICA IN THE 1920STHE 1920S THETHE ROARINGROARING TWENTIESTWENTIES
  2. 2. America at theAmerica at the Start of the DecadeStart of the Decade  Victorious inVictorious in World War IWorld War I  Treaty ofTreaty of VersaillesVersailles defeateddefeated  Period ofPeriod of isolationismisolationism  RepublicanRepublican ascendancyascendancy Returning WWI soldiers parading in Minneapolis
  3. 3. The Election of 1920The Election of 1920  GOP nominated Ohio Sen.GOP nominated Ohio Sen. Warren G. HardingWarren G. Harding  ““Normalcy”Normalcy”  Democrats ran Ohio Gov.Democrats ran Ohio Gov. James M. CoxJames M. Cox  Coolidge as GOP VPCoolidge as GOP VP candidatecandidate  FDR as Democratic VPFDR as Democratic VP candidatecandidate  Republican landslideRepublican landslide Warren G. Harding
  4. 4. The 1920 Election Wilson’s idealism and Treaty of Versailles led many Americans to vote for the Republican, Warren Harding… US turned inward and feared anything that was European…
  5. 5. WarrenWarren G.G. HardingHarding
  6. 6. Pres. Warren G. Harding-Pres. Warren G. Harding- 19201920 Vice-President: Calvin CoolidgeVice-President: Calvin Coolidge Gone were the days of Wilson andGone were the days of Wilson and Idealism!Idealism! Harding promised:Harding promised: Lower TaxesLower Taxes Higher TariffsHigher Tariffs Restrictions on immigrationRestrictions on immigration Aid to farmersAid to farmers “A return to NORMALCY”
  7. 7. Harding appointed someHarding appointed some very qualified people tovery qualified people to his administration.his administration. However, he alsoHowever, he also appointed several lessappointed several less qualifiedqualified people from his home statepeople from his home state of Ohio whoof Ohio who eventually engaged in as host ofeventually engaged in as host of corrupt activities for personal gain.corrupt activities for personal gain. “OHIO GANG”
  8. 8. The Ohio Gang: President Warren Harding (front row, third from right), Vice-President Calvin Coolidge (front row, second from right), and members of the cabinet. The 1920 Election
  9. 9. The Teapot Dome Scandal • In the early part of the 20th century large oil reserves were discovered in Elk Hills, California and Teapot Dome, Wyoming. Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center on the Teapot Dome Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 near Midwest, Wyoming.
  10. 10. • In 1912 President William Taft decided that the government owned the land and its’ oil reserves should be set aside for the use of the United States Navy. • On 4th June, 1920, Congress passed a bill that stated that the Secretary of the Navy would have the power "to conserve, develop, use and operate the same in his discretion, directly or by contract, lease, or otherwise, and to use, store, exchange, or sell the oil and gas products thereof, and those from all royalty oil from lands in the naval reserves, for the benefit of the United States."
  11. 11. • In March of 1921, President Warren Harding appointed Albert Fall as Secretary of the Interior. Pres. Warren Harding Secretary of the Interior Albert Fall
  12. 12. Secretary of the Interior Albert Fall Harry Sinclair (Mammoth Oil Corp.) Edward L. Doheny (Pan- American Petroleum) Yo, Albert buddy! How about letting Edward and I drill for oil in Elk Hills and Teapot Dome! But that’s Naval property! You can’t drill there! Maybe $100,000 would help you change your mind! Why didn’t you say so, Ed? You’ve got a deal!
  13. 13. • Later that year Fall decided that two of his friends, Harry F. Sinclair (Mammoth Oil Corporation) and Edward L. Doheny (Pan-American Petroleum and Transport Company), should be allowed to lease part of these Naval Reserves. There was NO evidence that Harding was involved in any way. • In 1923, Harding died of a heart attack. Vice-President Calvin Coolidge took over.
  14. 14. • In 1927, Fall was found guilty of accepting a $100,000 bribe from Doheny. He was forced to resign from office and spent one year in jail. Fall was the first cabinet member to be convicted of a crime while in office. • The land was naval property, and should not have been leased to private oil companies.
  15. 15. The 1924 Election Calvin Coolidge served as President from 1923 to 1929. “Silent Cal”. Republican president
  16. 16. Pres. Calvin CoolidgePres. Calvin Coolidge Harding’s death in 1923Harding’s death in 1923 brought Coolidge to thebrought Coolidge to the presidency.presidency. In 1924, Americans voted toIn 1924, Americans voted to Coolidge’s businessCoolidge’s business policy was laissezpolicy was laissez faire :faire : Between 1921and 1929Between 1921and 1929 the output of industrythe output of industry nearly Doublednearly Doubled “Keep cool with Coolidge”
  17. 17. BUSINESS – FRIENDLYBUSINESS – FRIENDLY GOVERNMENTGOVERNMENT  Calvin CoolidgeCalvin Coolidge  ““The business ofThe business of America is business”America is business” President CalvinPresident Calvin CoolidgeCoolidge Coolidge throwing out firstCoolidge throwing out first
  18. 18. ““Silent Cal”Silent Cal” The business of America is…. BUSINESS!!!!
  19. 19.  The new president,The new president, Calvin CoolidgeCalvin Coolidge , fit, fit thethe pro-businesspro-business spiritspirit of the 1920s very wellof the 1920s very well  His famous quoteHis famous quote :: “The chief business of“The chief business of the American peoplethe American people is business . . .theis business . . .the man who builds aman who builds a factory builds afactory builds a temple – the man whotemple – the man who works there worshipsworks there worships there”there” President Calvin Coolidge 1924-1928
  20. 20. Americans on the MoveAmericans on the Move  Urbanization stillUrbanization still accelerating.accelerating.  More AmericansMore Americans lived in citieslived in cities than in ruralthan in rural areasareas  1920:1920:  New York 5New York 5 millionmillion  Chicago 3 millionChicago 3 million
  21. 21. URBAN VS. RURALURBAN VS. RURAL  Farms started to struggle post-Farms started to struggle post- WWI.WWI.  6 million moved to urban areas6 million moved to urban areas  Urban life was considered aUrban life was considered a world of anonymous crowds,world of anonymous crowds, strangers, moneymakers, andstrangers, moneymakers, and pleasure seekers.pleasure seekers.  Rural life was considered to beRural life was considered to be safe, with close personal ties,safe, with close personal ties, hard work and morals.hard work and morals.  Suburban boom: trolleys,Suburban boom: trolleys, street cars etc.street cars etc. Cities were impersonal Farms were innocent
  22. 22. Demographical ChangesDemographical Changes  Demographics:Demographics: statistics that describestatistics that describe a population.a population. Real Time Demographics  Migration NorthMigration North  African AmericansAfrican Americans moving north at rapidmoving north at rapid pace.pace.  Why?Why?  Jim Crow lawsJim Crow laws  New job opportunitiesNew job opportunities in northin north  1860 – 93% in south1860 – 93% in south  1930 – 80% in south1930 – 80% in south  Struggles:Struggles:  Faced hatred fromFaced hatred from whiteswhites  Forced low wagesForced low wages
  23. 23. Black Population, 1920Black Population, 1920
  24. 24. Immigration, 1921-1960Immigration, 1921-1960 SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS:
  25. 25. ImmigrationImmigration Emergency Quota Act - 1921Emergency Quota Act - 1921 3% of total number people in ethnic group per3% of total number people in ethnic group per yearyear Based on 1910 censusBased on 1910 census National Origins Act - 1924National Origins Act - 1924 2% of each nationality living here in 18902% of each nationality living here in 1890 1929 limit total immigrants to 150,000/yr with1929 limit total immigrants to 150,000/yr with nationality allotment based on 1920 censusnationality allotment based on 1920 census
  26. 26. SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS:SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS: Xenophobia and Racial UnrestXenophobia and Racial Unrest National OriginNational Origin Act of 1924Act of 1924 Number ofNumber of ImmigrantsImmigrants andand Countries ofCountries of Origin, 1891-Origin, 1891- 1920 and1920 and 1921-19401921-1940 Percentage of Population Foreign Born, 1850-1990Percentage of Population Foreign Born, 1850-1990
  27. 27. Other MigrationOther Migration Post-WWI: European refugees toPost-WWI: European refugees to AmericaAmerica Limited immigration in 1920s fromLimited immigration in 1920s from Europe and Asia.Europe and Asia. Employers turned to Mexican andEmployers turned to Mexican and Canadian immigrants to work.Canadian immigrants to work. As a result: barrios createdAs a result: barrios created Spanish speaking neighborhoods.Spanish speaking neighborhoods.
  28. 28. SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS:SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS: Xenophobia and Racial UnrestXenophobia and Racial Unrest  Communist InternationalCommunist International  33rdrd International Goal (1919): promoteInternational Goal (1919): promote worldwide communismworldwide communism  Red ScareRed Scare  Palmer RaidsPalmer Raids (1920)(1920) A. Mitchell Palmer’s Home bombed, 1920A. Mitchell Palmer’s Home bombed, 1920 Police arrestPolice arrest “suspected“suspected Reds” inReds” in Chicago,Chicago, 19201920
  29. 29. •Red Scare, 1919 to 1921, was a time of great upheaval…U.S. “scared out of their wits". •"Reds”"Reds” as they were called, "Anarchists” or "Outside Foreign-Born Radical Agitators” (Communists).(Communists). •Anti-red hysteria came about after WWI and the Russian Revolution. •6,000 immigrants the government suspected of being Communists were arrested (Palmer Raids) and 600 were deported or expelled from the U.S. •No due process was followed Attorney General Mitchell Palmer
  30. 30. SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS:SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS: Xenophobia and Racial UnrestXenophobia and Racial Unrest SaccoSacco && VanzettVanzett ii HAVE A CHAIR!HAVE A CHAIR! fromfrom TheThe Daily WorkerDaily Worker IS THIS THEIS THIS THE EMBLEM?EMBLEM? fromfrom TheThe Daily WorkerDaily Worker Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, 1921
  31. 31. Sacco and Vanzetti CaseSacco and Vanzetti Case 2 shoe-factory workers were murdered and2 shoe-factory workers were murdered and robbed of company payrollrobbed of company payroll Nicola Sacco, a shoemaker, and BartolomeoNicola Sacco, a shoemaker, and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, a fish peddlerVanzetti, a fish peddler Italian immigrants arrested on flimsy evidenceItalian immigrants arrested on flimsy evidence Anarchists and immigrantsAnarchists and immigrants Found guilty, sentenced to death, executedFound guilty, sentenced to death, executed anti-immigrant sentiments led Congress toanti-immigrant sentiments led Congress to change immigration lawschange immigration laws
  32. 32. SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS:SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS: Xenophobia and Racial UnrestXenophobia and Racial Unrest  Birth of a NationBirth of a Nation - D.W. Griffith- D.W. Griffith  ““new” Ku Klux Klannew” Ku Klux Klan  ““American-ism”American-ism” (Picture Research Consultants & Archives) Ku Klux Klan initiation, 1923. The Klan opposed all who were not “true Americans”. (c) 2000 IRC
  33. 33. Ku Klux KlanKu Klux Klan  Colonel William J SimmonsColonel William J Simmons  Revived organization in 1915Revived organization in 1915  1922: enrollment 4 million1922: enrollment 4 million  Attacks against:Attacks against:  African Americans, Catholics, Jews, immigrants andAfrican Americans, Catholics, Jews, immigrants and others.others.  By night, whipped, beat and even killed.By night, whipped, beat and even killed.  By 1927 Klan activity diminished once again.By 1927 Klan activity diminished once again.
  34. 34. Ku Klux KlanKu Klux Klan Ku Klux Klan parade inKu Klux Klan parade in Washington, D.C., Sept. 13, 1926Washington, D.C., Sept. 13, 1926
  35. 35. CONSUMERISMCONSUMERISM  ((electric)electric) appliancesappliances  automobilesautomobiles  advertisingadvertising (image vs. utility)(image vs. utility)  buying on creditbuying on credit  chain storeschain stores ConsumerConsumer Debt,Debt, 1920–19311920–1931 General Electric ad (Picture Research Consultants & Archives)
  36. 36. CONSUMERISM:CONSUMERISM: Impact of the AutomobileImpact of the Automobile  Replaced the railroad asReplaced the railroad as the key promoter ofthe key promoter of economic growtheconomic growth (steel,(steel, glass, rubber, gasoline, highways)glass, rubber, gasoline, highways)  Daily life:Daily life: commuting, shopping,commuting, shopping, traveling, “courting”traveling, “courting” Increase in sales:Increase in sales: 1913 - 1.2 million1913 - 1.2 million registered; 1929 - 26.5registered; 1929 - 26.5 million registeredmillion registered (=almost(=almost one per family)one per family) Passenger CarPassenger Car Sales, 1920-1929Sales, 1920-1929 Filling Station, Maryland in 1921Filling Station, Maryland in 1921
  37. 37. Automobiles &Automobiles & Industrial ExpansionIndustrial Expansion  Henry FordHenry Ford  ‘‘fordism’fordism’ Ford Highland Park assembly line, 1928 (From the Collections of Henry Ford Museum & Greenfield Village) “Trying out the new assembly line“ Detroit, 1913 Henry Ford (1835-1947) 1913: 14 hours to build a new car 1928: New Ford off assembly line every 10 seconds 1913: car=2 yrs wages 1929: 3 mos. wages
  38. 38. Impact of the Automobile:Impact of the Automobile: Trains and Automobiles, 1900-1980Trains and Automobiles, 1900-1980 Jones, Created
  39. 39. AutomobilesAutomobiles && ConsumerismConsumerism Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved << Ford ad:Ford ad: “Every family -- with even the most modest income, can now afford a car of their own." “Every family should have their own car. . .You live but once and the years roll by quickly. Why wait for tomorrow for things that you rightfully should enjoy today?" (Library of Congress) Dodge advertisementDodge advertisement photo, 1933photo, 1933
  40. 40. July 4, Nantasket Beach, Massachusetts, early 1920sJuly 4, Nantasket Beach, Massachusetts, early 1920s
  41. 41. THE TWENTIES WOMANTHE TWENTIES WOMAN  After the tumult ofAfter the tumult of World War I, AmericansWorld War I, Americans were looking for a littlewere looking for a little fun in the 1920s.fun in the 1920s.  Women wereWomen were independent andindependent and achieving greaterachieving greater freedoms.freedoms.  ie. right to vote, moreie. right to vote, more employment, freedomemployment, freedom of the autoof the auto Chicago 1926
  42. 42. THE FLAPPERTHE FLAPPER  Challenged theChallenged the traditional ways.traditional ways.  Revolution ofRevolution of manners andmanners and morals.morals.  A Flapper was anA Flapper was an emancipated youngemancipated young woman whowoman who embraced the newembraced the new fashions and urbanfashions and urban attitudes.attitudes.
  43. 43. “Flappers” sought individual freedom Known for their short “bobbed” hair Ongoing crusade for equal rights Most women remain in the “cult of“cult of domesticity”domesticity” sphere Discovery of adolescence
  44. 44. Characteristics of the “Flapper”: • Short hair (ear bob) • Legs showing with shorter skirts • Single women entertained male friends at home without a chaperone • Smoking • Dancing • “Party girls” • Rebellious • Fun-loving • Modern • Liberated (FREE!)
  45. 45. NEW ROLES FORNEW ROLES FOR WOMENWOMEN Many women entered the workplace asMany women entered the workplace as nurses, teachers, librarians, & secretaries.nurses, teachers, librarians, & secretaries. Earned less than men and were preventedEarned less than men and were prevented from obtaining certain jobs.from obtaining certain jobs. Early 20th Century teachers
  46. 46. THE CHANGINGTHE CHANGING AMERICAN FAMILYAMERICAN FAMILY  American birthratesAmerican birthrates declineddeclined for severalfor several decades before thedecades before the 1920s.1920s. Trend continues inTrend continues in 1920s with1920s with development of birthdevelopment of birth control.control. Margaret SangerMargaret Sanger  Birth control activistBirth control activist  Founder of AmericanFounder of American Birth Control LeagueBirth Control League  ie. Plannedie. Planned ParenthoodParenthood Margaret Sanger and other founders of the American Birth Control League - 1921
  47. 47.                                                           "When motherhood becomes the fruit of a deep yearning, not the result of ignorance or accident, its children will become the foundation of a new race.“ - Margaret Sanger
  48. 48. MODERNMODERN FAMILYFAMILY EMERGESEMERGES  Marriage was basedMarriage was based onon romantic loveromantic love..  Women managedWomen managed the household andthe household and finances.finances.  Children were notChildren were not considered laborers/considered laborers/ wage earnerswage earners anymore.anymore.  Seen as developingSeen as developing children whochildren who needed nurturingneeded nurturing and educationand education
  49. 49. PROHIBITIONPROHIBITION
  50. 50. PROHIBITIONPROHIBITION  One example ofOne example of the clash betweenthe clash between city & farm wascity & farm was the passage of thethe passage of the 1818thth Amendment inAmendment in 1920.1920.  Launched eraLaunched era known asknown as ProhibitionProhibition  Made it illegal toMade it illegal to make, distribute,make, distribute, sell, transport orsell, transport or consume liquor.consume liquor. Prohibition lasted from 1920 to 1933 when it was repealed by the 21st Amendment
  51. 51. SUPPORT FORSUPPORT FOR PROHIBITIONPROHIBITION  Reformers had longReformers had long believed alcohol ledbelieved alcohol led to crime, child &to crime, child & wife abuse, andwife abuse, and accidentsaccidents  Supporters wereSupporters were largely from thelargely from the rural south and westrural south and west
  52. 52. Poster supporting prohibition
  53. 53. SPEAKEASIES ANDSPEAKEASIES AND BOOTLEGGERSBOOTLEGGERS Many Americans did notMany Americans did not believe drinking was abelieve drinking was a sinsin  Most immigrant groupsMost immigrant groups were not willing to givewere not willing to give up drinkingup drinking  To obtain liquor, drinkersTo obtain liquor, drinkers went underground towent underground to hidden saloons known ashidden saloons known as speakeasiesspeakeasies  People also bought liquorPeople also bought liquor fromfrom bootleggersbootleggers whowho smuggled it in fromsmuggled it in from Canada, Cuba and theCanada, Cuba and the West IndiesWest Indies  All of these activities becameAll of these activities became closely affiliated with …closely affiliated with … Speakeasies
  54. 54. ORGANIZEDORGANIZED CRIMECRIME  Prohibition contributed toProhibition contributed to the growth of organizedthe growth of organized crime in every major citycrime in every major city  Al Capone –Al Capone –  Chicago, IllinoisChicago, Illinois  famous bootleggerfamous bootlegger  ““Scarface”Scarface”  60 million yr (bootleg alone)60 million yr (bootleg alone)  Capone took control of theCapone took control of the Chicago liquor businessChicago liquor business by killing off hisby killing off his competitioncompetition  Talent for avoiding jailTalent for avoiding jail  1931 sent to prision for tax-1931 sent to prision for tax- Al Capone was finally convicted on tax evasion charges in 1931
  55. 55. RacketeeringRacketeering Illegal business scheme to make profit.Illegal business scheme to make profit. Gangsters bribed police or gov’t officials.Gangsters bribed police or gov’t officials. Forced local businesses a fee for “protection”.Forced local businesses a fee for “protection”. No fee - gunned down or businesses blown to bitsNo fee - gunned down or businesses blown to bits
  56. 56. St. Valentine’s Day MassacreSt. Valentine’s Day Massacre  Valentines Day –Valentines Day – February 14, 1929February 14, 1929  Rival between Al CaponeRival between Al Capone and Bugs Moranand Bugs Moran  Capone – South SideCapone – South Side Italian gangItalian gang  Moran – North Side IrishMoran – North Side Irish ganggang  Bloody murder of 7 ofBloody murder of 7 of Moran’s men.Moran’s men.  Capone’s men dressed asCapone’s men dressed as copscops
  57. 57. GOVERNMENT FAILSGOVERNMENT FAILS TO CONTROL LIQUORTO CONTROL LIQUOR  Prohibition failed:Prohibition failed:  Why? Government didWhy? Government did not budget enoughnot budget enough money to enforce themoney to enforce the lawlaw  The task of enforcingThe task of enforcing Prohibition fell toProhibition fell to 1,500 poorly paid1,500 poorly paid federal agents ---federal agents --- clearly an impossibleclearly an impossible task!task! Federal agents pour wine down a sewer
  58. 58. SUPPORT FADES,SUPPORT FADES, PROHIBITION REPEALEDPROHIBITION REPEALED  By the mid-1920s, onlyBy the mid-1920s, only 19% of Americans19% of Americans supported Prohibitionsupported Prohibition  Many felt ProhibitionMany felt Prohibition caused more problemscaused more problems than it solvedthan it solved  What problems did itWhat problems did it cause?cause?  The 21The 21stst AmendmentAmendment finallyfinally repealedrepealed Prohibition in 1933Prohibition in 1933
  59. 59. SCIENCE ANDSCIENCE AND RELIGION CLASHRELIGION CLASH  Fundamentalists vs. Secular thinkersFundamentalists vs. Secular thinkers  The Protestant movement - literal interpretation of theThe Protestant movement - literal interpretation of the bible is known as fundamentalismbible is known as fundamentalism  FundamentalistsFundamentalists found all truth in the biblefound all truth in the bible – including– including science & evolutionscience & evolution
  60. 60. SCOPES TRIALSCOPES TRIAL  In March 1925,In March 1925, TennesseeTennessee passed thepassed the nation’s first lawnation’s first law that made it athat made it a crime to teachcrime to teach evolutionevolution  The ACLUThe ACLU promised topromised to defend anydefend any teacher willing toteacher willing to challenge the lawchallenge the law Scopes was a biology teacher who dared to teach his students that man derived from lower species  
  61. 61. SCOPES TRIALSCOPES TRIAL  The ACLU hiredThe ACLU hired Clarence Darrow,Clarence Darrow, the most famousthe most famous trial lawyer of thetrial lawyer of the era, to defendera, to defend ScopesScopes  The prosecutionThe prosecution countered withcountered with William JenningsWilliam Jennings Bryan, the three-Bryan, the three- time Democratictime Democratic presidentialpresidential Darrow Bryan
  62. 62. SCOPES TRIALSCOPES TRIAL  Trial opened on July 10,1925 and became a nationalTrial opened on July 10,1925 and became a national sensationsensation  In an unusual move,In an unusual move, Darrow called Bryan to the standDarrow called Bryan to the stand as an expert on the bible – key question:as an expert on the bible – key question: Should theShould the bible bebible be interpreted literally?interpreted literally?  Under intense questioning, Darrow got Bryan to admitUnder intense questioning, Darrow got Bryan to admit that the bible can be interpreted in different waysthat the bible can be interpreted in different ways  Nonetheless, Scopes was found guilty and fined $100Nonetheless, Scopes was found guilty and fined $100 Bryan Darrow
  63. 63. William Ashley “Billy” SundayWilliam Ashley “Billy” Sunday  1862-19351862-1935  Father served and died inFather served and died in Union armyUnion army  Grew up in poverty,Grew up in poverty, orphanageorphanage  Played NL baseball 1883-Played NL baseball 1883- 18911891  Converted to evangelismConverted to evangelism mid 1880’smid 1880’s Courtesy of billysunday.org
  64. 64. Billy SundayBilly Sunday  SermonsSermons  Supported prohibitionSupported prohibition  Forced towns to build himForced towns to build him tabernaclestabernacles  Campaigned across U.S.,Campaigned across U.S., started in Midweststarted in Midwest  Guest of wealthy/influentialGuest of wealthy/influential  Became wealthy: madeBecame wealthy: made $1,000,000+ in 20 years$1,000,000+ in 20 years  Against evolution,Against evolution, immigration from parts ofimmigration from parts of EuropeEurope  Also criticized dancing,Also criticized dancing, playing cards, attending theplaying cards, attending the theater and reading novelstheater and reading novels New York Tabernacle Bloomington, IL Pictures courtesy Wheaton College
  65. 65. EDUCATION ANDEDUCATION AND POPULARPOPULAR CULTURECULTURE  During the 1920s,During the 1920s, developments indevelopments in education had aeducation had a powerful impact on thepowerful impact on the nation.nation.  Enrollment in highEnrollment in high schools quadrupledschools quadrupled between 1914 andbetween 1914 and 1926.1926.  Public schools met thePublic schools met the challenge of educatingchallenge of educating millions of immigrantsmillions of immigrants
  66. 66. Mass MediaMass Media Increases in Mass media during the 1920sIncreases in Mass media during the 1920s Print and broadcast methods of communication.Print and broadcast methods of communication. Examples:Examples:  NewspapersNewspapers  MagazinesMagazines  RadioRadio  MoviesMovies Newspapers: 27 million to 39 million Increase of 42% Motion Pictures: 40 million to 80 million Increase of 100% Radios: 60,000 to 10.2 million Increase of 16,983%
  67. 67. EXPANDING NEWSEXPANDING NEWS COVERAGECOVERAGE  Literacy increased in theLiteracy increased in the 1920s…1920s… as a resultas a result  Newspaper and magazineNewspaper and magazine circulation rose.circulation rose.  By the end of the 1920s…By the end of the 1920s…  10 American magazines --10 American magazines -- includingincluding Reader’s Digest,Reader’s Digest, Saturday Evening Post,TimeSaturday Evening Post,Time –– boasted circulations ofboasted circulations of over 2 million a year.over 2 million a year.  Tabloids createdTabloids created
  68. 68. RADIO COMESRADIO COMES OF AGEOF AGE  Although print mediaAlthough print media was popular, radio waswas popular, radio was the most powerfulthe most powerful communications mediumcommunications medium to emerge in the 1920s.to emerge in the 1920s.  News was deliveredNews was delivered faster and to a largerfaster and to a larger audience.audience.  Americans could hearAmericans could hear the voice of thethe voice of the president or listen to thepresident or listen to the World Series live.World Series live.
  69. 69. MASSMASS CULTURE: RadioCULTURE: Radio New massNew mass mediummedium 1920: First1920: First commercial radiocommercial radio stationstation By 1930: over 800By 1930: over 800 stations & 10stations & 10 million radiosmillion radios Networks:Networks: NBCNBC (1924),(1924), CBSCBS (1927)(1927) The SpreadThe Spread of Radio, toof Radio, to 19391939
  70. 70. •Radio sets, parts and accessories brought in $60$60 millionmillion in 1922… • $136 million$136 million in 1923 •$852 million$852 million in 1929 •Radio reached into every third homeevery third home in its first decade. •Listening audience was 50,000,000 by 1925
  71. 71. ENTERTAINMENT ANDENTERTAINMENT AND ARTSARTS  Even before sound,Even before sound, movies offered amovies offered a means of escapemeans of escape through romance andthrough romance and comedycomedy  ie. talkiesie. talkies  First sound movies:First sound movies: Jazz SingerJazz Singer (1927)(1927)  First animated withFirst animated with sound:sound: SteamboatSteamboat WillieWillie (1928)(1928)  By 1930By 1930 millions ofmillions of Americans went to theAmericans went to the movies each weekmovies each week Walt Disney's animated Steamboat Willie marked the debut of Mickey Mouse. It was a seven minute long black and white cartoon.
  72. 72. Icons of 1920sIcons of 1920s
  73. 73. LINDBERGH’SLINDBERGH’S FLIGHTFLIGHT Charles LindberghCharles Lindbergh  Nickname: “Lucky Lindy”Nickname: “Lucky Lindy”  May 27, 1927: LindberghMay 27, 1927: Lindbergh made the first nonstop solomade the first nonstop solo trans-Atlantic flight.trans-Atlantic flight.  Spirit of St. LouisSpirit of St. Louis  NYC - ParisNYC - Paris  33 ½ hours later – (no auto pilot)33 ½ hours later – (no auto pilot)  $25,000 prize$25,000 prize  2yr old Son Charley2yr old Son Charley kidnapped in 1932kidnapped in 1932  $50,000 ransom$50,000 ransom  murderedmurdered
  74. 74. Amelia EarhartAmelia Earhart  1932: First female to1932: First female to fly solo across thefly solo across the AtlanticAtlantic  1935: First person to1935: First person to fly from California tofly from California to HawaiiHawaii  1937: Attempt to fly1937: Attempt to fly around the worldaround the world  2/3 completed and2/3 completed and went missing,went missing, presumed dead.presumed dead.
  75. 75. AMERICAN HEROES OFAMERICAN HEROES OF THE 20sTHE 20s  In 1929, AmericansIn 1929, Americans spent $4.5 billion onspent $4.5 billion on entertainment.entertainment. (includes sports)(includes sports)  People crowded intoPeople crowded into baseball games to seebaseball games to see their heroestheir heroes  Babe RuthBabe Ruth was awas a larger than lifelarger than life American heroAmerican hero whowho played for Yankeesplayed for Yankees  He hit 60 homers inHe hit 60 homers in 1927.1927.
  76. 76. MUSIC OF THE 1920sMUSIC OF THE 1920s  Famed composerFamed composer George GershwinGeorge Gershwin merged traditionalmerged traditional elements with Americanelements with American Jazz.Jazz.  Someone to Watch OverSomeone to Watch Over MeMe  Embraceable YouEmbraceable You  I Got RhythmI Got Rhythm Gershwin
  77. 77. EDWARD KENNEDY “DUKE”EDWARD KENNEDY “DUKE” ELLINGTONELLINGTON  In the late 1920s,In the late 1920s, Duke Ellington,Duke Ellington, a jazza jazz pianistpianist andand composer, led hiscomposer, led his ten-piece orchestraten-piece orchestra at the famousat the famous CottonCotton Club.Club.  Band: “TheBand: “The Washingtonians”Washingtonians”  Ellington won renownEllington won renown as one ofas one of America’sAmerica’s greatest composers.greatest composers.
  78. 78. LOUISLOUIS ARMSTRONGARMSTRONG  Jazz was born in theJazz was born in the early 20early 20thth centurycentury  In 1922, a youngIn 1922, a young trumpet player namedtrumpet player named Louis ArmstrongLouis Armstrong joined the Creole Jazzjoined the Creole Jazz Band.Band.  Armstrong isArmstrong is considered theconsidered the mostmost important andimportant and influential musicianinfluential musician inin the history of jazzthe history of jazz
  79. 79. BESSIEBESSIE SMITHSMITH  Bessie Smith, bluesBessie Smith, blues singer, was perhapssinger, was perhaps thethe most outstandingmost outstanding vocalistvocalist of the decadeof the decade  She achievedShe achieved enormous popularityenormous popularity and by 1927 sheand by 1927 she became thebecame the highest-highest- paid black artist inpaid black artist in the worldthe world
  80. 80. BILLIE HOLIDAYBILLIE HOLIDAY  Born Eleanora FaganBorn Eleanora Fagan GoughGough  One of the most recognizableOne of the most recognizable voices of the 20s and 30s.voices of the 20s and 30s.  Embraceable YouEmbraceable You  God Bless the ChildGod Bless the Child  Strange FruitStrange Fruit
  81. 81. 1920s DANCING1920s DANCING  CharlestonCharleston  Swing DancingSwing Dancing  Dance MarathonsDance Marathons
  82. 82. Walt DisneyWalt Disney  Walt Disney onlyWalt Disney only attended one year ofattended one year of high school.high school.  He was the voice ofHe was the voice of Mickey Mouse for twoMickey Mouse for two decades.decades.  As a kid he lovedAs a kid he loved drawing and painting.drawing and painting.  He won 32 AcademyHe won 32 Academy Awards.Awards.
  83. 83. ART OF THE 1920sART OF THE 1920s  Georgia O’ KeeffeGeorgia O’ Keeffe captured thecaptured the grandeur of Newgrandeur of New York using intenselyYork using intensely colored canvasescolored canvases Radiator Building, Night, New York , 1927 Georgia O'Keeffe
  84. 84. WRITERS OFWRITERS OF THE 1920sTHE 1920s  Writer F. ScottWriter F. Scott FitzgeraldFitzgerald coinedcoined the phrase “Jazzthe phrase “Jazz Age” to describeAge” to describe the 1920sthe 1920s  Fitzgerald wroteFitzgerald wrote Paradise LostParadise Lost andand The Great GatsbyThe Great Gatsby  The Great GatsbyThe Great Gatsby reflected thereflected the emptiness of Newemptiness of New York elite societyYork elite society
  85. 85. WRITERS OF THEWRITERS OF THE 19201920  Ernest Hemingway,Ernest Hemingway, becamebecame one of the best-known authorsone of the best-known authors of the eraof the era  Wounded in World War IWounded in World War I  In his novels,In his novels, The Sun AlsoThe Sun Also RisesRises andand AA Farewell to ArmsFarewell to Arms,, he criticized the glorification ofhe criticized the glorification of warwar  Moves to Europe to escape theMoves to Europe to escape the life in the United States.life in the United States.  ““Lost Generation” (Gertrude Stein)Lost Generation” (Gertrude Stein)  Group of people disconnectedGroup of people disconnected from their country and its values.from their country and its values.  His simple, straightforwardHis simple, straightforward Hemingway - 1929
  86. 86. THE HARLEM RENAISSANCETHE HARLEM RENAISSANCE  Great MigrationGreat Migration sawsaw hundreds ofhundreds of thousands ofthousands of African AmericansAfrican Americans move north tomove north to bigbig citiescities  1920:1920:  5 million of the5 million of the nation’s 12 millionnation’s 12 million blacks (over 40%)blacks (over 40%) lived in citieslived in cities Migration of the Negro by Jacob Lawrence
  87. 87. HARLEM, NEW YORKHARLEM, NEW YORK  Harlem, NYHarlem, NY became thebecame the largestlargest black urbanblack urban communitycommunity  Harlem sufferedHarlem suffered from overcrowding,from overcrowding, unemployment andunemployment and povertypoverty  Home to literary andHome to literary and artisticartistic revivalrevival known as theknown as the
  88. 88. LANGSTONLANGSTON HUGHESHUGHES  Missouri-bornMissouri-born LangstonLangston HughesHughes was thewas the movement’s best knownmovement’s best known poetpoet  Many of his poemsMany of his poems described thedescribed the difficultdifficult lives of working-classlives of working-class blacksblacks  ““Thank you Ma’am”Thank you Ma’am”  Some of his poems wereSome of his poems were put to musicput to music, especially, especially jazz and bluesjazz and blues
  89. 89. AFRICANAFRICAN AMERICAN GOALSAMERICAN GOALS  Founded in 1909,Founded in 1909, thethe NAACPNAACP urgedurged African AmericansAfrican Americans to protest racialto protest racial violenceviolence  W.E.B DuboisW.E.B Dubois , a, a founding member,founding member, led a march ofled a march of 10,000 black men in10,000 black men in NY to protestNY to protest violenceviolence
  90. 90. MARCUS GARVEY -MARCUS GARVEY - UNIAUNIA  Marcus Garvey believedMarcus Garvey believed that African Americansthat African Americans should build a separateshould build a separate society (Africa)society (Africa)  In 1914, Garvey foundedIn 1914, Garvey founded the Universal Negrothe Universal Negro Improvement AssociationImprovement Association  Garvey claimed a millionGarvey claimed a million members by the mid-members by the mid- 1920s1920s  Powerful legacy of blackPowerful legacy of black pride, economicpride, economic independence and Pan-independence and Pan- AfricanismAfricanism Garvey represented a more radical approach

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