• History of the computer
• History of WWW and Internet development
• Advantages of broadband Internet access
• Potential impact of Web 2.0
• Recognise the economic impact of the internet
• Social concerns of Internet use
• Bill Gates (1999):
“Internet changes everything.”
• Economy, science, education,
communication & culture.
• New channels of communication, eg.
Youtube, Facebook, Twitter & blogs
challenged the supremacy of traditional
History of computer
• Blaise Pascal & Gottfried Wilheim von Leibneitz created adding
machines for calculations & birth of binary system.
• Herman Hollerith (1880s) who founded IBM created a machine that
used punch cards and electric circuits.
• Howard Aiken (1940s) created the first computer with binary system.
• John Mauchly & co. (1946) created ENIAC, first all electronic
• Home PCs (1970s) created.
• Modem & local area networks (LAN) (1980s) allowed computers to
be linked together.
• Miniaturisation (1990s) popularised laptops.
• iPads (2009) & other tablets.
• Cloud computing (2010-) refers to applications & services offered
over the Net (stored on servers, and not on your computers).
(Watch Video –
History of Computers.flv)
History of the Internet
• Internet is a network of computers worldwide combined.
• ARPANET 1970s: Pentagon decentralised their computing &
communication system by creating interconnected web of computer
• LANs were connected to ARPANET, so the network began to grow.
• National Science Foundation 1980s created its own system and hooked
chains of regional networks to supercomputers at universities, thus the birth
• WWW 1990s created by using hypertext (a navigational tool that linked web
• Browsers developed1993-1998 (retrieve data, determine & configure data
for display): Mosaic-Netscape-Internet Explorer.
• Search engines (utility that scans the net for terms & displays the results):
• Development of uploading content software programmes in mid-2000s
encouraged blogging, social networking & video-uploading.
• High speed broadband & WiFi hot spots made the internet mobile.
(Watch Video: History of the
Les Horribles Cernettes (first image uploaded on the web 18 July 1992)
The Evolving Internet
Trends affecting the development in future:
• Multiple channels to data transmission (satellite & cable
modems/ digital subscriber line -DSL).
• Provides tremendous speed to connection to the internet
• Able to support downloads & uploads of huge audio &
• Makes possible video-on-demand, interactive television,
live streaming video & downloadable movies.
• 2011: M’sian household broadband penetration soared
to 65%, and expected to exceed 75% in 2015.
• Net access through wireless technology-mobiles, tablets
& laptops increased tremendously.
• WiFi (wireless fidelity) uses low power radio signals to
connect computers to the internet.
• Hot spots (public WiFi acess locations) are base
stations/ transmitter to hook mobiles, laptops & tablets.
• WiMax is hoped to be pervasive enough to transmit
signals within the range of 10 miles in metropolitan
Monetising the web
• Charged services (& merchandise) provided by
– Second Life (3D virtual world): virtual real estates sold to real
companies to market their products! (Watch Video – Second
Life The Online 3D Virtual World.flv)
– FB, Hulu, Google, Youtube: charges for ad spaces.
– iTunes charges for music downloads.
– Apps for mobile media are a big business – generating $4b in
revenue in 2010
• Big companies commercially invest in big websites to
generate profits or awareness.
– News Corporation: MySpace
– Google: Youtube
• Traditional media are losing its audience, so advertisers
turn to the internet.
• Online journals whereby people write about their topic of
interest, and readers can comment & engage virtually
with the writer.
• Age: 52% are 18-34; mommy bloggers monetise
• More youngsters turn to FB & Twitter & bloggers use
them to popularise their blogs.
– Political blogs (Che Det, Limkitsiang blog);
– war blogs (Kevin Sites);
– Tsunami blogs;
– celebrity blogs (TMZ; Perez Hilton).
– LGBT Blogs (Towleroad, HuffPost Gay Voices)
The Internet & National Economy (US)
• Internet had created more than 1.2 million jobs.
• Direct economic value: US$185 billion
– $90 billion retail sales
– $70 billion to ISPs
– $26 million advertising
• Online advertising (15% of all ad expenditure in the
USA) is growing-chipping away newspaper advertising.
Internet Economics and New Online Mega-
• The Internet had birthed new mega-companies that
dominates the internet in different market areas.
• They produce little content, but primarily distribute them.
UB: Unique browsers
PV: Page Views
ASD: Average Session
APVPS: Average Page
Views Per Session
Three ways to make a profit:
1.Create websites with specialised content & large
numbers of readers.
– Newspapers: WSJ; NYTimes; Malaysiakini
2.Sell merchandise/ services online
– Amazon.com; Lelong.com
3.Sell advertising: 1. paid search ad (sponsored
links); 2. display ads (banners, pop-ups);
– Google; Yahoo
The Internet audience
• Data of internet audience come from comScore and
• Infant stage: White males, high income & education.
• Childhood by 2000: females at par with males; minority
families; modest levels of income & education.
• Maturity by 2011, USA’s internet population reflects the
Malaysian Internet Audience
There is now 64.7% Internet users in Malaysia, as
of October 2012
Malaysian statistics (Jan 2012)
Malaysian Digital Association
UB: Unique browsers
PV: Page Views
ASD: Average Session
APVPS: Average Page Views
• Defined as: the use of web based & mobile technology to
turn communication into interactive dialogue.
• Social media allows us to:
– Participate (voting)
– Converse (comment)
– Collaborate (creating content in groups)
– Link up
Malaysian social networking statistics
Internet 2012 in Numbers
Effects of social media
1. No impact on time spent on traditional media.
2. Social media sites are a form of entertainment.
3. Indispensible for news gathering
– Key source of breaking news/ information; eg. Twitter &
Whitney Houston’s death.
4. Social media become commercialised.
– Major brands have FB/ Twitter accounts to promote products/
– Celebrities/ wannabees use them to promote their latest
Social media as mobilisers
• Can be used to mobilise crowds to do something at a
certain place and time.
– Protests & demonstrations against incompetent
governments; Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Iran
• Started in Tunisia (unemployed man set himself on fire)
• Spread to Egypt (Khaled Said beaten to death by the police)
– Egyptian protestor against Hosni Mubarak (2011): FB:
to schedule; Twitter: to coordinate; Youtube: to tell the
• Social media may be the catalyst for revolution but there
is no guarantee of a successful outcome.
– Iran, no regime change; Libya, civil war & unrest.
– Governments may plant bogus information and arrest the
protestors that turned up.
– Alternative social media sites set-up to monitor dissidents.
– Censorship & closing-down sites.
• Interfering with productivity at workplace
– US employees spent 45 minutes daily.
• Postings& photos easily duplicated, archived and
shared-may cost you your privacy & reputation.
• Employers may check your background.
• Crippling interpersonal communication skills.
• Cyberbullying & crime.
Posting photos/ comments may cost
you your job!
Ashley Payne, school teacher fired due to a complaint
about inappropriate pictures on her FB.
The social implications of the internet
A new model for news
• The internet supplements the traditional surveillance
function-news media. Audience contribution accepted.
• No more-top-down lecture(editor decides-readers
receive), but sideways conversation(editor decides-
anyone interested can contribute).
• Provides check & balance on journalism, and demands
transparency (accountability to the public).
• Magnifies the interpretation function, by providing
access to different blogs with unique opinion.
implications of the
internet on NEWS
Lack of gatekeepers
• Overloading the system with trivial, useless, worthless
and inconsequential information.
• Inaccurate or bogus information spread, or be filtered out
by bloggers or readers.
• No censorship to even the most undesirable materials,
but at times, good for materials shunned by traditional
media with commercial/ political concerns.
– Eg. Community issues on cj.my
• Every source on the screen seem to have credibility and
• Hacking & stolen personal data
• Companies mining personal data from online activities.
• Identity theft
• Malaysia Personal Data Protection Act 2010 (watch the
Deloitte Malaysia Consulting Personal Data Protection Act
Escapism & isolation
• Internet addiction (& Facebook Addiction Disease)
(Videos-PDPA & FAD)
The Evernet, ever pervasive & ever
• The term Evernet has been used to describe the
convergence of wireless, broadband, and Internet
telephony technologies that will result in the ability to be
continuously connected to the Web anywhere using
virtually any information device (Techtarget.com 2012).
• Also watch the Michio Kaku video, as he talks about one
day, we will wear the Internet!
• The computer's ancestors were machines that performed mathematical calculations.
• By the 1970s, personal computers using packaged software were on the market.
• The Internet is a network of computer networks. It was started by the U.S. Department
of Defense and in its early years was used primarily by scientists. The current Internet
started in the 1980s thanks to the efforts of the National Science Foundation.
• The main features of the Internet are e-mail, the World Wide Web, and apps.
• The introduction of broadband Internet connections has encouraged the growth of
streaming video and microcasting.
• The Internet has had a beneficial impact on the national economy, and e-commerce
continues to grow.
• Social media have become important sources of news and entertainment.
• Social media can mobilize political movements.
• The Internet has created social concerns about lack of gatekeepers, information
overload, lack of privacy, and isolation.
• The Evernet may be the successor to the Internet.
Key takeaways and summary
Think of an idol (a celebrity, royal, media or political figure) who is loved
by most young people. (600-750 words max.)
a. Provide some background information to this famous person
and some controversies he/ she is involved in. (150w)
b. What aspects of the famous person’s behavior or lifestyle
would young people tend to follow? (100w)
c. What are the negative and positive effects on young people’s
behaviour if they were to emulate the aspects mentioned above?
d. Do you think the famous person could promote other positive
values/ behavior to young people? (Did the idol promote any
social campaigns? Or, did the controversies, he/she is involved in
bring forth any good outcomes to society?) (150w)
e. As an agent of socialization, how did the media portray the
celebrity you have mentioned? (100w)
Blog/Vlog Task 2
Include any relevant videos or images of your chosen idol.
Please remember to provide references and links!
Deadline for blog/vlog task is Tuesday, 27 August, 6.00pm
Blog/Vlog Task 2
Quiz 3 is up since Monday, 19th August. Deadline is Friday, 23rd August,
Quiz 4 will be up on Monday, 26th August. Deadline is Monday, 2nd
Quizzes 3 and 4