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Infancy (Pt 3)


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Social development in early infancy.

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Infancy (Pt 3)

  1. 1. Infancy (Part 3)
  2. 2. The Roots of Socialization <ul><li>Emotions in Infancy </li></ul><ul><li>Non-verbal encoding </li></ul><ul><li>The non-verbal expression of emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Infants display similar kinds of emotion </li></ul><ul><li>The degree of emotional expression varies </li></ul><ul><li>Experiencing Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Not the same as adults </li></ul><ul><li>Non-verbal expression may be reflexive </li></ul><ul><li>With maturity, emotional expression increases in range </li></ul><ul><li>Reflects a greater complexity developing in the brain </li></ul>
  3. 3. Separation & Stranger Anxiety <ul><li>Stranger Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Infant’s wariness in the presence of an unfamiliar adult </li></ul><ul><li>Increased cognitive abilities play a role in stranger anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>As memory develops they respond positively to familiar faces </li></ul><ul><li>Separation Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Distress displayed by an infant when the usual caregiver leaves </li></ul><ul><li>With the growth of cognitive abilities, familiar faces become bonded with the infant </li></ul>
  4. 4. Smiles <ul><li>Earliest Smiles </li></ul><ul><li>Earliest smiles are meaningless </li></ul><ul><li>by 6 – 9 weeks they smile at things that please them </li></ul><ul><li>Anything that amuses them brings a smile </li></ul><ul><li>Social Smiles </li></ul><ul><li>Smiles directed toward particular persons </li></ul><ul><li>By 18 months their smiles are directed toward their mothers & other caregivers </li></ul>
  5. 5. Decoding Others’ Expressions <ul><li>Discrimination of Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Can tell when caregiver is happy to see him/her </li></ul><ul><li>Can discriminate vocal expressions of emotion earlier than facial expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Can discriminate between happy & sad vocal expressions at 5 months </li></ul><ul><li>Infants learn to produce & decode emotions & begin to learn the effect of their emotions on others </li></ul>
  6. 6. Experiencing Others’ Feelings <ul><li>Social Referencing </li></ul><ul><li>Looking to the emotional responses of caregivers or other adults when in an unfamiliar setting for cues to interpret the situation </li></ul><ul><li>Search others’ facial expressions & imitates it </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in ambiguous or uncertain situations </li></ul>
  7. 7. Development of the Self <ul><li>Self-Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of oneself </li></ul><ul><li>Begins around 12 months </li></ul><ul><li>Culture affects self-recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of Mind </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge & beliefs of how the mind works & how it influences behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity to understand another’s intentions grows during infancy </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy </li></ul><ul><li>Experiencing another’s feelings </li></ul>
  8. 8. Relationships <ul><li>Attachment </li></ul><ul><li>Affectionate, reciprocal relationship formed between an infant & the primary caregiver </li></ul><ul><li>Bonds form between infants & parents, siblings, other family members, & others </li></ul><ul><li>When children experience attachment to a given person they feel comfortable around them </li></ul><ul><li>Harlow’s Experiment </li></ul>
  9. 9. Types of Attachment <ul><li>Secure Attachment </li></ul><ul><li>Mother is used as a base for exploration </li></ul><ul><li>As long as the mother is present the infant explores independently </li></ul><ul><li>Becomes upset when mother leaves & seeks her upon return </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidant Attachment </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity to the mother is unimportant to the infant </li></ul><ul><li>Upon mother’s return, avoids her </li></ul><ul><li>Ambivalent Attachment </li></ul><ul><li>Displays positive & negative reactions to the mother </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t explore much due to extremely close contact with mother </li></ul><ul><li>Ambivalent with mother’s return </li></ul><ul><li>Disorganized-disoriented Attachment </li></ul><ul><li>Inconsistent, contradictory, confused behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Least securely attached </li></ul><ul><li>Runs to mother upon return but doesn’t look at her </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Interactional Synchrony </li></ul><ul><li>When caregivers respond to infants appropriately & caregiver & child match emotional states </li></ul><ul><li>Produces secure attachment </li></ul><ul><li>Responding of mothers separates secure from insecure attachment </li></ul>Mothers & Attachment
  11. 11. Fathers & Attachment <ul><li>Fathers Seen as Having Secondary Child-rearing Role </li></ul><ul><li>Some infants form a primary relationship with their fathers </li></ul><ul><li>Father’s Nurturance, Warmth, Affection, Support, & Concern are Important to the Child’s Emotional & Social Well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Certain kinds of psychological disorders (e.g. substance abuse & depression) are related to the father’s behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Infants can develop attachments to other than mothers </li></ul>
  12. 12. Differences in Attachment <ul><li>Differences in Mother & Father Attachment </li></ul><ul><li>Attachment with the father and mother depend on how they deal with the child </li></ul><ul><li>Mothers spend more time tending the child; fathers spend more time playing </li></ul><ul><li>Play of the mother & father is different </li></ul><ul><li>Attachment Across Cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Certain attachment patterns seem more likely in particular cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Attachment is viewed as subject to cultural norms & expectations </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Multiple Interactions </li></ul><ul><li>May develop multiple attachments & these can change over time </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual Regulation Model </li></ul><ul><li>Infants & parents learn to communicate emotional states to each other & respond appropriately </li></ul><ul><li>Reciprocal Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>As an infant is being socialized by the parents, the parents are being socialized by the infant </li></ul>Infant Interactions
  14. 14. Interaction with Peers <ul><li>Sociability </li></ul><ul><li>Level of sociability increases with age </li></ul><ul><li>Social games such as peek-a-boo and crawl-and-chase are the foundation for social interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Imitation of peers are part of the social experience & a teaching tool </li></ul>
  15. 15. Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages <ul><li>Trust v. Mistrust </li></ul><ul><li>Birth to 18 months </li></ul><ul><li>The infant develops a sense of trust in the environment </li></ul><ul><li>This is based mainly on how the needs are met </li></ul><ul><li>If met properly it develops a sense of hope that the needs will be met successfully in the future </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy v. Shame & Doubt </li></ul><ul><li>18 months to 3 years </li></ul><ul><li>If the child is allowed to explore, a sense of independence develops </li></ul><ul><li>If there is restriction & overprotection it produces a sense of shame & doubt in him/herself </li></ul>
  16. 16. Stabilities in Infant Behavior <ul><li>Temperament </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent style or pattern of behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to patterns of arousal & emotionality that are consistent </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to how children behave rather than what they do or why they do it </li></ul><ul><li>It is reflected in activity level which reflects the degree of overall movement </li></ul>
  17. 17. Categorizing Temperament <ul><li>Easy Babies </li></ul><ul><li>Positive disposition & adaptable </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult Babies </li></ul><ul><li>Negative moods & slow to adapt </li></ul><ul><li>Slow-to-warm Babies </li></ul><ul><li>Inactive & relatively calm in their reactions to the environment & slow to adapt </li></ul><ul><li>Moods are generally negative & withdraws from new situations </li></ul><ul><li>Shy Babies </li></ul><ul><li>Withdraws from social situations & is anxious in new situations </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of Temperament </li></ul><ul><li>Some temperaments are more adaptive than others </li></ul><ul><li>Some temperaments are weakly related to attachment </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural differences have a major influence on certain temperaments </li></ul><ul><li>Biological Basis of Temperament </li></ul><ul><li>Temperament excites the limbic system, especially the amygdala </li></ul>
  18. 18. Gender Issues <ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Social perceptions of maleness or femaleness </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Boys & girls are treated differently </li></ul><ul><li>Parents play with boys differently than girls </li></ul><ul><li>Fathers tend to interact more with boys than with girls from birth </li></ul><ul><li>The behavior of boys is interpreted differently than girls </li></ul><ul><li>All cultures have gender roles for males & females </li></ul>
  19. 19. Gender Differences <ul><li>Activity Level </li></ul><ul><li>Male infants tend to be more active </li></ul><ul><li>Boys grimace more </li></ul><ul><li>Boys have more disturbed sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Male neonates are more irritable than females </li></ul><ul><li>There’s no difference in the amount of crying </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Gender differences emerge via gender roles set by the society </li></ul>