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  1. 1. INFANCY By: Shawnte Cruz Michelle Indemne Darlene Sanchez Coleman Meyar
  2. 2. PHYSICAL, SENSORY AND PERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY <ul><li>Physical Changes </li></ul><ul><li>The Brain & Nervous System </li></ul><ul><li>Reflexes & Behavioral System </li></ul><ul><li>Growth Motor Skills & Developing Body Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Health & Wellness </li></ul><ul><li>Infant Mortality </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing, Smelling, Tasting, & Touch/Motion </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Studying Perceptual Development </li></ul><ul><li>Looking </li></ul><ul><li>Listening </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>PHYSICAL </li></ul><ul><li>CHANGES </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in the nervous system are extremely rapid within the first 2 years. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of dendrites and synapses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Myelinization of nerve fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adaptive reflexes: reflexes that help newborns survive (*sucking*) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Primitive reflexes: reflexes controlled by the “primitive” part of the brain, that disappear after the first year of life. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>DURING INFANCY… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bones increase in number & </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>density </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle fibers become larger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor skills improve rapidly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Breastfeeding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Macronutrient malnutrition: too few calories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Micronutrient malnutrition: a diet that has sufficient calories but lacks specific nutrients, vitamins and minerals. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sudden Infant death syndrome (SIDS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>African American, Hawaiian American, and Native American children are more likely to die within the first year rather than those in other U.S. racial groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty may be a cause but the relationship is complex. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>SENSORY SKILLS </li></ul><ul><li>Color vision is present at birth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual acuity and tracking skills are poor but develop rapidly within the first few months. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Basic auditory skills are present at birth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acuity is good, a new born can also locate the direction of a sound. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smelling, tasting and the sense of touch and motion are also well developed during birth. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>PERCEPTUAL SKILLS </li></ul><ul><li>Depth perception is present by 3 months </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Babies initially use kinetic cues (your motion or the motion of some object), then binocular cues (involving using both eyes). And finally monocular cues (requires input from only one eye) by 5 to 7 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Babies can distinct theirs mothers voice from someone else and also the mothers face from someone else almost immediately after birth. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Babies appear to attend to and discriminate between speech. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 year, infant makes discrimination between speech sounds of the language he/she is hearing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 months, babies attend to and discriminate between different patters of sound </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY <ul><li>Piaget’s Sensorimotor Substages </li></ul><ul><li>1. (0-1) Reflexes </li></ul><ul><li>2. (1-4) Primary circular </li></ul><ul><li>reactions </li></ul><ul><li>3. (4-8) Secondary circular </li></ul><ul><li>reactions </li></ul><ul><li>4. (8-12) Coordination of </li></ul><ul><li>secondary schemes </li></ul><ul><li>5. (12-18) Tertiary circular </li></ul><ul><li>reactions </li></ul><ul><li>6. (18-24) Beginning of mental </li></ul><ul><li>representation </li></ul>
  8. 8. LEARNING, CATEGORIZING, & REMEMBERING <ul><li>Babies learn through… </li></ul><ul><li>classical conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>operant conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>observing models </li></ul><ul><li>- Infants use categories to organize information. </li></ul><ul><li>↑ after the first 2 yrs. </li></ul><ul><li>- 3-4 month old infants show signs of remembering over periods of a few days to a week. </li></ul>
  9. 9. THE BEGINNING OF LANGUAGE <ul><li>Theories of language development… </li></ul><ul><li>behaviorists: learn through parental reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>nativists: innate language processor helps them learn language rules </li></ul><ul><li>constructavists: language development is a process of cognitive development </li></ul><ul><li>*both cognitive and internal variables affect language development </li></ul>
  10. 10. BABIES… <ul><li>Start of by crying </li></ul><ul><li>2 months - cooing </li></ul><ul><li>6 months - babbling </li></ul><ul><li>9 months - use meaningful gestures and understanding of small vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>The rate of language development varies from one child to another. </li></ul>
  11. 11. MEASURING INTELLIGENCE IN INFANCY <ul><li>It is difficult to measure intelligence in infants. </li></ul><ul><li>- Bayley Scales of </li></ul><ul><li>Infant Development </li></ul><ul><li> - necessary to help </li></ul><ul><li>health care </li></ul><ul><li>professionals </li></ul><ul><li>identify infants who </li></ul><ul><li>require special </li></ul><ul><li>interventions . </li></ul>
  12. 12. Psychoanalytic and Ethological Perspectives <ul><li>Freud suggested that individual differences in personality originated in the nursing and weaning practices of infants’ mothers. </li></ul><ul><li>Erikson emphasized the roles of both mother and father as well as other people in the infants environment, a sense of trust. </li></ul><ul><li>The ethological approach to social and personality development proposes that infants form emotional bonds with their caregiver. </li></ul>
  13. 13. ATTACHMENT <ul><li>An attachment is an emotional bond in which a person’s sense of security is bond up in the relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>Fathers and mothers develop strong attachments with their infant through development of synchrony. </li></ul>
  14. 14. BOWLBY’S 4 STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>Nonfocused orienting and signaling (Birth – 3 months) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on one or more figures (3 – 6 months) </li></ul><ul><li>Secure base behavior (6 – 24 months) </li></ul><ul><li>Internal model (24 months and beyond) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Secure and Insecure Attachment in Ainsworth’s Strange Situation <ul><li>Secure attachment </li></ul><ul><li>Insecure/avoidant attachment </li></ul><ul><li>Insecure/ambivalent attachment </li></ul><ul><li>Insecure/ </li></ul><ul><li>disorganized attachment </li></ul>
  16. 16. PERSONALITY, TEMPERAMENT, & SELF-CONCEPT <ul><li>Dimension of Temperament </li></ul><ul><li>- activity level - negative emotionality </li></ul><ul><li>- approach/positive emotionality - effortful control/ task persistence </li></ul><ul><li>- inhibition Origins and Stability of Temperament </li></ul><ul><li>Heredity </li></ul><ul><li>Long-Term Stability </li></ul><ul><li>Neurological processes </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Concept </li></ul><ul><li>Subjective Self </li></ul><ul><li>Objective Self </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional Self </li></ul>
  17. 17. EFFECTS OF NON-PARENTAL CARE <ul><li>Difficulties in Studying Non-parental Care </li></ul><ul><li>Effects on Cognitive Development </li></ul><ul><li>Effects on Social Development </li></ul><ul><li>Interpreting Research on Non-parental Care </li></ul>