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Early Childhood Development

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The Development of a Child in Social and Physical Development

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Early Childhood Development

  1. 1. EARLY CHILDHOOD
  2. 2. Children live in a world of imagination and feeling…. They invest the most significant object with any form they please, and see it in whatever they wish to see.
  3. 3. DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD Dr Deirdre White - Department of Paediatrics and Child Health
  4. 4. WHAT IS EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT?
  5. 5. CHILDHOOD BEGINS WHEN THE RELATIVE DEPENDENCY OF BABYHOOD IS OVER AT THE AGE OF 2 YEARS EXTENDS TO THE TIME WHEN THE CHILD BECOMES SEXUALLY MATURE.
  6. 6. Early childhood is subdivided into two separate periods: Early & Late Childhood - Early childhood extends from two to six years and late childhood extends from six to the time the child becomes sexually mature.
  7. 7. REASON BETWEEN THE DIVIDING LINE OF EARLY AND LATE CHILDHOOD
  8. 8. The reason why placing the dividing line between early and late childhood at six years is significant is that it is not influenced by physical but by social factors.
  9. 9. Characteristics of Early Childhood • Names used by Parents Most parents consider early childhood a problem age or a troublesome age. Parents often refer to early childhood as the toy age. • Names used by Educators Educators refer to early childhood years as the preschool age. - The early childhood years, either in the home or in a preschool, are a time of preparation. • Names used by Psychologists “PREGANG AGE”, one of the most commonly applied names. They refer to early childhood as the Exploratory Age, Questioning Age, Creative Age, and Initiative Age.
  10. 10. Babies have learned to walk. Babies have learned to take solid foods. Achieved a reasonable degree of physiological stability. The major task of learning to control the elimination of body wastes has been almost completed. Have reasonably correct pronunciation. Comprehend the meaning and simple statements and commands.
  11. 11. • Can put together several words into meaningful sentences. • Comprehend what other say to them is still on a low level.
  12. 12. • Learning to relate emotionally to parents, siblings, and other people.
  13. 13. • Children must learn to give as well as to receive affection.
  14. 14. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
  15. 15. •HEIGHT by the age of six, the average child measures 46.6 inches.
  16. 16. •WEIGHT At the age of six, children seven times as much as they did at birth. GIRL- 48.5 POUNDS BOY- 49 POUNDS
  17. 17. •BODY THE BABY LOOK DISAPPEARS.
  18. 18. Have a n endomorphic, mesomorphic and ectomorphic body build.
  19. 19. BONES AND MUSCLES The muscles become stronger , larger and heavier.
  20. 20. •FAT • - Children who tend toward endomorphy have more adipose than muscular tissue those tend toward mesomorphy have more muscular than adipose tissue; and those with an ectomorphic build have both small muscles and little adipose tissue.
  21. 21. • During the first four to six months of early childhood, the last four baby teeth-the back molars – erupt. • The baby teeth begin to be replaced by permanent teeth. • When earl childhood ends, the child generally has one or two permanent teeth.
  22. 22. PHYSIOLOGICAL HABITS
  23. 23. → The child learns to eat their meals at a right times. →Young children’s appetite are not as ravenous as the were in babyhood. →Three-year olds sleep approximately twelve out of the twenty-four hours.
  24. 24. Thank You and God Bless  Prepared by: Juliet A. Origenes
  25. 25. SKILLS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD • Early Childhood- Ideal age to learn skills.
  26. 26. 3 Reasons why: 1st – young children enjoy repetition 2nd -young children are adventuresome 3rd- young children learn easily and quickly
  27. 27. Early Childhood • Teachable moment
  28. 28. TYPICAL SKILLS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD
  29. 29. TWO CATEGORIES : 1. HAND SKILLS 2. LEG SKILLS
  30. 30. 1. HAND SKILLS SELF-FEEDING DRESSING BRUSHING HAIR BATHING
  31. 31. 2. LEG SKILLS HOP, SKIP, GALLOP AND JUMP CLIMBING TRICYCLING SWIMMING BALANCING ON RAILS JUMPING ROPE ROLLER SKATING ICE SAKTING DANCING
  32. 32. TYPES OF BODY BUILD IN CHILDREN 1. ECTOMORPHIC BODY BUILD - SLENDER BODY WIYH SLIGHT MUSCULAR DEVELOPMENT 2. MESOMORPHIC BODY BUILD - HAVING A HUSKY MUSCULAR BODY BUILD 3. ENDOMORPHIC BODY BUILD - HAVING A HEAVY ROUNDED BODY
  33. 33. HANDEDNESS • The tendency of using one hand than the other.
  34. 34. IMPROVEMENTS IN SPEECH DURING EARLY CHILDHOOD
  35. 35. • REASONS FOR MOTIVATING CHILDREN TO LEARN TO SPEAK. • 1ST • They must improve their ability to comprehend. • They must improve their own speech.
  36. 36. IMPROVEMENT IN COMPREHENSION COMPREHENSION – influenced by how attentively children listen to what is said to them. Children must understand what other says to them.
  37. 37. IMPROVEMENT IN SPEECH SKILLS
  38. 38. 1.Parents of today talk more to their children. 2.Children have more contacts with their peers.
  39. 39. • PRONUNCIATION OF WORDS - certain words • VOCABULARY BUILDING - general vocabulary words, numbers, and colors. • FORMING SENTENCES - 3-4 sentences for 2 to3 years old.
  40. 40. CONTENT OF SPEECH The speech of young children is egocentric. Unsocial Unkind Name-calling Boasting More social & less egocentric Themselves & their activities.
  41. 41. • Intelligence • Type of discipline • Ordinal position • Family size • Socio-economic status • Racial status • Bilingualism • Sex-role typing
  42. 42. EMOTIONS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD
  43. 43. COMMON EMOTIONAL PATTERNS
  44. 44. COMMON EMOTIONS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD Anger Fear Jealousy Curiosity Envy Joy Grief Affection
  45. 45. NEGATIVISM AGGRESIVENESS ASCENDANT BEHAVIOR SELFISHNESS EGOCENTRISM DESTRUCTIVENESS SEX ANTAGONISM PREJUDICE
  46. 46. -Treating a pet a real person -Imaginary playmates
  47. 47. TWO TYPES: 1. TYRANNICAL BOSSES 2. DIPLOMATS
  48. 48. D. SPATIAL REPRESENTATION 1. Spatial understanding improves rapidly over the third year of life. With this representational capacity, children realize that a spatial symbol stands for a specific state of affairs in the real world. 2. Insight into one type of symbol-real world relation, such as that represented by a photograph, helps preschoolers understand others, such as simple maps.
  49. 49. PLAY IN EARLY CHILDHOOD
  50. 50. Early childhood is commonly known as the “toy stage” . Play in childhood is a serious business.
  51. 51. VARIATIONS IN PLAY INTERESTS
  52. 52. THE PLAY INTERESTS OF YOUNG CHILDREN CONFORM MORE OR LESS CLOSELY TO A PATTERN WHICH IS MARKEDLY INFLUENCED BY THEI MATURATIONAL READINESS FOR CERTAIN FORMS OF PLAY AND BY THE ENVIRONMENT IN WHICH THEY ARE GROWING UP.
  53. 53. HIGHLY INTELLIGENT CHILDREN SHOW A PREFERENCE FOR DRAMATIC PLAY AND CREATIVE ACTIVITIES AND FOR BOOKS WHICH INFORM RATHER THAN MERELY AMUSE.
  54. 54. SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUE OF THE FAMILY THE TYPE OF PLAY EQUIPMENT CHILDREN HAVE LIKEWISE INFLUENCES THE PATTERN OF THIS PLAY.
  55. 55. WELL-DEVELOPED MOTOR SKILLS ENCOURAGE CHILDREN TO ENGAGE IN GAMES AND CONSTRUCTION WHILE POOR MOTOR SKILLS ENCOURAGE THEM TO DEVOTE THEIR PLAY TIME TO AMUSEMENTS.
  56. 56. Creative children spend much of their play time doing something original with toys and play equipment while noncreative children follow a pattern set by others.
  57. 57. PLAY PATTERNS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD TOY PLAY DRAMATIZATIONS CONSTRUCTIONS, MOVIES, RADIO AND TELEVISION GAMES, READING
  58. 58. DEVELOPMENT OF UNDERSTANDING Increased intellectual abilities Increased ability bto explore their environments Increased ability to ask question
  59. 59. • LIFE • DEATH • SPACE • WEIGHT • NUMBERS • TIME • SELF • BEAUTY
  60. 60. MORAL DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD
  61. 61. MORAL DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD IS ON A LOW LEVEL. THE REASON FOR THIS IS THAT YOUNG CHILDREN’S INTELLECTULA DEVELOPMENT HAS NOT YET REACHED THE POINT WHERE THEY CAN LERAN OR APPLY ABSTRACT PRINCIPLES OF RIGHT AND WRONG.
  62. 62. IT HAS BEEN CHARACTERIZED BY WHAT PIAGET HAS CALLED ‘ MORALITY OF CONSTRAINT’.
  63. 63. DISCIPLINE IN EARLY CHILDHOOD
  64. 64. DISCIPLINE IS SOCIETY’S WAY OF TEACHING CHILDREN THE MORAL BEHAVIOR APPROVED BY THE SOCIAL GROUP.
  65. 65. 3 ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS RULES AND LAW PUNISHMENT REWARDS
  66. 66. THREE METHODS IN DISCIPLINING CHILDREN • Authorization Discipline • Permissive Discipline • Democratic Discipline
  67. 67. CHILDHOOD MISDEMEANOR Misdemeanor- Mild forms of breaking of rules or misbehavior.
  68. 68. There are 3 common causes of misdemeanor during the early childhood years. -First, young children may misbehave due to to ignorance of the fact that their behavior is disapproved by the social group.
  69. 69. -Second, many young children learn that willful disobedience of a minor sort will generally bring them more attention than a good behavior.
  70. 70. -Third, boredom may be responsible for much misbehavior during the years of the early childhood.
  71. 71. THANK YOU!!!

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