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Physical development


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Physical development

  2. 2. WHAT IS PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT? <ul><li>Physical development is the physical growth from birth to adulthood and the development of both gross(eg. Walking) and fine motor(eg. Finger movement) control of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical development means the progress of a child's control over his body.This includes control over muscles,physical coordination,ability to sit and stand. </li></ul>
  3. 3. STAGES OF CHILD’S DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>Every child is a changing, growing and developing organism. Rousseau attempted to divide the child’s development into 4 stages.  </li></ul><ul><li>infancy upto 5 years, </li></ul><ul><li>childhood upto 12 years, </li></ul><ul><li>adolescence upto 18 years </li></ul><ul><li>maturity from 18 years onwards </li></ul>
  4. 4. MODIFIED STAGES OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>Pre-natal or pre-birth: from conception to birth </li></ul><ul><li>Infant stage: from birth to 3 years </li></ul><ul><li>Childhood stage : from 4 to 12 years </li></ul><ul><li>a. Pre-child stage: from 4 to 6 years </li></ul><ul><li>b. early childhood: from 7 to 9 years </li></ul><ul><li>c. late childhood: from 10 to 12 years </li></ul>
  5. 5. MODIFIED STAGES OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>Adolescence:from the outset of puberty to the age of maturity (generally from 13 th year to 19 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Adulthood: from 20 th year to 55 years of age </li></ul><ul><li>Old age: end of productivity to death </li></ul>
  6. 6. DEVELOPMENT TREE <ul><li>The Italian Committee for UNICEF organized a workshop at Rome in the year 1990 for promoting the movement of child growth and development. </li></ul><ul><li>It prepared the Development Tree that represents the rights of children that should be taken into account for their growth and development. </li></ul><ul><li>The idea of the Development Tree is that the respect of all rights is necessary to assure the harmonious growth of the child. </li></ul>
  7. 7. REPRESENTATION BY DEV. TREE <ul><li>The roots of the tree represent the basic needs of the children like food, health, love, nutrition, shelter, protection etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The trunk represents the right to social and economic development like right to proper childhood, balanced growth and legal protection. </li></ul><ul><li>The branches represent the complementary rights like right to education, equality, play, information, cultural identity, freedom of expression to live in peace etc. </li></ul>
  8. 9. HEALTHY PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>The age from the birth to 2 ½ years is that of immense physical development in a child. </li></ul><ul><li>The child has to cross his milestones at regular intervals to be healthy. </li></ul>
  9. 10. MILESTONES <ul><li>At 1 month – hold head up </li></ul><ul><li>2 months – smiles with recognition </li></ul><ul><li>3 months – reaches out for objects but misses, rolls over </li></ul><ul><li>4 months – sits up with support </li></ul><ul><li>5 months – sits on lap and grasps given objects </li></ul><ul><li>6 months – sits in chair with back rest and grasps dangling objects </li></ul>
  10. 11. MILESTONES <ul><li>7 months – sits unaided </li></ul><ul><li>8 months – tries to crawl </li></ul><ul><li>9 months – stands using furniture or some support </li></ul><ul><li>10 months – crawls </li></ul><ul><li>11 months – walks with support </li></ul><ul><li>12 months – stands unaided </li></ul><ul><li>Between 13 months to 2 ½ years the child learns to walk freely, talk small words and eat on his own. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Birth to 15 Months
  12. 13. CHILD FROM 21/2 TO 4 YRS <ul><li>walks around on his own, visits neighbours. </li></ul><ul><li>can walk on tiptoe. </li></ul><ul><li>tries to dress and undress alone. </li></ul><ul><li>acquires proper toilet habits. </li></ul><ul><li>recognizes colours, shapes etc. </li></ul><ul><li>can state his name and age and related things. </li></ul><ul><li>listens to stories and asks questions. </li></ul><ul><li>plays with children of same age. </li></ul><ul><li>learns to share and shows affection for younger brothers and sisters. </li></ul>
  13. 14. 4 - 5 YRS <ul><li>Leaps, jumps and swings, </li></ul><ul><li>speaks clearly, </li></ul><ul><li>can tell the days of the week, months of a year, </li></ul><ul><li>is curious to learn more </li></ul><ul><li>can recognize basic colours, shapes and can differentiate sizes, </li></ul><ul><li>protests vigourously when prevented form doing what he wants, </li></ul><ul><li>learns to count on fingers, </li></ul><ul><li>can walk down stairs taking one step at a time, </li></ul><ul><li>listens to stories and can repeat them, </li></ul><ul><li>is curios about activities of adults. </li></ul>
  14. 15. 5 - 6 YRS <ul><li>can catch a ball thrown from a distance of 1 metre, </li></ul><ul><li>speaks correctly but in childish language, </li></ul><ul><li>begins to distinguish right from left, yesterday from tomorrow etc, </li></ul><ul><li>distinguishes tastes, </li></ul><ul><li>detests authority imposed on him and carries out orders slowly, </li></ul><ul><li>performs simple tasks with interest, </li></ul><ul><li>takes interest in activities of home, </li></ul><ul><li>can understand rules and regulations, can dance, climb, hop etc. </li></ul>
  15. 16. ACTIVITES FOR 5 – 6 YRS <ul><li>play in open air for 2 ½ - 3 hours per day </li></ul><ul><li>asked to run, jump, climb, swing, ride tricycle etc. </li></ul><ul><li>advised to play indoor games. </li></ul><ul><li>play with friends and share things </li></ul><ul><li>cut pictures and paste them </li></ul><ul><li>made to concentrate on studies but without force </li></ul><ul><li>sleep at least for 8 – 9 hours </li></ul><ul><li>advised to cut soft vegetables under adult supervision, </li></ul><ul><li>lace their shoes, button their shirts </li></ul><ul><li>weigh things upto 3 – 4 kgs </li></ul>
  16. 17. Factors influencing physical development <ul><li>Heredity: The genes of parents define the physical personality of the child. </li></ul><ul><li>Environment: Fresh air, sunlight, hygienic surroundings help in the good development of the child. </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced diet: Balanced diet gives the necessary nourishment to the body and helps to keep the child away from diseases. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Factors influencing physical development <ul><li>Daily routine: Daily schedule of sleep, play & eat .Proper timings should be maintained for all activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep and rest: Sleep and rest -timings should be maintained, over-sleep restricted. </li></ul><ul><li>Love: Love is a very vital factor influencing a child’s all round development without which he develops into a person with criminal tendencies. Hence parents and teachers should shower love on the children . </li></ul>