Does size matter?Learning and Teaching in Higher Education (LTHE) Module Postgraduate Certificate in Academic Practice University of Salford Twitter @pgcap March 2012
The plan• Discuss with you (large group) teaching through an immersive learning experience to trigger thinking, reflection and action
What I would like you to take awayto be open to new approaches, to be creative, reflect on practice and try new thingsWhat would you like you to take away
Three main theories of teaching in HETheory 1: Teaching as telling, transmission or delivery - PASSIVEstudents are passive recipients of the wisdom of a single speaker – all problems resideoutside the lecturerTheory 2: Teaching as organising or facilitating student activity - ACTIVEstudents are active – problems sharedTheory 3: Teaching as making learning possible – SELF-DIRECTEDteaching is cooperative learning to help students change their understanding. Itfocuses on critical barriers to student learning (Threshold Concepts – Meyer and Land,2003) Learning is applying and modifying one’s own ideas; it is something the studentdoes, rather than something that is done to the student. Teaching is speculative andreflective, teaching activities are context-related, uncertain and continuouslyimprovable.(Ramsden, 2003, 108-112)
How large is large? a. 30 + b. 50 + c. 100 +http://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/MTEzMzA2MDY1
sticky notes image How do you feel when you teach large groups?
Discuss with the person next to you your experiences of large group teaching.
What is happening in your sessions? What would you like to happen in your sessions?
Benefits Challenges Large-group teaching co-ordinators Task (5min): Share findings with the other group. What do we need to do?
scenarios: [1, 2] [3, 4]• Task 1 (10min): Work in groups of 4. Critique, debate, suggest• Task 2 (10min): Share your thoughts with another group
scenario 1“I employ teacher-focused methodswhen I deliver lectures to largegroups of students. With a largegroup of students, it is difficult tobe interactive.”
scenario 2“I have minimised lecture material in mycourses and maximised individual and groupresearch projects, group problem-solving, andin-class discussions. Although I don’t cover asmuch material this way, the students learn andretain this material better. Also, standardlecture format is not the way that we learnafter university. Instead, we are expected toread for ourselves and get the information thatway. Thus, I feel my teaching approach betterprepares students for life after university.”
“The lecture delivers the necessarycore knowledge and content thatthe student needs to succeed.”
“Though I needs sometimes to lectureand may even enjoy doing it, lecturingall the time simply bores me: I usuallyknow what I am going to say, and Ihave heard it all before. But dialogicalmethods of teaching help keep mealive. Forces to listen, respond, andimprovise. I am more likely to hearsomething unexpected and insightfulfrom myself as well as others.” (Palmer,2007, 25)
“Most of the things that used to work don’t seem to workanymore. The technique in the book on lecturing you lent medidn’t work either. They all ignored the buzz group questions andtalked about Saturday’s game or something. They’re basicallyidle and won’t do a thing unless it gets a mark. I tried a few labsdifferently, I asked them more questions and tried to explainthings better, but there were problems becasue some of thestudents reckonded I was spending too much time on explainingand not enough on getting the stuff across, covering thesyllabus. Which was true of course. And now with my studentappraisal coming up, I’m worried. Remembering what we tellthem is the big thing for students. The amount of knowledge inthis subject increases every few minutes and the syllabus is nowtwice as big as it was when I was a student. I am thinking aboutsome video presentations to get the stuff across, to transfer itmore efficiently from my mind to the students’ head. Ifsomething is visual, they’ll remember it better. Isn’t that right?”(Ramsden, 2003, 15-16)
Donald Clark: Don’t lecture me!from delivering to facilitating(flipped classroom Aaron Sams, and Jonathan Bergmann , PBL etc.)from isolation to conversation, collaboration, questioning, connecting, networking, negotiatingfrom passive to activefrom just low or no-tech to also high-techfrom one for all to personalisationfrom just in-class to everywhere and anytime
video clips Task: Watch, observe and comment (what did you like, what could be improved and why) http://www.wlv.ac.uk/Default.aspx?page=25525
Grouping and size Phil Race: In at the deep-end: starting to teach in higher education, Leeds Metropolitan University pairs threes fours fives sixes and more• not groups • small enough • still small for • large enough • the main• difficult for to avoid the everyone to to have the danger is one member risk of “shy contribute – “odd passenger to be violets” this is the passenger” behaviours completely in • big enough preferred or or non- active to bring group size! “bystander” participation. together • disadvantage – getting more group might away experience split into two without than a pair. pairs contributing • disadvantage • no case vote much to the can be two if pairs group work. ganging disagree how against one. to approach a task.
We are all different!”They should not feel compelled to adopt apersona that is unnatural or seems to goagainst the grain of his or her personality”(Light et al 2009:124)
Constructions of PBL• Early descriptions – Cognitive psychology – “PBL described and measured against three principles of learning: activation of prior knowledge, elaboration and encoding specificity” 1 – Outcomes of individuals as ‘unit of analysis’ – Cohort comparison methodologies• Late 90’s onward – social constructivist theory – “these [PBL] processes actually occur in small-group tutorials …processing of new information is indeed facilitated by discussion of a relevant problem”2 – Group becomes ‘unit of analysis’3 – Interactional analysis methodologies4 – Influence of communication and relational management and on learning5,6,7
• Face is the positive social value a person claims for themselves in interaction Concept of Face and Face Threat• In ‘normal’ conversation tacit agreement between interactants to uphold face of other• Face Threatening Acts (FTAs) - Interactions which threaten face• Observation ofin Miller and Fox (2004) 1 Goffman E (1967) how these are managed allows analysis of interactant relations and impact on learning
PBL, Face and FTAs• PBL requires students to engage in FTAs• FTAs are essential for social constructivist learning processes• Reducing the impact of FTA – Reduce ‘social distance’ – Legitimise FTAs through ground rules but… – …eliminate notion of ‘right and wrong’
References- PBL• 1. Schmidt, H. G. (1983). "Problem-Based Learning - Rationale and Description." Medical Education 17(1): 11-16.• 2. Schmidt, H. G. (1993). "Foundations of Problem-Based Learning - Some Explanatory Notes." Medical Education 27(5): 422-432.• 3. Tipping, J., Freeman, R. F., et al. (1995). "Using faculty and student perceptions of group dynamics to develop recommendations for PBL training." Academic Medicine 70(11): 1050-2.• 4. Clouston, T. J. (2007). "Exploring methods of analysing talk in problem-based learning tutorials." Journal of Further and Higher Education 31(2): 183 - 193.• 5. Walker, A., Bridges, E., et al. (1996). "Wisdom gained, wisdom given: instituting PBL in a Chinese culture." Journal of Educational Administration 34(5): 12-31.• 6. McLean, M., Van Wyk, J. M., et al. (2006). "The small group in problem-based learning: more than a cognitive learning experience for first-year medical students in a diverse population." Medical Teacher 28(4): E94-E103.• 7. Singaram, V., Dolmans, D., et al. (2008). "Perceptions of Problem Based Learning (PBL) Group Effectiveness in a Socially-Culturally Diverse Medical Student Population." Education for Health 21(2): 1-9.
Do you have a question? 1. Ask me now, 2. Ask the person next to you3. Write it on a sticky note and leave on the door
Reflect:Does size matter?What would you considerchanging as a result of this session?
ReferencesLight,G., Cox, R. and Calkins. S (2009) Learning and Teaching in HigherEducation, The Reflective Professional, London: Sage Publications.Meyer, J.H.F. and Land, R. (2003) Threshold concepts and troublesomeknowledge: linkages to ways of thinking and practising, In: Rust, C. (ed.),Improving Student Learning - Theory and Practice Ten Years On. Oxford:Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development (OCSLD), pp 412-424.Palmer, P. J. (2007) The Courage to Teach. Exploring the Inner Landscape of aTeacher’s Life, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Race, P. (2009) In at the deep-end: starting to teach in higher education, LeedsMetropolitan UniversityRamsden, P (2003) Learning to teach in Higher Education, Oxon:RoutledgeFalmer.
Stimulating Physics through PBL• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IHhWWhl 1Zd8&feature=PlayList&p=3458B7D62DFF0E1 B&playnext_from=PL&index=1&playnext=2
Six principles of effective teaching in Higher Education1. Interest and explanation2. Concern and respect for students and student learning3. Appropriate assessment and feedback4. Clear goals and intellectual challenge5. Independence, control and engagement6. Learning from students(Ramsden, 2003)