Learning   Knowledge      Teaching        ...conversationswith Dr. Alex Avramenko                           1
Learning objectives• At the end of this session, you should be able to:   – Learn about learning       • To understand the...
Learning in different domains•   Training•   Learning•   (Personal) Development•   Learning ‘organisation’•   Formal vs in...
Learning & Knowledge• What learning is about?  – Learning as obtaining knowledge?  – Learning as a process?  – Learning as...
Learning CurvesTypical (manual) skills learning curve           30averagenumberof itemsper day           0                ...
Contrasting PerspectivesBehaviourist, stimulus–response       Cognitive, information processingstudies only observable beh...
Behaviourist Approach -         Reinforcement Regimes                Result                Reinforcement      Behaviourpos...
Cognitive Approach - FeedbackApproach draws on cybernetics - ‘the science of communication in the animaland in the machine...
Socialisation• The process through which individual behaviours,  values, attitudes and motives are influenced to conform  ...
Behaviour Modification vs                 SocialisationBehaviour modification                  Socialisation              ...
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Learning, knowledge, teaching

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Learning, knowledge, teaching

  1. 1. Learning Knowledge Teaching ...conversationswith Dr. Alex Avramenko 1
  2. 2. Learning objectives• At the end of this session, you should be able to: – Learn about learning • To understand the essence of learning • To discuss critically approaches to learning – Initiate the process of rethinking learning – Explain the characteristics of the behaviourist and cognitive approaches to learningHomework:• To study Rogers experiential learning theory• To rethink Bloom’s original and revised taxonomy of the cognitive domain• To rethink your own approach to learning• To think about social content of learning 2
  3. 3. Learning in different domains• Training• Learning• (Personal) Development• Learning ‘organisation’• Formal vs informal learning 3
  4. 4. Learning & Knowledge• What learning is about? – Learning as obtaining knowledge? – Learning as a process? – Learning as philosophical paradigm?• What is ‘learning’ for me?• How do we know what we have learnt something? 4
  5. 5. Learning CurvesTypical (manual) skills learning curve 30averagenumberof itemsper day 0 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Number of weeks on the job (Shape depends on the characteristics of the task and of the learner) 5
  6. 6. Contrasting PerspectivesBehaviourist, stimulus–response Cognitive, information processingstudies only observable behaviour studies mental processesbehaviour is determined by learned behaviour is determined by memory,sequences of muscle movements mental processes and expectationswe learn habits we learn cognitive structures, and alternative ways to achieve our goalsproblem-solving occurs by trial and problem-solving involves insight anderror understandingdull, boring, but amenable to rich, interesting, but complex, vagueresearch? and unresearchable? 6
  7. 7. Behaviourist Approach - Reinforcement Regimes Result Reinforcement Behaviourpositive desired behaviour positive desired behaviourreinforcement is repeated consequences occurs are introducednegative desired behaviour negative desired behaviourreinforcement is repeated consequences are occurs withdrawnpunishment undesired behaviour a single act of undesired is not repeated punishment is behaviour occurs introducedextinction undesired behaviour the behaviour undesired is not repeated is ignored behaviour occurs 7
  8. 8. Cognitive Approach - FeedbackApproach draws on cybernetics - ‘the science of communication in the animaland in the machine’ Wiener (1954) • A perspective which seeks to explain the learning process with reference to the components and operation of a feedback control systemFeedback has to be perceived, interpreted, given meaning and used in decisionsabout future behaviours standard input measurement comparator effector output feedback 8
  9. 9. Socialisation• The process through which individual behaviours, values, attitudes and motives are influenced to conform with those seen as desirable in a given social or organizational setting• Being shown the ropes – We learn new behaviours by observing and copying the behaviour of others - social learning – 9
  10. 10. Behaviour Modification vs SocialisationBehaviour modification Socialisation feedback needed in both approaches for behaviour to changeplanned procedure naturally occurring, even if also plannedstimulus determines responses individual needs determine responsesexternally generated reinforcements internally generated reinforcementsfocus on observable behaviour focus on unobservable internal mental statesfocus on tangible rewards and focus on intangible rewards and punishmentspunishments (social inclusion, self-esteem)clear links between desired behaviour intangible links between desired behaviourand consequences and consequencescompliance required by external agent conformity encouraged by social grouping 10

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